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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The Seminole Wars (1812-1858) - June 24th, 2003 ^

Posted on 06/24/2003 12:00:03 AM PDT by SAMWolf

Dear Lord,

There's a young man far from home,
called to serve his nation in time of war;
sent to defend our freedom
on some distant foreign shore.

We pray You keep him safe,
we pray You keep him strong,
we pray You send him safely home ...
for he's been away so long.

There's a young woman far from home,
serving her nation with pride.
Her step is strong, her step is sure,
there is courage in every stride.
We pray You keep her safe,
we pray You keep her strong,
we pray You send her safely home ...
for she's been away too long.

Bless those who await their safe return.
Bless those who mourn the lost.
Bless those who serve this country well,
no matter what the cost.

Author Unknown


FReepers from the The Foxhole
join in prayer for all those serving their country at this time.



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The Seminole Wars

The First Seminole War

1804 - 1812

The wars against what we now call the Seminoles started somewhat earlier than this, but these years would greatly influence the upcoming conflicts. While Spain was in control of Florida it had several problems to deal with. First, the climate and unhealthy conditions of the territory was not attractive to people in terms of settlement. Second, there was a gentleman named Napoleon that roamed Europe at will and proved to be of greater importance in the minds of the rulers of Spain as the decade progressed.

To solve the first of the problems stated above, in 1790, Spain invited Irish Catholics, English citizens, and citizens of the United States to settle inside the borders of the territory. They offered titles of land to any and all individuals who stayed on a land claim for ten years at the end of the term of occupancy the individuals would be exempt from taxes and military service to Spain. Thomas Jefferson stated that he wished 100,000 U. S. citizens would take Spain up on their gracious offer.

In 1804, due to problems that U. S. citizens were causing the local authorities and Spanish citizens of the territory the invitation to settle was cancelled (remind anyone of Texas prior to the Mexican War). In 1812, the Governor of Florida had encourage the Seminoles of the Alachua area to raid U. S. farms and settlements inside the territory. This date should sound familiar, yes thats right, same time frame as the War of 1812. Due to uprisings of the Seminoles and the war against England, the Governor of Georgia organized his state militia and decided he would take Florida before the British did and rid the territory of Georgia's troublesome neighbors to the south, the Seminole. The Seminoles were becoming extremely bothersome to Georgia. Since the war with Britain started, the British encouraged the Seminoles and Creeks to raid settlements along the Georgia-Florida frontier to draw forces from the Canadian border.

Although Florida was under Spanish rule in the early 1800s, the Seminole Indians did not respect Spanish authority. The Seminoles made it a practice, for example, to harbor runaway slaves. General Andrew Jackson, having achieved a major military success against the Creek Indians in 1814, led an army into Florida against the Seminoles in 1817, looting and burning their villages. These advances led to a war between the United States and Spain. Jackson seized Pensacola in northern Florida, bringing the U nited States and Spain to a point where they had to negotiate or fight. On February 22, 1819, the Florida Purchase Treaty was signed, ceding Florida to the United States. When Jackson became President in 1828, he set about moving the Seminoles out of Fl orida altogether, an effort which led to the Second Seminole War of 1835-42.

In Fall of the year 1812, the so-called Patriot army had already established a provisional government under President John H. McIntosh, with Col. Ashley as his Minister of War, and had its capital at St. Mary's, Georgia, in March, 1812, before the Georgia forces arrived. General Geo. Matthews of Georgia had charged of the movement, and was promised help from the U. S. regulars should he need it. Col. Daniel Newnan, of the Georgia Militia, who was at Fort Picolata was attacked by a party of Seminoles at the fort. After a fierce battle the forces under Col. Newnan defeated the beseiging force. He soon started making plans to hit the Seminoles were they lived. On September 24th, 1812 a force of 110 men he undertook to penetrate the enemy's country over one hundred miles, and attack two formidable chiefs surrounded by their warriors on Spanish territory while the U. S. and Spain were supposedly at peace. Upon reaching the area near what is today Gainesville, Fla., Col. Newnan engaged the Alachua Seminoles. Over a period of about 10 days, Col. Newnan's force was under constant danger from attack while it retreated back to Fort Picolata, out of the original force he left with all but 50 were effectively out of action, and he had completely exhausted all supplies. After reaching the safety of reinforcements they hailed this action as a victory and celebrated their supposed triumph. The Patriots would soon give up their crusade to acquire the territory of Florida, but the United States would soon be back to try again.


General Gaines and Colonel (later general) Duncan Clinch in response to reports of a fort being manned by runaway slaves and a variety of Seminole and Creek warriors on the Apalachicola River, ordered the build up of armed camps in the vicinity. This in the eyes of the United States was many things; a beacon for slaves in Georgia to run to for safety, the possibility of Spain's collaboration and support of the hostile bands, and a base of operation for bands to raid U. S. settlements on the frontier. General Gaines ordered Col. Clinch to take provisions for Camp Crawford (north of the fort), which included cannons, powder and other war supplies. On the 17th of August Lieutenant Loomis, USN, arrived at the mouth of the Apalachicola River with two gunboats on the same mission. In order for the gunboats to get to Camp Crawford they had to pass the fortification. The orders to both commands was if any opposition was made by the negro fort that it should be reduced to rubble.

In one of the first combined arms attack made by U. S. forces the fort was dessimated in short order. On the 26th of August the gunboats try to pass the fort, which was replied with cannon fire. Col. Clinch's and his forces at Camp Crawford heard the gunboats open fire upon the fort and headed for the Negro Fort by land. After only the 5th discharge from the gunboats, a round known as a "hot shot" (a round ball of iron heated over a fire till it is red hot) found the powder magazine of the fort. Around 100 men and 200 women and children were insidethe fort for protection, only a sixth of the total occupants survived the horrible blast. A force was seen advancing by Col. Clinch's scouts, but it dispersed before engaging him. Florida from this time through 1816 was in a state of anarchy.


The U.S. regular army had manned outposts and small forts all along the Florida Georgia line until mid 1817, which was successful in maintaining peace in that region. The army decided to pull its forces closer to the Alabama River which was west of the border areas. It is during this time that altercations between the Georgia settlers and Seminoles started to increase. General Edmund P. Gaines learned of the hostilities there and ordered Major Twiggs with a detachment of 300 men to take an Indian village named Fowl Town near the Florida line. During the initial attack an alarm was sounded and many Seminoles escaped into the swamps. This would start a series of events that would effectively start the war. Fowl Town was again visited by U. S. forces this time by Captain McIntosh with an equivalent number of men as the first time. This was to obtain the supplies that were left at the town after the first visit. Only this time the Seminoles were waiting for them. A small skirmish commenced and light casualties were felt by both forces engaged.


In retaliation to the attacks upon Fowl Town the Seminoles gathered support from other local clans and made an assault against Fort Scott. The garrison force at Fort Scott of 600 regular soldiers, commanded by General Gaines was confined to their post and the seige began. General Jackson upon hearing of the predictament faced by Gen. Gaines musters up a force of 1800 men comprised of regulars, Tennesee volunteers, and Georgia Militia, to relieve the beseiged troops at Fort Scott. At the same time General Gaines is able to muster a force of 1600 Creek Indians to the service of the U. S. under Brigadier General McIntosh. McIntosh and Jackson joined forces on the 1st of April and proceeded to the beseiged fort. The force of Seminoles only numbered from 900 to 1000 men and did not wish to contend with such a force. The Seminoles fled back into the swamps and Fort Scott was saved.

1818 - 1819

The force under Jackson then focused on Miskasuky towns, destroying them on their way to St. Marks. Jackson took St. Marks without firing a shot at the small Spanish garrison stationed there. Upon taking over control of St. Marks, April 7, 1818, he promptly arrested and held a trial against two British agents (Arbuthnot and Ambrister) in Florida and accused them of arming and inciting the natives to rise up in force against the U. S. The two British agents were found guilty and one was hung from the yardarms of the U. S. vessel that was in port at the time and the other shot. Gen. jackson then proceeded to Pensacola. This move was according to Gen. Jackson to take control over territory that the Spanish could not control due to their weak military and political influence in the territory. If the Spanish couldn't control the natives he would.

St. Marks, Fla., April 1818 -- Two Seminole chiefs, or micos are captured by Jackson's forces who used the ruse of flying the British flag to lure the Indians to them.
Picture from the Florida State Archives.

On May 24, 1818, Gen. Jackson's force was outside Pensacola and preparing to seige the town and the small Spanish garrison in the territorial capitol. Upon Jackson's arrival the Spanish governor fled to Santa Rosa Island and escaped capture by Jackson's forces. This according to Jackson was the only great failure of his campaign, his inability to capture, hold trial, and hang the Spanish governor for assisting the enemy of the U. S. In the following year the U. S. Army would build up the frontier fortifications to help quell the Seminole raids into Georgia. This would lead to the treaty of 1819 which would make West Florida officially the territory of the United States. Later in 1821, a treaty would be signed by the U. S. and Spain for the rest of Florida and the islands off the coast of Georgia and Florida.

KEYWORDS: andrewjackson; battleofneworleans; billybowlegs; dadesmassacre; florida; freeperfoxhole; holattamicco; johnnyhorton; micanopy; michaeldobbs; oldhickory; osceola; seminoles; seminolewars; veterans
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Dade Massacre or Battle at Wahoo Swamp
The Start of the Second Seminole War

The first significant event, which would be considered the start of hostilities, was the defeat of the column commanded by Brevet Major (Captain) Francis Langhorne Dade. This column included a detachment of Company "B", 4th Infantry , Company "C" and detachments from Companies "B" and "H" of the Second Regiment of Artillery and Company "B" of the 3rd Regiment of Artillery, along with a guide, surgeon, and teamsters. the force totalling approximately 100 men and eight officers bound for Fort King from Fort Brooke, now known as Tampa. Dade's force was told upon leaving Fort Brooke to be ready for any hostilities. There had been reports of recent uprisings north of the reservation and their route would take them into the heart of Seminole country. The messages sent by General Clinch from Fort King were vague in the description of the current situation. In his dispatches he had just stated that he needed troops at Fort King immediately, never stating why.

During the Second Seminole War, Major Francis L. Dade and all but three soldiers of his 110-man detachment were killed on 28 December 1835 during an ambush near Ocala, Florida.

The commanding officer at Fort Brooke took this as the Fort was under seige and needed help immediately. He frantically mustered the force and sent them on their way hoping to send re-enforcements as soon as they arrived by ship at Fort Brooke, which was reported to him as any day. With the hope that they would be able to join up with the column and break the siege of Gen. Clinch's troops at Fort King. The real reason for the message was to state that due to the lack of provisions he was forced to relocate his force to his plantation near Micanopy, Fla. and wanted Fort Brooke to supply the men for the garrison of that fortification. In past engagements the Seminoles perferred the hammocks of Florida, due to their hiding capabilities. Once Dade made it to the pine barrens he believed that there would be little to no trouble on his way to Fort King. On December 28, 1835, near Wahoo Swamp, Chiefs Micanopy, Alligator and Jumper laid in ambush for the column heading to Fort King. This location was one of several sites picked in the pine barrens around the swamp, because the Seminoles knew that the U. S. Forces did not expect to be attacked there. This site was selected primarily because Osceola, who was expected to join in, was late and Micanopy decided to start the engagement there. With swamp land on Dade's flanks the column had only one choice, to fight.

The Seminole force had been covering the U. S. force for many days and knew that their guard was down. Due to normal proceedures the enlisted men had their muskets inside their greatcoats or on the wagons to keep moisture from the weapons. This would have devastating consequences for Dade's men. Hidden by pines and palmettos, 180 Seminoles waited. Their initial musket volley at point blank range killed or wounded half the command. Major Dade and Captain Upton S. Fraser were the first to be killed. Three of the six surviving officers were wounded. Captain George W. Gardiner rallied the men and returned fire with the six-pound cannon.

As the Seminoles withdrew a short distance, the soldiers hastily built a small breastwork made out of logs in a triangle. They then cared for the wounded and collected ammunition from the fallen. The Indians' second attack lasted until about 2 p.m., when all the firing from the breastwork ceased. Most of the command was dead. The Seminoles, followed by their black allies, closed in. Three wounded soldiers, Edwin DeCourcey, Joseph Sprague, and Ransom Clark made it to Fort Brooke alive. Dade's black interpreter, Louis Pacheco, was taken captive. The Seminoles, with only three warriors killed and five wounded, retired to Wahoo Swamp to celebrate.

The scene of the ambush remained deserted for seven weeks. On February 20, 1836, an expedition under General Edmund P. Gaines identified the bodies and gave them proper military burials. The officers' bodies were placed on the east side of the trail, the 98 enlisted men in two graves within the log breastwork. The cannon was retrieved from a nearby pond where the Seminoles had thrown it. They mounted it. Muzzle down, at the head of the officers' grave, as a monument to the dead. Six years later on August 14, 1842, Dade's silent command was laid to rest at the National Cemetery in St. Augustine. This was made possible by contributions from the officers and men of the army. This battle was one of the most terrible defeats ever suffered by the U. S. Army at the hands of the native peoples, second only to Custer's Last Stand.

Second Seminole War

Start of Hostilities

September 18, 1823 the Treaty of Camp Moultrie, for the Apalachicola clans, was signed. It stipulated that the Seminoles would be reimbursed for cattle, and property for a period of 20 years, all slaves that were taken, up to that time, were to be turned into the proper authorities so they may be return to their owners, and that the clans agreed to be relocated. The date for relocation was debatable. The U. S. believed that it was to be at the earliest convienence. The Seminoles believed that they could stay for 20 years, the period of time the payments were to be received. In order to clarify this the U. S. sought to establish a new treaty with the Seminole nation.


On the 9th of May, 1832 the Treaty of Payne's Landing was signed, for the southern clans, by fifteen chiefs of the Florida clans and the United States Government. Under this treaty the Seminole Nation agreed to relocate to Indian Territory. In 1836, this was Arkansas to the western border of Oklahoma. The United States promised to compensate the Seminole for a period of 20 years for cattle, property and/or any other goods owned by the tribe along with rations for a year after their relocation. It also stipulated that the tribe could designate several of their chiefs to go and inspect the land they were to move to, and upon their approval of this land relocation would commence. In 1835, many clans within Florida did not wish to leave as in accordance with the treaties, which they believed were signed under duress. The blacks that were affiliated with the Seminoles as free men were worried about their freedom if removal was to take place. The tribes and their black allies started to prepare for armed resistance against the pending relocation.

Several incidents took place during the later part of 1835 which would rapidly start hostilities between the United States and the tribes in Florida. The first incident in the Florida Territory happened near present day Gainesville, Florida at a settlement called Hog Town. In June a party of seven Seminoles had left the reservation boundary, which was just south of Paynes Prairie, to hunt and gather supplies. The party of Seminoles had five days earlier split up and agreed to regroup near Kanapha Hall, just west of Gainesville. On the 19th of June, five of the seven were camped and waiting for the rest of their group. A party of white men came up upon the group and an altercation soon ensued between them, about the Seminoles being off their reservation and/or the killing of a settler's cow. The white settlers commenced to flogging the Seminoles with their bull whips. At this time the other two Seminoles had just arrived at the predestined meeting place and seeing that their comrades were being battered, shot a volley of musketry at the assailants. An enlivened skirmish soon took place between the whites and Seminoles. In this action one Seminole was killed and another fatally wounded, while the settlers had experienced three men wounded.

The Second Seminole War (1835-42) was the most fierce and costly war in America's history up to that time. Two hundred thousand soldiers fought, at a cost of over $20 million. The war began when some Seminole Indians refused to leave Florida, defying th e Removal Act. They also gave refuge to runaway slaves from Georgia, and the slave owners and plantation framers demanded immediate retribution. The American army committed several atrocities, including hunting Indians with bloodhounds (depicted here), and the capture of the Seminole warrior Osceola while under a flag of truce. The war lasted for more than seven years without ever coming close to a victory on either side, and eventually American troops withdrew. No peace treaty was signed.

Private Dalton was the designated mail carrier for the army on Fort King Road. This road ran from Tampa Bay to Fort King, in present day Ocala. On the 6th of August, 1835 he was on his route when he happened upon six Mecasuky Indians near the Hillsborough Bridge. Dalton not expecting any hostilities rode up on the group. When he approached, one of the Mecasuky grabbed the bridle of his mule and another Indian shot him. The Mecasuky Indians proceeded to mutilate the body of the courier after stripping him of his clothes. They shot the mule and took the saddle and bridle, along with the mail before moving on. There is speculation that the Mecasuky Indians involved were from the tribe of Seminoles that were harrased near Hog Town and were looking for retribution for that incident.

Andrew Jackson

Monday the 28th of December, 1835 General Wiley Thompson (Indian agent assigned to the Seminoles at Fort King) was dining at Mr. Erastus Rogers' (the sutler at Fort King) house with nine other individuals, just outside the gates to Fort King. The forts garrison had just left with General Clinch, for his plantation "Auld Lang Syne", due to the want of food and supplies. Before leaving, General Clinch sent a dispatch to Fort Brooke (present day Tampa) for troops to relieve the garrison. After the soldiers departed, Osceola and a band of supporters who were lying in wait till the column was gone came up on the cabin and fired a volley towards the front door of the house. The door was soon kicked open by the Seminoles and the members of the dinner party that were not killed in the first volley, scrambled for the windows. Several men made it out of the window and ran for the woods, only to be killed by their pursuers. Five of the dinner party survived the ambush and got away to tell their story. General Thompson was found with a total of fifteen musket balls in him. According to reports one of the rounds came from a silver plated rifle that he had given to Osceola in lieu of his help in keeping peace on the reservation. Osceola only a few days previous to this event was arrested by Gen. Thompson for losing his temper and was put in chains by the Indian Agent, this would be his retribution for what Thompson had done to him.
1 posted on 06/24/2003 12:00:04 AM PDT by SAMWolf
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To: AntiJen; snippy_about_it; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; MistyCA; GatorGirl; radu; ...

In 1841, when North Florida was booming with settlers, South Florida was still a war zone. Congress appropriated more than one million dollars to capture by bribe or bullet the surviving Indians. The Indian Council, headed by Holatta-Micco (Billy Bowlegs) was determined to defend the Biscayne holdings. The Third Artillery under Major Childs and Lt. John McLaughlin began to crisscross the swamps with the intent of destroying anything that would help the Seminoles. By 1842 230 Indians had been captured by this strategy.

There was great pressure in Congress among Northerners to curtail this expensive and bloody conflict, which could only result in the creation of another slave state. A truce was started when Billy Bowlegs agreed to stop hostilities. It did not last.

Inspired by the discovery of the rich muck lands of the Okeechobee area, Governor Thomas Brown encouraged cattlemen and farmers, protected by the Florida militia, to enter the region. Fort Myers was developed into a full sized village. In December of 1855, Lt. George Hardstuff, on a "survey" of Seminole facilities, ram survey lines across Billy Bowlegs prize banana garden. The Indians returned to the war.

Billy Bowlegs - 1858
Principal chief over the 300-400 remaining Indians in Florida at the close of the Second Seminole War.

Five hundred dollar rewards for braves, $250 for women, and $100 for children were offered to white bounty hunters. Indians could receive the same rewards for giving up. The Seminoles rejected the financial rewards and began their guerrilla warfare. A band of forty Oklahoma Seminole could not convince the Indians to surrender.

Billy Bowlegs rejected bribes of $5,000 plus $100 per surrendered Indian, but when his granddaughter was seized, he was forced to surrender. On May 4, 1858, the last of the famous Seminole warriors met the soldiers at Billy's Creek and was sent forever from Florida. A handful of Seminoles remained in the Everglades, but fighting ended.

The Seminoles had delayed Florida statehood for thirty years. They had never surrendered, each person allowed to decide whether to accept a treaty. Now the frontier was ready for settlement and only the Civil War would delay the potential growth of this last frontier.

Additional Sources:

2 posted on 06/24/2003 12:00:42 AM PDT by SAMWolf (There's plenty of room for all God's creatures..... right next to the mashed potatoes.)
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To: All
The Seminoles of Florida, a tribe said to have been derived from Creek refugees, resisted the efforts made to remove them, and started a war which proved to be the longest and most costly Indian war to which the United States had ever been subjected. Instead of being concluded in one or two severe campaigns, as in ordinary cases, it dragged its slow length along for seven years, until the government almost despaired of subduing its adversaries.

The Florida War may be said to have commenced with the massacre of Major Dade's command, on the 28th of December, 1835, and closed, by official proclamation, on the 14th of August, 1842. It was generally said to have cost the United States forty millions of dollars. The number of deaths among the regular troops during the war amounted to an aggregate of fourteen hundred and sixty-six, of whom the very large number of two hundred and fifteen were officers.

3 posted on 06/24/2003 12:01:14 AM PDT by SAMWolf (There's plenty of room for all God's creatures..... right next to the mashed potatoes.)
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To: All

4 posted on 06/24/2003 12:01:56 AM PDT by SAMWolf (COBOL programmers are down in the dumps.)
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To: WhiskeyPapa; New Zealander; Pukin Dog; Coleus; Colonel_Flagg; w_over_w; hardhead; ...
.......FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

.......Good Morning Everyone!

If you would like added or removed from our ping list let me know.
5 posted on 06/24/2003 3:13:40 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good Morning, Snippy. How's it going?:-D
6 posted on 06/24/2003 3:39:41 AM PDT by E.G.C.
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To: E.G.C.
Good Morning, going great.
Sun is out, temps near or at 90 degrees yesterday and for the next three days. Hot!
7 posted on 06/24/2003 4:03:15 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; *all
Good morning SAM, snippy, everyone. Have a great day!
8 posted on 06/24/2003 4:48:44 AM PDT by Soaring Feather
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To: bentfeather
Good morning feather. You have a great day, too.
9 posted on 06/24/2003 5:21:08 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: SAMWolf
Whew! Interesting reading, sort of like the 'National Enquirer' of the internet regarding military matters -
10 posted on 06/24/2003 5:47:51 AM PDT by hardhead ('Column righhhhhtttt, HUUUUUHHHHH!')
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To: SAMWolf
G'Morning Sam - Great post today. I'll bring some friends!
11 posted on 06/24/2003 5:50:01 AM PDT by stainlessbanner
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To: HELLRAISER II; RedBloodedAmerican; Joe Brower; wardaddy
Come along for some FLA History
12 posted on 06/24/2003 5:54:03 AM PDT by stainlessbanner
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To: stainlessbanner
Thank you for pinging me to this thread!! Great reading!
13 posted on 06/24/2003 5:58:20 AM PDT by RedBloodedAmerican
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To: Amore; razorbak; Luis Gonzalez
14 posted on 06/24/2003 5:59:06 AM PDT by RedBloodedAmerican
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To: yall
A few more links for everyone
The Seminoles of Florida call themselves the "Unconquered People," descendants of just 300 Native Americans who managed to elude capture by the U.S. army in the 19th century. Today, more than 2,000 live on six reservations in the state – located in Hollywood, Big Cypress, Brighton, Immokalee, Ft. Pierce, and Tampa.
This site is dedicated to the rich history and culture of the Florida Seminole Tribe.
A short biography
For nearly twenty years, the Seminoles refused to live with and under the Muscogee Creek government, in 1856, a treaty was made with the Muscogee Creeks and the Federal government establishing the first Seminole Nation in Oklahoma. This nation, recognized as an independent nation within the United States and under its protection, consisted of the land between the South Canadian River and North Canadian River bounded on the East by a line where the present city of Tecumseh OK now exists, and on the west by the western boundary of the United States (in 1856), which was the 100th meridian.
In the early days of its existence, the fledgling United States government carried out a policy of displacement and extermination against the American Indians in the eastern US, systematically removing them from the path of "white" settlement.
In 1830 the Congress of the United States passed the "Indian Removal Act." Although many Americans were against the act, most notably Tennessee Congressman Davy Crockett, it passed anyway. President Jackson quickly signed the bill into law.

15 posted on 06/24/2003 6:01:34 AM PDT by stainlessbanner
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To: SAMWolf

My gr-gr-grandaddy often traveled to south FLA on sales trips in the 20's and 30's. He remembers sleeping in his car and hearing the Indians off in the distance and seeing their campfires in the swamps as he bedded down for the night. One morning he awoke with a bunch of natives around his car and hovering over him. He was a little scared at first, but relived that they were friendly and brought him some whiskey as an offering of friendship.

16 posted on 06/24/2003 6:06:41 AM PDT by stainlessbanner
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To: snippy_about_it
17 posted on 06/24/2003 6:10:59 AM PDT by manna
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To: snippy_about_it
Good Morning Snippy

18 posted on 06/24/2003 6:15:35 AM PDT by SAMWolf (COBOL programmers are down in the dumps.)
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To: bentfeather
Good Morning, Feather
19 posted on 06/24/2003 6:16:15 AM PDT by SAMWolf (COBOL programmers are down in the dumps.)
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To: hardhead
Some interesting stuff there. Sure sounds like the owner has it in for the Top Brass in some of those stories.
20 posted on 06/24/2003 6:19:15 AM PDT by SAMWolf (COBOL programmers are down in the dumps.)
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