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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers the Invasion of Japan - Operation Olympic(11/1/1945) - Aug. 15th, 2003 ^ | Haile H Jaekel/James Martin Davis

Posted on 08/15/2003 12:00:16 AM PDT by SAMWolf


Keep our Troops forever in your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.

God Bless America
...................................................................................... ...........................................

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

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Flights of F4U "Corsairs" and F6F "Hellcats" over
the USS Missouri (BB-63).
VJ Day August 1945.

(An Invasion Not Found
in History Books)

The end of World War II, described by most of our educational institutions and the Media, especially during 50th anniversary year, centers on the use of the Atomic Bomb. They fail to remember what happened at Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, (that started the whole thing in the first place), the Bataan Death March, the Japanese Hell Ship (where 1800 American Prisoners prayed to die and all but 8 got their wish), the Rape of Nanking, plus many other deceitful acts and atrocities not mentioned in this article. They failed to look at the planned invasion of the Japanese mainland and the enormous cost in human lives on both sides that would have occurred.

They failed to include the planned invasion, that became unnecessary after the A-bombs were dropped on Hiroshima, August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki, August 9, 1945, plus the acceptance of Allied Surrender Terms, August 14, 1945.

All of the above events and many other facts must also be included in the history books and be part of the equation.

This is what happened after the Japanese surrender, 14th of August, 1945 and what could have happened.

Deep in the National Archives hidden for decades, lie thousands of pages of dusty yellowing documents stamped "TOP SECRET". These documents, now declassified, are the plans for Operation Downfall, the invasion of the Japanese Homeland during World War II. Only a few Americans in 1945 were aware of the elaborate plans that had been prepared for the Allied Invasion of the Japanese Homeland. Even fewer today are aware of the defense the Japanese had prepared to counter the invasion had it occurred.

"Japan, loser of the Pacific War, still had plenty of deadly weapons to defend its homeland against invasion. Any invasion attempt would have been Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Iwo Jima, Okinawa and all the other bloody Pacific battles wrapped into one."

The demolition teams started to neutralize Japanese defenses, August 28,1945, in Tokyo Bay and on mainland Japan, prior to the formal surrender aboard the USS Missouri, September 2, 1945. After the initial "demilitarization" of ships in Tokyo Bay was completed, IE: (destroying ammunition, dismantling guns and throwing the breeches overboard), the teams moved inland. There they blew up fleets of suicide boats moored all along the coast, exploded torpedoes, disabled or destroyed two man "suicide" submarines. In caves that honeycomb the coastline, the big coastal defense guns were blown up.

"Weapons guarding the Japanese homeland were insidiously camouflaged." Gun emplacements were buried in craggy hillsides. Their ammunition supplies moved through a series of underground tunnels on tiny railroads they could have never are seen by invaders from the sea or air. Huge caves had been hollowed out in the hills along the coast. These were crammed with heavy armaments, torpedoes, small suicide submarines, mines and all manners of explosive devices.

The Invasion of Japan, OPERATION DOWNFALL, called for two massive military undertakings to be carried out in succession and aimed at the heart of the Japanese Empire.

In the first invasion, (code named OPERATION OLYMPIC), combat troops would land on Japan by amphibious assault during the early morning hours of November 1, 1945. Fourteen combat divisions of soldiers and Marines would land on heavily fortified and defended Kyushu, the southernmost of the Japanese home islands, after an unprecedented naval and air bombardment.

The second invasion on March 1, 1946, (code named OPERATION CORONET), would send 22 combat divisions against one million Japanese defenders of the main island of Honshu. Its goal: the unconditional surrender of Japan.

OPERATION DOWNFALL was to be a strictly American operation, except for a part of the British Pacific Fleet. It called for using the entire Marine Corps, the entire Pacific Navy, elements of the Seventh Army Air Force, the Eighth Air Force (recently re-deployed from Europe), The 20th Air Force and the American Far Eastern Air Force.

More than 1.5 million combat troops, with 3 million more in support, (more than 40 per cent of all servicemen still in uniform in 1945), would be directly involved in two amphibious assaults.

Casualties were expected to be extremely heavy. Admiral William Leahy estimated more than 250,00 killed or wounded on Kyushu alone. General Charles Willoughby, Chief of Intelligence for General Douglas MacArthur, estimated American casualties from the entire operation would be one million men by the fall of 1946. This was considered, by many, to be a very conservative estimate.

A naval blockade and strategic bombing of Japan was considered, most everyone agreed that they would choke and destroy cities, but leave whole armies intact.

After extensive deliberation, the Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a top secret directive May 25, 1945, to proceed with the invasion of Kyushu, the southernmost island of Japan. The target date was set for after the typhoon season. Two days later the United States issued a Potsdam Proclamation, which called upon Japan to surrender unconditionally or face, total destruction.

Three days later, the Japanese government news agency broadcast to the world, Japan would ignore the proclamation and would refuse to surrender.

During this same period it was learned from monitoring Japanese radio broadcasts, that they were closing all schools, mobilizing the schoolchildren, arming the civilian population, fortifying caves and constructing underground defenses.

OPERATION OLYMPIC called for a four pronged assault on Kyushu. Its objective was to seize and control the southern one-third of that island and establish naval and air bases, tighten the naval blockade of the home islands, destroy units of the main Japanese army and support the later invasion of the Tokyo plain.

The preliminary invasion would begin October 27, 1945, when the 40th Infantry Division would land on a series of small islands west and southwest of Kyushu. At the same time the 158th Regimental Combat Team would land and occupy a small island 28 miles south of Kyushu. On these islands, seaplane bases would be established, radar stations set up to provide advance warning to the invasion fleet, direct carrier base aircraft and provide an emergency anchorage for the invasion fleet, should things not go well on the day of invasion of Kyushu.

As the invasion grew imminent, the massive power of the Third and Fifth fleets would approach Japan, The Third Fleet, under Admiral William "Bull" Halsey, would provide strategic support for operation against Honshu and Hokkaido.

Halsey's fleet would be composed of battleships, heavy cruisers, destroyers, dozens of support ships and three fast carrier groups. Hundreds of Navy fighter's dive-bombers and torpedo planes would hit targets all over the island of Honshu.

The 3000 ship Fifth Fleet, under Admiral Spruance, would carry the invasion troops. Several days before the invasion, the battleships, heavy cruisers and destroyers would pour thousands of tons of high explosives into the target areas. They would not cease the bombardment until after the landing forces had launched. The invasion would begin in the early morning hours of November 1,1945. Thousands of soldiers and Marines would pour ashore on beaches all along the eastern, southern and western coasts of Kyushu.

Waves of aircraft from 66 carriers would bomb, rocket and strafe enemy defenses, gun and troop concentrations along the beaches. The Eastern Assault Force, consisting of the 25th, 33rd and 41st infantry divisions, would land near Miyaski, at beaches called Austin, Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chrysler and Cord, move inland and attempt to capture the city and its nearby airfield.

The Southern Force, consisting of the First Cavalry, 43rd and Americal divisions, would land at beaches labeled Desoto, Dusenburg, Essex, Ford and Franklin and attempt to capture Shibushi and the city of Kanoya and its airfield.

On the western shore of Kyushu, at beaches Pontiac, Reo, Rolls Royce, Saxon, Star, Studebaker, Stutz and Zepher the 5th Amphibious Corps would land the Second, Third and Fifth Marine divisions, sending half of its force inland to Sendai and the other half to the port city of Kagoshima.

On November 4,1945 the 81st, 98th, and 11th Airborne Divisions would feign an attack off the island of Shikoku then land near Kaimondake, (if not needed elseware), near the southernmost tip of Kagoshima Bay at beaches designated Locomobile, Lincoln, LaSalle, Hupmobile, Moon, Mercedes, Maxwell, Overland, Oldsmobile, Packard and Plymouth.

Operation Olympic was not just a plan for invasion, but for conquest and occupation as well. It was expected to take four months to achieve its objective, with three fresh divisions per month to be landed to support the operation if needed.

If all went well with Operation Olympic, Operation Cornet would be launched March 1, 1946. Operation Cornet would be twice the size of Olympic, with as many as 28 divisions landing on Honshu. All along the coast near Tokyo, the American First Army would land the 5th, 7th, 27th,44th,86 and 96th Infantry Divisions along with the 1st, 4th and 6th Marine Divisions.

At Sagami Bay, just south of Tokyo, the entire 8th and 10th armies would strike north and east to clear the long western shore of Tokyo Bay, then attempt to go as far as Yokohama. The assault troops landing south of Tokyo would be the 4th,6th,8th, 24th,31st,32nd and 87th,Infantry Divisions along with the 13th, and 20th Armored divisions.

Following the assault eight more divisions, the 2nd, 28th, 35th, 91st, 95th, 97th, and 104th Infantry divisions and the 11th Airborne Division would be landed. If additional troops were needed as expected, other divisions re-deployed from Europe and undergoing training in the United States would be shipped to Japan in what was hoped to be the final push.

KEYWORDS: amphibiousassault; army; armyairforce; freeperfoxhole; japan; kamikaze; marines; navy; operationcoronet; operationdownfall; operationolympic; veterans; wwii
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The Japanese defense was expected to be even more fierce than any encountered thus far in the war. Schools had been closed and the entire civilian population mobilized. The Shinto cult or religion was the national religion of Japan and the people had been taught to follow the Imperial Cult without question. Self-sacrifice was extolled as the highest virtue and any order from the Emperor, the military, and the government or at school must be followed without question.

Captured documents and postwar interrogation of Japanese military leaders disclosed that information concerning the number of Japanese planes available for the defense of the home islands were dangerously in error. During the sea battle at Okinawa alone, Japanese Kamikaze aircraft sank 32 allied ships and damaged more than 400 others.

Plans for Operation Olympic and Estimated Japanese Dispositions

During the summer of 1945, American top brass concluded that the Japanese had spent their air force since American bombers and fighter's daily flew unmolested over Japan. What military leaders did not know was that by the end of July, the Japanese had been saving all aircraft, fuel and pilots in reserve, and had been feverishly building new planes for the decisive battles defending their homeland.

As part of the Ketsu-go, the name of the plan to defend Japan, the Japanese were building 20 suicide take-off airstrips in southern Kyushu with underground hangars. They also had camouflaged airfields and nine seaplane bases.

On the night before the expected invasion, 50 Japanese seaplane bombers and 150 kamikaze planes were to be launched in a suicide attack on the fleet. The Japanese also had 58 more airfields in Korea, western Honshu and Shikoku, which were also to be used for massive suicide attacks.

Allied intelligence had established that the Japanese had no more than 2500 aircraft of which they guessed 300 would be deployed in suicide attacks. In August 1945, however; unknown to Allied Intelligence, the Japanese still had 5,651 army and 7,074 navy aircraft, for a total of 12,725 planes of all types.

Every village had some kind of aircraft manufacturing activity hidden in mines, railway tunnels, under viaducts and in basements of department stores, working to construct new planes. In addition they were building newer and more effective models of the Okka, a rocket propelled bomb, like the German V-1, but flown by a suicide pilot.

Plans for Operation Olympic and Actual Japanese Dispositions

When the invasion became imminent, ketsu-Go called for a four fold aerial plan of attack to destroy up to 800 Allied ships. While Allied ships were approaching Japan, but still in the open seas, an initial force of 2,000 army and navy fighters were to fight to the death to control the skies over Kyushu.

A second force of 350 Japanese navy pilots were to attack the main body of the Allied task force to keep it from using its fire support and air cover from protecting the troop carrying transports. While these forces engaged a third force of 825 suicide planes was to hit the American transports. As the invasion convoys approached the beaches, another 2,000 suicide planes were to be launched in waves of 200 to 300, to be used in hour by hour attacks.

American troops would be arriving in about 180 lightly armed transports and 70 cargo vessels. By mid-morning of the first day of the invasion, most of the land-based aircraft would be forced to return to their bases, leaving the defense to the carrier pilots and shipboard gunners. Carrier pilots, crippled by fatigue, would have to land time and time again to rearm and refuel. Guns would malfunction from the heat of continuous firing and ammunition would become scarce. Gun crews would be exhausted by nightfall, but still waves of kamikaze would continue. With the invasion fleet hovering off the beaches, all remaining aircraft would be committed to non-stop suicide attacks, which the Japanese hoped could be sustained for 10 days.

The Japanese planned to coordinate their attacks from 40 remaining submarines. Some would be armed with long lance torpedoes with a range of 20 miles to attack the invasion fleet 180 miles of Kyushu.

The Imperial Navy had 23 destroyers and two cruisers operational. They would be used to counterattack the American invasion fleet. A number of destroyers were to be beached at the last minute to be used as anti invasion gun platforms.

Once offshore, the invasion fleet would be forced to defend not only against the attacks from the air, but would also be confronted with suicide attacks from sea.

Once the troops were on the beaches, they would face suicide attacks from large numbers of armed civilian and army units, all for the Emperor and their homeland. As American troops advanced inland, booby traps, mine fields, and well hidden defenses would make every foot of the way a bloody battle. Casualties on both sides would be extremely heavy but the suicidal attacks and the lightly armed civilians would be cut down in large numbers by the heavily armed and well-trained American units.

The goal of the Japanese was to shatter the invasion before the landing. The Japanese were convinced the Americans would back off or become so demoralised that they would then accept a less-than unconditional surrender and a more honourable and face-saving end for the Japanese.

But as horrible as the battle of Japan would be off the beaches, it would be on Japanese soil that the American forces would face the most rugged and fanatical defence encountered during the war.

Throughout the island-hopping Pacific campaign, Allied troops had always outnumbered the Japanese by 2 to 1 and sometimes 3 to 1.

In Japan it would be different. By virtue of a combination of cunning guesswork and brilliant military reasoning, a number of Japan's top military leaders were able to deduce, not only when, but where the United States would land its first invasion forces.

Facing the 14 American divisions landing at Kyushu would be 14 Japanese divisions, 7 independent mixed brigades, 3 tank brigades and thousands of naval troops. In Kyushu the odds would be 3 to 2 in favour of the Japanese, with 790,000 enemy defenders against 550,000 Americans.

This time the bulk of the Japanese defenders would not be the poorly trained and ill equipped labour battalions that the Americans had faced in the earlier campaigns.

The Japanese defenders would be the hard-core of the home army. These troops were well-fed and well-equipped. They were familiar with the terrain, had stockpiles of arms and ammunition, and had developed an effective system of transportation and supply almost invisible from the air. Many of these Japanese troops were the elite of the Army, and they were swollen with a fanatical fighting spirit.

Japan's network of beach defences consisted of offshore mines, thousands of suicide scuba divers attacking landing craft, and mines planted on the beaches.

Coming ashore, the American Eastern amphibious assault forces at Miyazaki would face three Japanese divisions, and two others poised for a counterattack. Awaiting the South-eastern attack force at Ariake Bay was an entire division and at least one mixed infantry brigade.

On the western shores of Kyushu, the Marines would face the most brutal opposition. Along the invasion beaches would be the three Japanese divisions, a tank brigade, a mixed infantry brigade and an artillery command. Components of two divisions would also be poised to launch counterattacks.

If not needed to reinforce the primary landing beaches, the American Reserve Force would be landed at the base of Kagoshima Bay 4 Nov., where they would be confronted by two mixed infantry brigades, parts of two infantry divisions and thousands of the naval troops.

All along the invasion beaches, American troops would face coastal batteries, anti-landing obstacles and a network of heavily fortified pillboxes, bunkers and underground fortresses.

As Americans waded ashore, they would face intense artillery and mortar fire as they worked their way through concrete rubble and barbed-wire entanglements arranged to funnel them into the muzzles of these Japanese guns.

On the beaches and beyond would be hundreds of Japanese machine gun positions, beach mines, booby traps, tripwire mines and sniper units. Suicide units concealed in "spider holes" would engage the troops as they passed nearby.

In the heat of battle, Japanese infiltration units would be sent to wreak havoc in the American lines by cutting phone and communication lines. Some of the Japanese troops would be in American uniform. English-speaking Japanese officers were assigned to break in on American radio traffic to call off artillery fire, to order retreats and to further confuse troops.

Other infiltrators with demolition charges strapped on their chests or backs would attempt to blow up American tanks, artillery pieces and ammunition stores as they were unloaded ashore.

Beyond the beaches were large artillery pieces situated to bring down a curtain of fire on the beach. Some of these large guns were mounted on railroad tracks running in and out of caves protected by concrete and steel.

The battle for Japan would be won by what Simon Bolivar Buckner, a lieutenant general in the Confederate army during the Civil War, had called "Prairie Dog Warfare." This type of fighting was almost unknown to the ground troops in Europe and the Mediterranean. It was peculiar only to the soldiers and Marines who fought the Japanese on islands all over the Pacific -- at Tarawa, Saipan, lwo Jima and Okinawa. Prairie Dog Warfare was a battle for yards, feet and sometimes inches. It was a brutal, deadly and dangerous form of combat aimed at an underground, heavily fortified, non-retreating enemy.

In the mountains behind the Japanese beaches were underground networks of caves, bunkers, command posts and hospitals connected by miles of tunnels with dozens of entrances and exits. Some of these complexes could hold up to 1,000 troops.

1 posted on 08/15/2003 12:00:17 AM PDT by SAMWolf
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To: AntiJen; snippy_about_it; Victoria Delsoul; bentfeather; radu; SpookBrat; bluesagewoman; HiJinx; ...
Had Olympic come about, the Japanese civilian population, inflamed by a national slogan -- One Hundred Million Will Die for the Emperor and Nation -- was prepared to fight to the death.

At the early stage of the invasion, 1,000 Japanese and American soldiers would be dying every hour. Every foot of Japanese soil would have been paid for by Japanese and American lives.

Twenty-eight million Japanese had become a part of the National Volunteer Combat Force. They were armed with ancient rifles, lunge mines, sachel charges, Molotov cocktails and one-shot black powder mortars. Others were armed with swords, long bows, axes and bamboo spears.

The civilian units were to be used in night-time attacks, hit and run manoeuvres delaying actions and massive suicide charges at the weaker American positions. The invasion of Japan never became a reality because on 6 August 1945, an atomic bomb was exploded over Hiroshima. Three days later, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Within days the war with Japan was at a close.

Had these bombs not been dropped and had the invasion been launched as scheduled, combat casualties in Japan would have been at a minimum in the tens of thousands. Every foot of Japanese soil would have been paid for by Japanese and American lives. One can only guess at how many civilians would have committed suicide in their homes or in futile mass military attacks.

In retrospect, the 1 million American men who were to be the casualties of the invasion, were instead lucky enough to survive the war.

Intelligence studies and military estimates made more than 40 years ago, and no latter-day speculation, clearly indicate that the battle for Japan might well have resulted in the biggest blood bath in the history of modern warfare.

Far worse would be what might have happened to Japan as a nation and as a culture. When the invasion came, it would have come after several months of firebombing all of the remaining Japanese cities. The cost in human life that resulted from the two atomic blasts would be small in comparison to the total number of Japanese lives that would have been lost by this aerial devastation.

With American forces locked in combat in the south of Japan, little could have prevented the Soviet Union from marching into the northern half of the Japanese home islands. Japan today could be divided much like Korea and Germany before.

The world was spared the cost of Operation Downfall, however, because Japan formally surrendered to the United Nations 2 Sept. 1945, and World War 11 was over. In the fall of 1945, in the aftermath of the war, few people concerned themselves with the invasion plans.

Following the surrender, the classified documents, maps, diagrams and appendices for Operation Downfall were packed away in boxes and eventually stored at the National Archives. These plans that called for the invasion of Japan paint a vivid description of what might have been one of the most horrible campaigns in the history of man.

Additional Sources:

2 posted on 08/15/2003 12:01:10 AM PDT by SAMWolf (A bird in the hand makes blowing the nose difficult.)
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To: All
Look at your calendar. You might see that December 7, 1941 is marked on some calendars as Pearl Harbor Day, or Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day. Is V-J Day marked on your calendar?

Probably not. V-J Day means, Victory over Japan Day, after Japan capitulated in August 1945 and formally surrendered Sept. 2, 1945.

Remembrance of V-J Day is suppressed in the United States, especially in public schools, because it does not meet the current standards of political correctness dictated by radical historical revisionists. Public education in the United States is woefully weak in history and the teaching of it is frequently bundled under the heading of "Social Studies".

V-J Day should be remembered as the outcome of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.

Richard Rongstad

'It was a question of saving hundreds of thousands of American lives. You don't feel normal when you have to plan hundreds of thousands of deaths of American boys who are alive and joking and having fun while your doing your planning. You break your heart and your head trying to figure out a way to save one life.

I made the only decision I knew how to make. I did what I thought was right. I still think that.'

Harry Truman,
on his decisiion to drop the atomic bomb.

'I thank God for the atomic bomb, because all six Marine divisions were scheduled to go to Kyushu for the planned invasion of Japan. Probably none of us at this table would be here today if we had had to go to Japan.'

Corporal Hershel Williams

'We must be prepared to accept heavy casualties whenever we invade Japan. Our previous success against ill-fed and poorly supplied units, cut down by our overpowering naval and air action, should not be used as the sole basis of estimating the type of resistance we will meet in the Japanese homeland where the enemy lines of communication will be short and the enemy supplies more adequate.'

Admiral Chester Nimitz, CINCPAC,
in a memo to Admiral King, CNO, June 1945

More American soldiers were killed or wounded in the Pacific in the first six months of 1945 than in the three previous years. On Iwo Jima we suffered 27,000 casualties in five weeks! On Okinawa, 48,000 in three months! The Japs were fanatics, fought to the death in caves and tunnels. The kamikazes were slicing up our fleet. If we went though with the invasion, we were looking at an Okinawa from one end of Japan to the other. We couldn't let that happen, not with the bomb in hand. No American or British or Jap boy died on the beaches of Japan. The bomb may have had something to do with that.

Admiral William Leahy estimated that there would be more than 250,000 Americans killed or wounded on Kyushu alone. General Charles Willoughby, chief of intelligence for General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Southwest Pacific, estimated American casualties would be one million men by the fall of 1946. Willoughby's own intelligence staff considered this to be a conservative estimate.

3 posted on 08/15/2003 12:01:56 AM PDT by SAMWolf (A bird in the hand makes blowing the nose difficult.)
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To: All

4 posted on 08/15/2003 12:02:57 AM PDT by SAMWolf (A bird in the hand makes blowing the nose difficult.)
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To: PsyOp; Samwise; comitatus; copperheadmike; Monkey Face; WhiskeyPapa; New Zealander; Pukin Dog; ...
.......FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

.......Good Friday Morning Everyone!

If you would like added or removed from our ping list let me know.
5 posted on 08/15/2003 4:53:10 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning, Snippy and everyone at the Freeper Foxhole.

Our thoughts are with everyone in the Northeast who are going through this whole mess that started yesterday.

Reminder to everyone about the MS(03-026). If you have msblaster and have not downloaded the patch, PLEASE DO SO NOW!!!!!!!We need every infected patched with this patch in order to save access to windows Update for the rest of the year.

6 posted on 08/15/2003 5:07:02 AM PDT by E.G.C.
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning!

A uniquely informative thread today. Hope all is well with you. Best wishes to our Freeper friends in the northeast without power, from flyover country.

7 posted on 08/15/2003 5:25:58 AM PDT by Colonel_Flagg ("I like a man who grins when he fights." - Sir Winston Churchill)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on August 15:
1432 Luigi Pulci Italy, poet (Morgante)
1688 Frederick-William I king of Prussia (1713-1740)
1769 Napoleon Bonaparte resident of Elba (emperor 1804-13, 1814-15)
1771 Sir Walter Scott Scotland, novelist/poet (Lady of Lake)
1785 Thomas De Quincey Eng, writer (Confessions of English Opium Eater)
1803 Sir James Douglas father of British Columbia
1845 Walter Crane England, painter/illustrator (Beauty & Beast)
1856 J Keir Hardie 1st Labour representative in British Parliament
1860 Florence Kling DeWolfe Harding 1st lady
1875 Samuel Coleridge-Taylor London, composer (Hiawatha's Wedding Feast)
1879 Ethel Barrymore Phila, actress (Constant Wife, Corn is Green)
1887 Ferber Edna, Mich, writer (Showboat, Cimarron, Giant)
1888 T.E. Lawrence Tremadoc Wales, soldier/writer (aka Lawrence of Arabia)
1890 Jacques Ibert Paris France, composer (Escales)
1892 Louis-Victor due de Broglie France, physicist (Nobel 1929)
1893 Harlow H Curtice pres of General Motors (1953-8)
1898 Lillian Carter Pres Carter's mom
1901 Arias Arnulfo 3 time president of Panama (1940-41, 49-51, 68)
1904 Bill Baird Grand Is Nebr, puppeteer (Kukla Fran & Ollie, Muppet Show)
1912 Julia Child Pasadena Calif, chef (French Chef)
1912 Wendy Hiller actress (Major Barbara, David Copperfield)
1915 Signe Hasso actress (Double Life)
1920 Huntz Hall actor (Cyclone, Gas Pump Girls, The Rating Game)
1922 Lukas Foss (Fuchs) Berlin Germany, composer (Prairie)
1923 Rose Marie NYC, actress (Sally Rogers-Dick Van Dyke Show)
1924 Phyllis Schlafly St Louis, right-winger/Eagle Forum president
1924 Robert Bolt playwright (Man for All Seasons, Dr Zhivago)
1925 Mike Connors Fresno Calif, actor (Joe Mannix-Mannix, Night Kill)
1926 Georgiann Johnson Decorah Iowa, actress (Marge-Mr Peepers)
1931 Janice Rule Norwood Ohio, actress (Alvarez Kelly, Doctor's Wife)
1933 Lori Nelson Santa Fe NM, actress (Greta-How to Marry a Millionaire)
1935 Abby Dalton Las Vegas NV, actress (Joey Bishop Show)
1935 Jim Dale Broadway entertainer (Barnum, My One & Only)
1935 Vernon Eulion Jordan Jr civil rights activist
1941 Don Rich Olympia Wash, guitarist/country singer (Hee Haw)
1943 Barbara Bouchet Reichenberg Czech, actress (Casino Royale)
1944 Linda Ellerbee Bryan Texas, newscaster (NBC News Overnight)
1945 Gene Upshaw NFL guard (Oakland), NFLPA leader
1946 Jimmy Webb Elk City Okla, songwriter (MacArthur Park, Up Up & Away)
1946 Kathryn Jean Whitmire Houston Texas, (4 time Mayor-Houston)
1947 Gerald Velez congas (Spyro Gyra-Morning Dance)
1947 Manley Lanier "Sonny" Carter Jr Macon Ga, USN/astro (STS 33)
1949 Ann Ryerson Wisc, actress (Pvt Carol Winter-Pvt Benjamin)
1950 Princess Anne England (daughter of Queen Elizabeth II)
1950 Tess Harper actress (Amityville 3D, Tender Mercies)
1955 Larry Mathews Burbank Calif, actor (Ritchie-Dick Van Dyke Show)
1957 Zeljko Ivanek Yugoslavia, actor (Mass Appeal)
1960 Maureen "Peanut" Louie Harper SF, tennis player (Denver-1985)
1960 Tommy Aldridge heavy metal rocker (Ozzy-Diary of a Mad Man)
1961 Matt Johnson rocker (The The-Infected Soul Mining)
1964 MCA (Adam Yauch) rocker (The Beastie Boys-You Gotta Fight)
1967 F DeLorme Roche Jr. Roanoke, Virginia. Bartender extrodinaire (Guru of life, love & Libation)

Deaths which occurred on August 15:
0069 Servius Sulpicius Galba, 6th emperor of Rome (68-69), murdered
1935 Wiley Post & Will Rogers killed in plane crash in Alaska
1975 Sheikh Mujibur Rahiman of Bangladesh killed in a military coup
1983 Anthony Costello actor, dies at 42
1988 - Mohammed Zia ul-Haq, President of Pakistan, killed in plane crash
1991 Marietta Tree (UN Comm of Human Rights), dies at 74



POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

On this day...
0778 Battle at Roncevalles: Basques beat Charles the Great
1057 Macbeth, King of Scotland, slain by son of King Duncan
1261 Constantinople falls to Michael VIII of Nicea and his army.
1519 Panama City founded
1535 Asunci¢n, Paraguay founded
1598 Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, leads an Irish force to victory over the British at Battle of Yellow Ford
1620 Mayflower sets sail from Southampton with 102 Pilgrims
1748 United Lutheran Church of US organized
1824 Freed American slaves forms country of Liberia
1832 Gregory XVI encyclical On liberalism & religious indifferentism
1843 National black convention meets (Buffalo NY)
1848 M Waldo Hanchett patents dental chair
1858 Regular mail to the Pacific coast begins
1863 Submarine "HL Hunley" arrives in Charleston on railroad cars
1864 Off New England coast, CSS Tallahassee captures 6 yankee schooners
1867 2nd Reform Bill extends suffrage in England
1870 Transcontinental Railway actually completed
1886 Guy Hecker scores 7 runs in 1 game
1893 US no longer allowed exclusive rights in Bering Sea
1899 Louisville's Henry Dowling struck out 5 times in a game
1901 Arch Rock, danger to Bay shipping, blasted with 30 tons of nitro
1905 Phila A's Rube Waddell no-hits St Louis Browns, 2-0 in 5 innings
1906 1st freight delivery tunnel system begins, underneath Chicago
1912 Yankee Guy Zinn sets record by stealing home twice in a game
1914 Panama Canal opens (under cost)
1918 1st full length cartoon (The Sinking of the Lusitania)
1918 US & Russia sever diplomatic ties
1931 Ernest Lassy completes longest canoe journey without port (6,102 mi)
1931 Roy Wilkins joined NAACP as asst secretary
1934 Bathysphere Explorers Charles William Beebe and Otis Barton were lowered in a spherical chamber called the "Bathysphere" to more than half a mile below the ocean's surface off the Bermuda Islands
1939 "Wizard of Oz" premiers at Grauman's Chinese Theater, Hollywood
1945 South Korea liberated from Japanese rule
1945 US wartime rationing of gasoline & fuel oil ends
1947 India becomes independent, Islamic part becomes Pakistan
1948 Republic of Korea (South Korea) proclaimed (National Day)
1950 8.6 quake kills over 1,000 in Assam, India
1952 9" of rain fall creates a 20' wave in Lynmouth, England killing 34
1957 David Simons reaches 30,942 m in Man High 2 balloon
1957 USAF Capt Joe B Jordan reaches 31,513 m in F-104 jet fighter
1960 Chic Bears beat NY Giants 16-7 in Toronto (NFL expo)
1960 Congo (Brazzaville) gains independence from France (Natl Day)
1960 Mil Brave Lew Burdette no-hits Phila Phillies, 1-0
1960 UFO is sighted by 3 California patrolmen
1962 Shady Grove Baptist Church burned in Leesburg Georgia
1964 Phillies triple-play NY Mets
1964 Race riot in Dixmoor (Chicago suburb) Ill
1964 Ralph Boston of the US, sets then long jump record at 27' 3¬"
1965 Beatle's Shea Stadium concert
1966 Radio Free Asia (South Korea) begins radio transmission
1967 England's Marine Offense Bill making pirate radio stations a crime goes into effect, pirate station Radio 355 closes down
1968 Pirate Radio Free London, begins transmitting
1969 Woodstock Music & Art Fair opens in NY State (Max Yasgur's Dairy Farm)
1970 Patricia Palinkas becomes 1st woman pro football player (Orlando)
1971 Bahrain gains independence from Britain
1971 Pres Nixon announces 90-day freeze on wages, prices & rents
1973 Black September kills 3 wounds 55 Athens
1974 Longest team (6) trampoline bouncing marathon (1,248 hours (52 days))
1974 South Korean President Park Chung-Hee escapes assassination
1975 Joanne Little acquitted of murder charges
1978 House of Reps approves (233-169), 39-month extension for ERA
1979 Andrew Young resigns as UN ambassador
1981 Robin Leamy of US swims record 7.98 kph for 50 m
1986 Pres Reagan decides to support a replacement for the Challenger
1987 US beats Cuba in the Pan-Am baseball
1988 At 4PM LILCO consumers used a record 3,813 megawatts
1988 NYC begins $70 million program to rebuild 900 Bronx apartments
1991 750,000 attend Paul Simon's free concert in Central Park
1992 Colombo '92 closes in Genoa Italy
1997 The Justice Department decided against prosecuting senior FBI officials in connection with an alleged cover-up that followed the deadly 1992 Ruby Ridge siege in Idaho.

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Chad, Congo-1960, India-1947 : Independence Day
Costa Rica : Mother's Day
Grenada, Liechtenstein, Corsica : National Day
Laos : Memorial Day
South Korea : Liberation Day (1945, 1948)
Hawaii : Admission Day (1959) ( Friday )
Mich : Montrose-Blueberry Festival ( Friday )
Yukon : Klondike Gold Day (1896) ( Friday )
National Relaxation Day
National Apple Week (Day 6)
American Artists Appreciation Month

Religious Observances
Ang, Luth : Commemoration of St Mary, virgin, mother of Our Lord
RC : Solemnity of the Assumption of the Virgin

Religious History
1096 The armies of the First Crusade set out from Europe to deliver Jerusalem from the occupying forces of Islamic Turks. Championed by Peter the Hermit in 1093, Pope Urban II had sanctioned the crusade at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
1534 The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was founded by Ignatius of Loyola, 43. Created to foster reform within Catholicism, and to undertake education and missionary work, this colorful religious order was formally approved by Pope Paul III in 1540.
1549 The first Christian missionaries to reach Japan landed at Kagoshima (on the coast of Kyushu, southernmost of the four main islands of Japan). They were a band of Spanish Jesuits, led by pioneer Catholic missionary Francis Xavier, 43.
1613 Birth of Jeremy Taylor, Anglican clergyman and devotional writer. Two of his works became classic expressions of Anglican spirituality: "The Rule and Exercise of Holy Living" (1650) and "The Rule and Exercise of Holy Dying" (1651).
1790 Father John Carroll, 55, was consecrated by Pius VI as the first Roman Catholic bishop (later, in 1811, the first archbishop) of the United States.

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.

Thought for the day :
"When all is said and done, too many people keep on saying and doing."

You might be a NASCAR fan if...
you think that the four last words of the National Anthem are "Gentlemen, start your engines."

Murphys Law of the day...(War Laws)
Never underestimate the ability of the brass to foul things up.

Cliff Clavin says, it's a little known fact that...
Nearly 50% of all bank robberies take place on Friday.

8 posted on 08/15/2003 5:29:51 AM PDT by Valin (America is a vast conspiracy to make you happy.)
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To: SAMWolf
Thank you SAM, this was a fascinating read, wow.

I knew dropping the bombs saved American lives but before reading this I had no idea to what magnitude.

Thank God the decision was made. IMO, Providence was on our side in this decision.

9 posted on 08/15/2003 6:01:01 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: E.G.C.
Morning EGC.
10 posted on 08/15/2003 6:01:38 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: Colonel_Flagg
Good Morning Colonel.

All is well as I hope it is with you.

This is a very interesting thread isn't it? To think we would have used nearly all our resources and the losses we would have taken. Amazing.

I expect some of us here wouldn't be here today had we not ended the war the way we did.
11 posted on 08/15/2003 6:04:16 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: snippy_about_it
12 posted on 08/15/2003 6:04:59 AM PDT by manna
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To: manna
13 posted on 08/15/2003 6:07:40 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: SAMWolf; SandRat
Good Morning, SAM! I'm pinging a friend who has studied this.

Great gives one pause to realize how many of us may not be here today had the bombs not been dropped.

How many of us had fathers or grandfathers scheduled for deployment to Japan in these operations? My father was one such, who may have never come home to be my father.
14 posted on 08/15/2003 7:05:05 AM PDT by HiJinx (The Right person, in the Right place, at the Right do His work.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good Morning Snippy
15 posted on 08/15/2003 7:22:37 AM PDT by SAMWolf (A bird in the hand makes blowing the nose difficult.)
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To: E.G.C.
Good Morning E.G.C.
16 posted on 08/15/2003 7:23:14 AM PDT by SAMWolf (A bird in the hand makes blowing the nose difficult.)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it
Wow. Very detailed information.

While many people talk about how many of our military folks would have died in this, the ramifications are higher than that.

Think about the "future generations" effect.

How many of us would not be here today, because their family members died during this invasion.

Scary if you ask me.
17 posted on 08/15/2003 7:25:21 AM PDT by Johnny Gage (Support BACTERIA - For some people, it's the only culture they have!)
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To: HiJinx
LOL. You beat me to that line of thought.
18 posted on 08/15/2003 7:26:37 AM PDT by Johnny Gage (Support BACTERIA - For some people, it's the only culture they have!)
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To: Colonel_Flagg
Good Morning Colonel Flagg. I had friends whose father's where in the process of shipping to the Pacific from Europe. They've never doubted the decision to drop the bombs.
19 posted on 08/15/2003 7:30:07 AM PDT by SAMWolf (A bird in the hand makes blowing the nose difficult.)
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To: Valin
1914 Panama Canal opens (under cost)

The last time in history the government ever did anything under cost.

20 posted on 08/15/2003 7:34:49 AM PDT by SAMWolf (A bird in the hand makes blowing the nose difficult.)
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