Keyword: framers

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  • Why the Framers Relied on Constitutional Structure

    09/24/2014 6:14:48 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 16 replies
    A common refrain from Article V state amendment convention opponents is that all we need to do is follow the constitution we have. For the constitution to be implemented as it should ideally be, i.e. as our supreme law, we must send honorable, virtuous men and women to Washington DC to fulfill its purpose and tenets. Unfortunately, this belief falls into the same dangerous solution as offered by Socialists, who tell us socialism will finally work once the “right men and women” assume the reins of power. The reality is that the people we send to DC are like the...
  • The Faith of Our Fathers: Was the faith of the Founding Fathers deism or Christianity?

    07/06/2014 8:09:22 AM PDT · by SeekAndFind · 9 replies
    Stand to Reason ^ | Greg Koukl
    Was the faith of the Founding Fathers deism or Christianity? What does the answer mean for us today? Both the secularists and the Christians have missed the mark.There's been a lot of rustle in the press lately--and in many Christian publications--about the faith of the Founding Fathers and the status of the United States as a "Christian nation." Home schooling texts abound with references to our religious heritage, and entire organizations are dedicated to returning America to its spiritual roots. On the other side, secularists cry "foul" and parade their own list of notables among our country's patriarchs. They...
  • The people’s Constitution, stolen by a supremely dishonest judiciary

    08/06/2013 8:59:00 AM PDT · by Oldpuppymax · 14 replies
    Coach is Right ^ | 8/6/13 | Doug Book
    “Judicial Supremacy is the gospel of modern American constitutional law.” (1) It is the dishonest method whereby the nation’s highest court may create–or recreate–the supreme law of the land with each successive decision. Two hundred and twenty three years ago, the Constitution was ratified after the adoption of the Bill of Rights. It was from the beginning a document written not for the judiciary or the legal elite, but by and for the American people. Look at the Preamble: “We the People of the United States” it begins. The preamble of a legal document in 1787 identified the parties involved...
  • Freep This Book: That's Not What They Meant!

    01/08/2013 1:52:09 PM PST · by Jacquerie · 15 replies
    Remember how the DUs trashed Mark Levin's books at Amazon? Well, here is our chance. Some English prof named Michael Austin wrote a scatterbrained hit piece that is full of cheap shots directed at the Tea Party, Mark Levin, Hannity, etc. To do this, he took teaspoons from various works of our Framers, mixed them up with some Howard Zinn, and baked them with social justice gravy at high heat. Wanna see how the left corrupts our college kids? Here it is.
  • 220th Anniversary: James Madison Drinks, and Writes an Article

    12/22/2012 9:08:39 AM PST · by Publius · 23 replies
    A Professor Publius Short Story | 22 December 2012 | Publius
    James Madison Drinks, and Writes an ArticlePhilip Freneau had set the deadline for the December 22nd edition of the National Gazette, and James Madison found himself racing the hourglass. Freneau published the newspaper, dedicated to the positions of Thomas Jefferson’s faction within the Congress and the council around His Excellency, while working for the red-haired Secretary of State as a translator. Mr. Jefferson saw neither difficulty nor conflict with this arrangement. Freneau had labeled the men of Alexander Hamilton’s faction as Monarchists, Tories, and Anti-Republicans, claiming their role was to reverse the results of 1776. The Secretary of the Treasury...
  • Constitution Day 1787!

    09/17/2011 4:40:14 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 26 replies
    Constitution Society ^ | James Madison
    Fabulous Franklin Speech. 1:30,000. General Washington. Gerry Speech. Anarchy. Signing. Rising Sun. In Convention. The engrossed Constitution being read, Docr. FRANKLIN rose with a speech in his hand, which he had reduced to writing for his own conveniency, [FN2] and which Mr. Wilson read in the words following. Mr. President, I confess that there are several parts of this constitution which I do not at present approve, but I am not sure I shall never approve them: For having lived long, I have experienced many instances of being obliged by better information, or fuller consideration, to change opinions even on...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention September 8th 1787

    09/08/2011 3:30:27 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 4 replies
    Constitution Society ^ | James Madison
    Two Thirds Treaty Requirement. Lawful Officers. Impeachment. Supreme Court Trial. Money Bills & Appropriations. Oaths. Calling Congress into Session. Committee of Style. Hamilton & More Congressmen. In Convention. The last Report of [FN1] Committee of Eleven (see Sepr. 4) was resumed. Mr. KING moved to strike out the "exception of Treaties of peace" from the general clause requiring two thirds of the Senate for making Treaties Mr. WILSON wished the requisition of two thirds to be struck out altogether If the majority cannot be trusted, it was a proof, as observed by Mr. Ghorum, that we were not fit for...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention September 7th 1787

    09/07/2011 2:30:38 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 11 replies
    Constitution Society ^ | James Madison
    Down in the Electoral Weeds. Disabled President. Natural Born Citizen. The Useless Vice President. Ambassadors. Treaties. New Corps of Officers. Recess Appointments. Two Thirds Treaty Requirement. Privy Council. In Convention. The mode of constituting the Executive being resumed, Mr. RANDOLPH moved, to insert in the first Section of the report made yesterday [FN2] "The Legislature may declare by law what officer of the U. S. shall act as President in case of the death, resignation, or disability of the President and Vice-President; and such officer shall act accordingly until the time of electing a President shall arrive." Mr. MADISON observed...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention September 6th 1787

    09/06/2011 2:41:24 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 8 replies
    Constitution Society ^ | James Madison
    Presidential Elections. James Wilson Speech. Aristocratic Senate. Hamilton Speech. Electors. Same Day Election Throughout US. In Convention. Mr. KING and Mr. GERRY moved to insert in the (4) [FN2] clause of the Report (see Sepr. 4 [FN3]) after the words "may be entitled in the Legislature" the words following-"But no person shall be appointed an elector who is a member of the Legislature of the U. S. or who holds any office of profit or trust under the U. S." which passed nem: con: Mr. GERRY proposed, as the President was to be elected by the Senate out of the...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention September 5th 1787

    09/05/2011 3:04:39 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 5 replies
    Constitution Society ^ | James Madison
    Marque & Reprisal. Standing Armies. Seat of Government. Forts, Magazines, . . . Copyrights. Representation in first Congress. Presidential Elections. Four or Seven Year Terms. Aristocracy. In Convention. Mr. BREARLEY from the Committee of Eleven made a farther report as follows, (1) To add to the clause "to declare war" the words "and grant letters of marque and reprisal" (2) To add to the clause "to raise and support armies" the words "but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years" (3) Instead of sect: 12. art 6. say-"All bills for raising...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention September 4th 1787

    09/04/2011 2:54:13 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies · 1+ views
    Constitution Society ^ | James Madison
    Committee of Eleven Report. Taxing Power. Common Defense & General Welfare. Commerce Clause. Four Year Presidential Terms. No Term Limits. Vice President. Electoral College. Five Highest. In Convention. Mr. BREARLY from the Committee of eleven made a further partial Report as follows, "The Committee of Eleven to whom sundry resolutions &c were referred on the 31st. of August, report that in their opinion the following additions and alterations should be made to the Report before the Convention, viz [FN2](1.) The first clause of sect: 1. art. 7. to read as follow-'The Legislature shall have power to lay and collect taxes...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention September 3rd 1787

    09/03/2011 2:22:17 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Constitution Society ^ | James Madison
    Bankruptcies. Full Faith & Credit. Appointive Office Corruption. In Convention. Mr. Govr. MORRIS moved to amend the Report concerning the respect to be paid to Acts Records &c of one State, in other States (see Sepr. 1.) by striking out "judgments obtained in one State shall have in another" and to insert the word "thereof" after the word "effect" Col: MASON favored the motion, particularly if the "effect" was to be restrained to judgments & Judicial proceedings Mr. WILSON remarked, that if the Legislature were not allowed to declare the effect the provision would amount to nothing more than what...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention September 1st 1787

    09/01/2011 1:46:59 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 2 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article 6 Section 9. Civil Office Holders. Bankruptcies. Full Faith & Credit. In Convention. Mr. BREARLEY (NJ) from the Comme. of eleven to which were referred yesterday, the postponed parts of the Constitution, & parts of Reports not acted upon, made the following partial report. That in lieu of the 9th. Sect: of art: 6. the words following be inserted viz "The members of each House shall be ineligible to any civil office under the authority of the U. S. during the time for which they shall respectively be elected, and no person holding an office under the U. S....
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 31st 1787

    08/31/2011 2:17:46 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies · 2+ views
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Articles XXI-XXIII. How Many States to Form a Government? Popular or State Government Ratification. Congressional Endorsement. Implement a Government. Section 4 Article VII. No Interstate Duties. In Convention. Mr. KING moved to add to the end of art: XXI the words "between the said States" so as to confine the operation of the Govt. to the States ratifying it. On the question N. H. ay. Mas. ay. Ct. ay. N. J. ay. Pa. ay. Md. no. Virga. ay. N. C. ay. S. C. ay. Geo. ay. [FN2] Mr. MADISON proposed to fill the blank in the article with "any seven...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 30th 1787

    08/30/2011 2:02:22 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 6 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Articles XVII-XXI. Western Lands & New States, A Real Mess. More Threats to Leave the Convention. Republican Government. Rebellion. Amendment Process. Oaths. How Many States to Form a Government? In Convention. Art XVII [FN2] resumed for a question on it as amended by Mr. Govr. Morris's substitutes. [FN3] Mr. CARROL moved to strike out so much of the article as requires the consent of the State to its being divided. He was aware that the object of this prerequisite might be to prevent domestic disturbances, but such was our situation with regard to the Crown lands, and the sentiments of...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 29th 1787

    08/29/2011 1:54:36 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Bankruptcies. Full Faith. William Blackstone & Ex Post Facto Law. Commerce as Trade. Sectional Rivalry. Navigation Acts. Randolph Resists the Constitution. Article VII Section 6 Navigation Acts Struck. New States. Article XVII. In Convention. Art: XVI. [FN2], [FN3], taken up. Mr. WILLIAMSON moved to substitute in place of it, the words of the Articles of Confederation on the same subject. He did not understand precisely the meaning of the article. Mr. WILSON & Docr. JOHNSON supposed the meaning to be that Judgments in one State should be the ground of actions in other States, & that acts of the Legislatures...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 28th 1787

    08/28/2011 5:26:40 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Ports & Trade Report Tabled. Appellate Review. Article XI Sections 3 & 4. Habeas Corpus. Impeachment. Gold & Silver Coin. Paper Money Ban. Contracts. Madison & Judicial Review. Ex Post Facto. Article XII. Commerce. Embargoes. State Imposts. Article XIII. Mississippi. Clymer Outburst. Article XIV. Privileges and Immunities. Fugitive Slaves. Article XV. In Convention. Mr. SHERMAN from the Committee to whom were referred several propositions on the 25th. instant, made the following report- [FN2] That there be inserted after the 4 clause of [FN3] 7th. Section "Nor shall any regulation of commerce or revenue give preference to the ports of one...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 27th 1787

    08/27/2011 2:16:21 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 1 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article X. Pardons. Militia. Interim Presidents. Preserve, Protect and Defend. Oaths. Article XI Sections 1-3. Judiciary. Gusts of Faction. Judicial Salaries & Jurisdiction. Samuel Johnson & Judicial Review. Judiciary Nature. Madison & Morris Judicial Power. In Convention. Art X. Sect. 2. [FN2] being resumed. Mr. L. MARTIN moved to insert the words "after conviction" after the words "reprieves and pardons" Mr. WILSON objected that pardon before conviction might be necessary in order to obtain the testimony of accomplices. He stated the case of forgeries in which this might particularly happen- Mr. L. MARTIN withdrew his motion. Mr. SHERMAN moved to...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 25th 1787

    08/25/2011 3:07:32 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 4 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VII Section 1 Clause 1. Taxation & Speculation. Committee of Eleven. Article VII Sections 4-6. Slave Import Tax. $10. Article VIII. Commerce Clause & Ports. Article X Section 2. Executive Duties. In Convention. The 1st. clause of 1 Sect. of art: VII [FN2] being reconsidered Col. MASON objected to the term "shall" -fullfil the engagements & discharge the debts &c as too strong. It may be impossible to comply with it. The Creditors should be kept in the same plight. They will in one respect be necessarily and properly in a better. The Government will be more able to...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 24th 1787

    08/24/2011 2:24:31 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VII Sections 4-6. Slavery. Taxes. Navigation Acts. Article IX Sections 2-3. Judiciary. Article X. Congress Appoints the President. Public Good. Morris Speech. Popular Electors. Public Offices. In Convention. Governour LIVINGSTON, from the Committee of Eleven, to whom were referred the two remaining clauses of the 4th. Sect & the 5 & 6 Sect: of the 7th. art: [FN2] delivered in the following Report: "Strike out so much of the 4th Sect: as was referred to the Committee and insert-"The migration or importation of such persons as the several States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 23rd 1787

    08/23/2011 2:34:41 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 7 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VII Sections 1, 6 & 7. Second Grand Committee Report: Militias and RKBA. Civil War. Princes. Articles VIII, IX. Congressional Veto of State Law. James Wilson and Judicial Review. State Debt. Speculators. Treaties. In Convention. The Report of the Committee of Eleven made Aug: 21. [FN2] being taken up, and the following clause being under consideration to wit "To make laws for organizing, arming & disciplining the Militia, and for governing such part [FN3] of them as may be employed in the service of the U. S. reserving to the States respectively, the appointment of the officers, and authority...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 22nd 1787

    08/22/2011 2:42:05 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 4 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VII Section 4. Slavery. Memorable Mason Speech. Navigation Acts. Second Grand Committee Report. Bills of Attainder. Ex Post Facto. Judicial Review. Old Engagements & Debt. In Convention. Art VII sect 4. [FN1], [FN2] resumed. Mr. SHERMAN was for leaving the clause as it stands. He disapproved of the slave trade; yet as the States were now possessed of the right to import slaves, as the public good did not require it to be taken from them, & as it was expedient to have as few objections as possible to the proposed scheme of Government, he thought it best to...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 21st 1787

    08/21/2011 3:30:49 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 6 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Grand Committee Report. State Debt & Militias. Article VII Sections 3 & 4. Reconcile Old Requisitions. Article VI Section 12, Origination of Bills and Money Bills. More Commerce Clause. Taxation of Exports. Necessary and Proper Insight. Slave Import Tax. In Convention. Governour LIVINGSTON from the Committee of Eleven to whom was referred the propositions respecting the debts of the several States and also the Militia entered on the 18th. inst: delivered the following report: "The Legislature of the U. S. shall have power to fulfil the engagements which have been entered into by Congress, and to discharge as well the...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 20th 1787

    08/20/2011 5:46:56 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies · 1+ views
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VII Section 1 Clause 18. Article VII Sections 2 & 3. Pinckney and Morris Amendments. Council of Revision. Council of State. Sumptuary Laws. Necessary & Proper. Treason. What is Direct Taxation? In Convention. Mr. PINKNEY submitted to the House, in order to be referred to the Committee of detail, the following propositions- "Each House shall be the Judge of its own privileges, and shall have authority to punish by imprisonment every person violating the same; or who, in the place where the Legislature may be sitting and during the time of its Session, shall threaten any of its members...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 18th 1787

    08/18/2011 1:56:57 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 15 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VII Section 1 Clauses 15-17. More Enumerated Powers. Seat of Government. Forts & Magazines. Regulate the Militia. Perpetual Taxes. Assumption of State Debt. Raise Armies. Maintain a Navy. More Militia. In Convention. Mr. MADISON submitted in order to be referred to the Committee of detail the following powers as proper to be added to those of the General Legislature "To dispose of the unappropriated lands of the U. States" "To institute temporary Governments for New States arising therein" "To regulate affairs with the Indians as well within as without the limits of the U. States "To exercise exclusively Legislative...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 17th 1787

    08/17/2011 2:32:53 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VII Section 1 Clauses 9-14. Enumerated Powers. Inferior Tribunals. Piracy and Punishments. Rebellions. Militia. War. In Convention. Art VII. Sect. 1. [FN1], [FN2] resumed. on the clause "to appoint [FN3] Treasurer by ballot." Mr. GHORUM moved to insert "joint" before ballot, as more convenient as well as reasonable, than to require the separate concurrence of the Senate. Mr. PINKNEY 2ds. the motion. Mr. SHERMAN opposed it as favoring the larger States. Mr. READ moved to strike out the clause, leaving the appointment of the Treasurer as of other officers to the Executive. The Legislature was an improper body for...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 16th 1787

    08/16/2011 2:44:44 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 4 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Enumerated Powers. Article VII Section 1 Clauses 1-8. Export Taxes. Direct Taxes. Commerce, Coins, Naturalization, Weights & Measures, Post Offices. Paper Money. Mark of the Beast. In Convention. Mr. RANDOLPH having thrown into a new form the motion, putting votes, Resolutions &c. on a footing with Bills, renewed it as follows "Every order resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate & House of Reps. may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment and in the cases hereinafter mentioned) shall be presented to the President for his revision; and before the same shall have force shall be...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 15th 1787

    08/15/2011 3:03:37 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 6 replies
    Avalon Source ^ | James Madison
    Article VI Sections 11-13. Money Bills Part III. Treaties. Council of Revision. Absolute v. Conditional Executive Veto. In Convention. Art: VI. Sect. 11. [FN1], [FN2] Agreed to nem. con. Art: VI Sect. 12. [FN1], [FN3] taken up. Mr. STRONG moved to amend the article so as to read-"Each House shall possess the right of originating all bills, except bills for raising money for the purposes of revenue, or for appropriating the same and for fixing the salaries of the officers of the Govt. which shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 14th 1787

    08/14/2011 3:30:10 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 7 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VI Sections 9-10. Office Holders & Corruption. Mercer & Aristocratic Property. A Junta. Confidence is the Road to Tyranny. Military Officers. Janissaries. Congressional Salaries. In Convention. Article VI. Sect. 9. [FN1], [FN2] taken up. Mr. PINCKNEY argued that the making the members ineligible to offices was degrading to them, and the more improper as their election into the Legislature implied that they had the confidence of the people; that it was inconvenient, because the Senate might be supposed to contain the fittest men. He hoped to see that body become a School of public Ministers, a nursery of Statesmen:...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 13th 1787

    08/13/2011 2:51:18 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 5 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article IV Sections 2 & 5 Redux. Seven v. Three Years. Privileges & Immunities. Money Bills. Mason Speech. Evils in Republics. More Money. Dickenson Speech. In Convention. Art. IV. Sect. 2 [FN1], [FN2] reconsidered- Mr. WILSON & Mr. RANDOLPH moved to strike out "7 years" and insert "4 years," as the requisite term of Citizenship to qualify for the House of Reps. Mr. Wilson said it was very proper the electors should govern themselves by this consideration; but unnecessary & improper that the Constitution should chain them down to it. Mr. GERRY wished that in future the eligibility might be...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 11th 1787

    08/11/2011 2:56:56 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 4 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VI Sections 7- 8. Journal. NYC. Capital of US. Money Bills. In Convention. Mr. MADISON & Mr. RUTLIDGE moved "that each House shall keep a journal of its proceeding, [FN1] & shall publish the same from time to time; except such part of the proceedings of the Senate, when acting not in its Legislative capacity as may be judged by that House to require secrecy." Mr. MERCER. This implies that other powers than legislative will be given to the Senate which he hoped would not be given. Mr. Madison & Mr. R's motion. was disagd. to by all the...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 10th 1787

    08/10/2011 2:34:14 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 7 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article VI Sections 1- 7. Property Qualifications. The $100,000 President. Rich Rogues. Quorums. Compel Attendance. Free Speech. Expulsion. Journal. In Convention. Art. VI. Sect. 2. [FN1], [FN2] taken up. Mr. PINKNEY. The Committee as he had conceived were instructed to report the proper qualifications of property for the members of the Natl. Legislature; instead of which they have referred the task to the Natl. Legislature itself. Should it be left on this footing, the first Legislature will meet without any particular qualifications of property: and if it should happen to consist of rich men they might fix such such qualifications...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 9th 1787

    08/09/2011 2:44:28 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 6 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article IV Sections 6-7. Article V. Article VI Section 1. Senate Vacancies. More Money Bills and Senate Suffrage. Immigration & Citizenship. Times, Places and Manners. In Convention. Art: IV. Sect. 6. [FN1], [FN2] Mr. RANDOLPH expressed his dissatisfaction at the disagreement yesterday to Sect. 5. concerning money bills, as endangering the success of the plan, and extremely objectionable in itself; and gave notice that he should move for a reconsideration of the vote. Mr. WILLIAMSON said he had formed a like intention. Mr. WILSON, gave notice that he shd. move to reconsider the vote, requiring seven instead of three years...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 8th 1787

    08/08/2011 2:29:00 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 4 replies · 1+ views
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Article IV Sections 1-5. Resident or Inhabitant. Representation in First House. King Speech on Slaves, Taxes, and Exports. Forty Thousand. Why Worry? Morris & Accursed Slavery. In Convention. Art: IV. Sect. I. [FN1], [FN2] -Mr. MERCER expressed his dislike of the whole plan, and his opinion that it never could succeed. Mr. GHORUM. he had never seen any inconveniency [FN3] from allowing such as were not freeholders to vote, though it had long been tried. The elections in Phila. N. York & Boston where the Merchants, & Mechanics vote are at least as good as those made by freeholders only....
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 7th 1787

    08/07/2011 3:24:17 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 4 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Report of the Committee of Detail, Preamble Through Article IV Section 1. Presidential Election by Joint or Separate Sessions of Congress? Annual Sessions. Legislating Too Much. Inquisitorial Powers. Travel Weather. Broad Legislative Powers? Freeholders. Voting Franchise. Dickinson & Morris on Suffrage. Taxation and Representation. Madison’s Prediction. Franklin Speech. American v. British Sailors. In Convention. The Report of the Committee of detail being taken up, Mr. PINKNEY moved that it be referred to a Committee of the whole. This was strongly opposed by Mr. GHORUM & several others, as likely to produce unnecessary delay; and was negatived. Delaware Maryd & Virga...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention August 6th 1787

    08/06/2011 3:39:53 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 2 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    First Draft of Constitution. In Convention. Mr. John Francis Mercer from Maryland took his seat. Mr. RUTLIDGE delivered in the Report of the Committee of detail as follows: a printed copy being at the same time furnished to each member: "We the people of the States of New Hampshire, Massachussetts, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia, do ordain, declare, and establish the following Constitution for the Government of Ourselves and our Posterity. ARTICLE I The stile of the Government shall be, "The United States of America" II The Government shall consist...
  • Federal Convention Committee of Detail July 27th to August 6th 1787

    07/27/2011 2:27:02 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Various | Various
    The Convention adjourned yesterday in order for the Committee of Detail to smooth the resolutions passed to date. Members will reconvene on August 6th. Experienced Constitution writers and legal theorists composed the Committee. There were two Northerners, Nathaniel Gorham & Judge Oliver Ellsworth, two Southerners in Governor Edmund Randolph and former Governor John Rutlidge and a Middle Statesman in the Scots born James Wilson. All were of the Nationalist bent; no small state advocates like Luther Martin or William Paterson were there. Very little is known of the proceedings of the committee. George Mason’s great granddaughter found some of the...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 26th 1787

    07/26/2011 2:56:53 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Seven Ways to Elect an Executive. Term Limits. Property Requirements. Appointment by National Legislature to Single Seven Year Term. Virtuous Voters. Landed Debt. Seat of Government. Resolutions Submitted to Committee of Detail. In Convention. Col. [FN1] MASON. In every Stage of the Question relative to the Executive, the difficulty of the subject and the diversity of the opinions concerning it have appeared. Nor have any of the modes of constituting that department been satisfactory. 1. [FN2] It has been proposed that the election should be made by the people at large; that is that an act which ought to be...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 25th 1787

    07/25/2011 2:19:36 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Executive Electors. Foreign Influence and Bribes. Madison Speech and Popular Election. More National v. State Legislature v. Popular Election Debate. In Convention. [FN1] Clause relating to the Executive [FN2] again under consideration. Mr. ELSEWORTH moved "that the Executive be appointed by the Legislature," except when the magistrate last chosen shall have continued in office the whole term for which he was chosen, & be reeligible, in which case the choice shall be by Electors appointed by the Legislatures of the States for that purpose." By this means a deserving magistrate may be reelected without making him dependent on the Legislature....
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 24th 1787

    07/24/2011 2:36:51 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Executive Electors. Twenty Year President. Single or Multiple Executives. How Many Terms? Impeachment. State Legislatures or Congressional Appointment. G. Morris Speech. Roll the Dice. Committee of Detail. Pinckney and NJ/Patterson Plans Discharged. In Convention. The appointment of the Executive by Electors [FN1] reconsidered. Mr. HOUSTON moved that he be appointed by the "Natl. Legislature," instead of "Electors appointed by the State Legislatures" according to the last decision of the mode. He dwelt chiefly on the improbability, that capable men would undertake the service of Electors from the more distant States. Mr. SPAIGHT seconded the motion. Mr. GERRY opposed it. He...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 23rd 1787

    07/23/2011 2:44:54 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 5 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Amendments. Oaths. Mason Speech on Popular Ratification. Retained Powers. Secession. Ratification by Legislatures. G. Morris, Madison and Judicial Review. Oaths to State Constitutions. Two Senators per State. Per Capita Voting. Executive Electors. Export Taxation Ban. In Convention. Mr. John Langdon & Mr. Nicholas Gilman from N. Hampshire, took their seats. Resoln.: 17. [FN1] that provision ought to be made for future amendments of the articles of Union, [FN2] agreed to, nem. con. Resoln. 18. [FN3] "requiring the Legis: Execut: & Judy. of the States to be bound by oath to support the articles of Union," [FN2] taken into consideration. Mr....
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 21st 1787

    07/21/2011 2:48:12 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 5 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Judicial Veto and Judicial Review. Madison & G. Morris Speeches. Strength to Veto Bad Bills. Transfer Payments, Remission of Debt. Executive Veto, Two Thirds Override. Executive nomination of Judges w/Senatorial veto. Luther Martin, George Mason and Judicial Review. What is Proper Law? Senatorial Appointment of Judges. In Convention. Mr. WILLIAMSON moved that the Electors of the Executive should be paid out of the National Treasury for the Service to be performed by them." Justice required this: as it was a national service they were to render. The motion was agreed to Nem. Con. Mr. WILSON moved as an amendment to...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 20th 1787

    07/20/2011 2:35:10 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 7 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Presidential Electors. How Many? Impeachment. Separation of Powers. Statholder. Mr. Morris & Impeachable Offenses. Executive Salary. In Convention. The postponed [FN1] Ratio of Electors for appointing the Executive; to wit 1 for each State whose inhabitants do not exceed 100,000, [FN2] &c. being taken up. Mr. MADISON observed that this would make in time all or nearly all the States equal. Since there were few that would not in time contain the number of inhabitants intitling them to 3 Electors: that this ratio ought either to be made temporary, or so varied as that it would adjust itself to the...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 19th 1787

    07/19/2011 5:38:44 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 1 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Popular Presidential Elections. Multiple Terms. Biennial Elections. President for Life. State Electors. Separation of Powers by Madison. North v. South Popular Suffrage. Elbridge Gerry Speech – State Governors Appoint Electors. State Legislatures Appoint Electors. Six Year Terms. In Convention. On reconsideration of the vote rendering the Executive re-eligible a 2d. time, Mr. MARTIN moved to reinstate the words, "to be ineligible a 2d. time." Mr. GOVERNEUR MORRIS. It is necessary to take into one view all that relates to the establishment of the Executive; on the due formation of which must depend the efficacy & utility of the Union among...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 18th 1787

    07/18/2011 2:46:41 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 3 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Judiciary. Advise and Consent. Compensation of Judges. Inferior Courts. Jurisdiction. Continuation of Government. Republican Government Guarantee. Rebellions. In Convention On motion of Mr. L. Martin to fix tomorrow for reconsidering the vote concerning "eligibility of Exective. [FN1] a 2d. time" it passed in the affirmative. Mas. ay. Cont. ay. N. J. absent. Pa. ay. Del. ay. Md. ay. Va. ay. N. C. ay. S. C. ay. Geo. absent. [FN2] The residue of Resol. 9 [FN3] concerning the Executive was postpd. till tomorrow. Resol. 10. [FN4] that Executive shl. have a right to negative legislative acts not afterwards passed by 2/3...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 17th 1787

    07/17/2011 2:57:56 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 18 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Sixth Resolution. Taxation. Requisitions. Congressional Veto of State Law. Roger Sherman, James Madison, Governeur Morris & Judicial Review. Congressionally Elected Executive. Term Limits. President for life. In Convention Mr. GOVERNR. MORRIS. moved to reconsider the whole Resolution agreed to yesterday concerning the constitution of the 2 branches of the Legislature. His object was to bring the House to a consideration in the abstract of the powers necessary to be vested in the general Government. It had been said, Let us know how the Govt. is to be modelled, and then we can determine what powers can be properly given to...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 16th 1787

    07/16/2011 2:55:51 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 9 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    The Great Compromise. Initial House Apportionment. Enumerated Powers. Treatment of New States. Decennial Census. Three Fifths of Slaves. House Money Bills Unalterable by Senate. Equal Senatorial State Suffrage. Threat of Dissolution. In Convention. On the question for agreeing to the whole Report as amended & including the equality of votes in the 2d. branch. it passed in the Affirmative. Mas. divided Mr. Gerry, Mr. Strong, ay. Mr. King Mr. Ghorum no. Cont. ay. N.J.ay. Pena.no. Del.ay. Md.ay. Va.no. N.C. ay. Mr. Spaight no. S.C.no. Geo.no. [FN1] [Here enter the whole in the words entered in the Journal July 16] [FN2]...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 14th 1787

    07/14/2011 3:01:43 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 13 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Domination of New States. Dissolution. Equality of Senatorial State Suffrage. Rufus King Speech. National vs. Federal. In Convention. Mr. L. MARTIN called for the question on the whole report, including the parts relating to the origination of money bills, and the equality of votes in the 2d. branch. Mr. GERRY. wished before the question should be put, that the attention of the House might be turned to the dangers apprehended from Western States. He was for admitting them on liberal terms, but not for putting ourselves into their hands. They will if they acquire power like all men, abuse it....
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 13th 1787

    07/13/2011 2:45:53 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 10 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Taxation & Representation. Population, not Wealth Basis in First Branch. Morris Speech. Mississippi River.In Convention. It being moved to postpone the clause in the Report of the Committee of Eleven as to the originating of money bills in the [FN1] first branch, in order to take up the following "that in the 2d. branch each State shall have an equal voice." Mr. GERRY, moved to add as an amendment to the last clause agreed to by the House, "that from the first meeting of the Legislature of the U. S. till a census shall be taken all monies to be...
  • Journal of the Federal Convention July 12th 1787

    07/12/2011 2:40:14 AM PDT · by Jacquerie · 5 replies
    Avalon Project ^ | James Madison
    Taxation & Representation. Requisitions. Three-Fifths Rule. Census. In Convention. Mr. Govr. MORRIS moved to add to the clause empowering the Legislature to vary the Representation according to the principles of wealth & number [FN1] of inhabts. a "proviso that taxation shall be in proportion to Representation." Mr. BUTLER contended again that Representation Sd.. be according to the full number of inhabts. including all the blacks; admitting the justice of Mr. Govr. Morris's motion. Mr. MASON also admitted the justice of the principle, but was afraid embarrassments might be occasioned to the Legislature by it. It might drive the Legislature to...