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Keyword: stringtheory

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  • Universe's Expansion Rate Is Different Depending on Where You Look

    07/17/2018 7:33:25 AM PDT · by ETL · 39 replies
    Space.com ^ | July 13, 2018 | Elizabeth Howell, Space.com Contributor
    Our universe's rate of expansion keeps getting stranger. New data continues to show a discrepancy in how fast the universe expands in nearby realms and more distant locations.  The study's researchers said this "tension" could mean we need to revise our understanding of the physics structuring the universe, which could include exotic elements such as dark matter and dark energy. New measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Gaia space telescope together showed that the rate of expansion nearby is 45.6 miles per second per megaparsec. This means that for every 3.3 million light-years a galaxy is farther away from...
  • MAP­PING THE EXOTIC MAT­TER IN­SIDE NEUT­RON STARS

    08/02/2016 8:05:32 PM PDT · by MtnClimber · 25 replies
    University of Helsinki ^ | 1 Aug, 2016 | MINNA MERILÄINEN-TENHU
    Do neutron stars contain exotic matter in the form of dense deconfined quark matter? Scientists performed the first accurate determination of the thermodynamic properties of dense quark matter under violent conditions that occur during neutron star mergers, and suggest a step towards distinguishing between neutron and quark matter cores in neutron stars. The recent detection of gravitational waves emitted by two merging black holes by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations has opened up a new observational window into the cosmos. Future observations of similar mergers between two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole may revolutionize what...
  • Scientists capture mysterious 'ghost particle' in a giant ice cube...changes how we see the universe

    07/13/2018 12:09:03 PM PDT · by ETL · 38 replies
    The Sun ^ | July 13, 2018 | Sean Keach, Digital Technology and Science Editor
    It will let researchers study distant energy sources across the universe in "a completely new way" SCIENTISTS have captured a ghost-like subatomic particle on Earth, helping to solve a mystery baffling scientists for 100 years. The so-called "ghost particle" was trapped by researchers in a giant ice cube at the South Pole. It's actually a high-energy neutrino, and is the first of its type ever detected by scientists. Importantly, researchers believe they've tracked its likely source: a supermassive black hole that emits light and cosmic rays. The black hole is roughly four billion light years away, at the centre of...
  • The Large Hadron Collider Is Getting an Upgrade

    06/15/2018 7:29:16 PM PDT · by Eddie01 · 16 replies
    gizmodo ^ | Jun 15, 2018 | Ryan F. Mandelbaum
    Today, workers at the world’s largest atom smasher are breaking ground on a performance-enhancing upgrade that will allow scientists to conduct even bigger and better physics experiments. The upgrade will turn the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland into the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). The upgrade will allow the machine to collide even more particles, potentially helping physicists see new stuff. “The HL-LHC will enable us to do many things, opening many unexplored areas of research,” Rebeca Gonzalez Suarez, a postdoc research associate at CERN, told Gizmodo in an email. The Large Hadron Collider is essentially two 16-mile-round rings...
  • New form of matter may lie just beyond the periodic table

    06/15/2018 12:24:58 PM PDT · by Red Badger · 51 replies
    phys.org ^ | 06/15/2018 | by Lisa Zyga
    Currently, the heaviest element on the periodic table is oganesson, which has an atomic mass of 294 and was officially named in 2016. Like every element on the periodic table, nearly all of oganesson's mass comes from protons and neutrons (types of baryons) that are themselves made of three quarks each. A crucial feature of all known baryonic matter is that its quarks are bound together so tightly by the strong force that they are inseparable. As particles made of bound quarks (such as protons and neutrons) are called hadrons, scientists refer to the ground state of baryonic matter as...
  • Who gets their mass from the Higgs?

    06/04/2018 4:23:21 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 20 replies
    phys.org ^ | June 4, 2018, | A. M. Sirunyan
    The Higgs field is like an endless ocean through which all matter swims. Some particles are like sponges and sop up mass as they lumber along, while others are as sprightly as tiny minnows and dart right through. … "We know that the Higgs interacts with massive force-carrying particles, like the W boson, because that's how we originally discovered it," said scientist Patty McBride ... "Now we're trying to understand its relationship with fermions." Fermions are particles that click together to form the invisible scaffolding inside atoms. Bosons, on the other hand, are the physical manifestation of forces and perform...
  • The Next Big Discovery in Astronomy? We Probably Found It Years Ago...

    06/03/2018 9:18:47 AM PDT · by LibWhacker · 27 replies
    Space.com ^ | 6/3/18 | Eileen Meyer
    The Next Big Discovery in Astronomy? We Probably Found It Years Ago — But Don't Know It Yet By Eileen Meyer, University of Maryland, Baltimore County | June 3, 2018 08:44am ET MORE An artist's illustration of a black hole "eating" a star.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech This article was originally published at The Conversation. The publication contributed the article to Space.com's Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights. Earlier this year, astronomers stumbled upon a fascinating finding: Thousands of black holes likely exist near the center of our galaxy. The X-ray images that enabled this discovery weren't from some state-of-the-art new telescope. Nor were...
  • Coming to Grips with the Implications of Quantum Mechanics

    06/02/2018 5:57:58 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 74 replies
    Scientific American ^ | May 29, 2018 | Bernardo Kastrup, Henry P. Stapp, Menas C. Kafatos on
    For almost a century, physicists have wondered whether the most counterintuitive predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) could actually be true. Only in recent years has the technology necessary for answering this question become accessible, enabling a string of experimental results—including startling ones reported in 2007 and 2010, and culminating now with a remarkable test reported in May—that show that key predictions of QM are indeed correct. Taken together, these experiments indicate that the everyday world we perceive does not exist until observed, which in turn suggests—as we shall argue in this essay—a primary role for mind in nature. It is...
  • 'Impossible' EmDrive Space Thruster May Really Be Impossible

    05/24/2018 7:31:11 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 43 replies
    Space.com ^ | May 23, 2018 02:54pm ET | Mike Wall,
    The laws of physics have won again, it would appear. For the past few years, researchers at NASA's Eagleworks advanced-propulsion lab have been putting a controversial and potentially revolutionary space engine called the EmDrive to the test. The EmDrive, which was originally developed by British scientist Roger Shawyer in the early 2000s, purportedly generates thrust by bouncing microwaves around inside a conical chamber. Because the engine doesn't require any fuel, it could theoretically make spaceflight far cheaper and more efficient, opening the heavens to exploration The EmDrive really shouldn't work. The engine doesn't blast anything out a nozzle, so Newton's...
  • The Pressure Inside Every Proton is 10x That Inside Neutron Stars

    05/21/2018 5:54:58 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 62 replies
    Universe Today ^ | 5/20/18 | Matt Williams
    The Pressure Inside Every Proton is 10x That Inside Neutron Stars Article written: 20 May , 2018 by Matt Williams Neutron stars are famous for combining a very high-density with a very small radius. As the remnants of massive stars that have undergone gravitational collapse, the interior of a neutron star is compressed to the point where they have similar pressure conditions to atomic nuclei. Basically, they become so dense that they experience the same amount of internal pressure as the equivalent of 2.6 to 4.1 quadrillion Suns!In spite of that, neutron stars have nothing on protons, according to a...
  • Astronomers find fastest-growing black hole known in space

    05/15/2018 1:58:52 PM PDT · by Red Badger · 28 replies
    phys.org ^ | May 15, 2018 | Australian National University
    A bright, supermassive black hole. Credit: NASA ______________________________________________________________________________ Astronomers at ANU have found the fastest-growing black hole known in the Universe, describing it as a monster that devours a mass equivalent to our sun every two days. The astronomers have looked back more than 12 billion years to the early dark ages of the Universe, when this supermassive black hole was estimated to be the size of about 20 billion suns with a one per cent growth rate every one million years. "This black hole is growing so rapidly that it's shining thousands of times more brightly than an...
  • The Search for Dark Matter Continues, More Than a Mile Underground

    05/10/2018 7:40:41 AM PDT · by C19fan · 60 replies
    Popular Mechanics ^ | May 9, 2018 | Jay Bennett
    For decades, astrophysicists have pondered the odd movements of galaxies across the cosmos. The visible matter of the universe appears to be tugged around by an invisible counterpart, material that does not interact with surrounding matter in any observable way save gravity: dark matter. Refined measurements have since led scientists to hypothesize that 85 percent of all the matter in the universe is dark matter, while only 15 percent accounts for you, me, the planet, the stars, and everything else we can see. It's a satisfactory explanation for our observations that has one major problem: a dark matter particle has...
  • Distorted neutron stars give up secrets of dense nuclear matter

    05/04/2018 6:28:20 PM PDT · by MtnClimber · 22 replies
    New insights into the properties of neutron stars have come from two independent analyses of gravitational waves from the GW170817 neutron-star merger. The work was done by teams led by Farrukh Fattoyev at Indiana University Bloomington and Eemeli Annala at the University of Helsinki. The teams used different methods to calculate the relationship between the radius and mass of neutron stars and came up with the same result. In October 2017 the LIGO and Virgo detectors made the first-ever observation of gravitational waves from two neutron stars as they spiralled into each other and then merged to form a black...
  • Cracks in the universe: the search for cosmic strings

    04/27/2018 10:23:31 AM PDT · by LibWhacker · 23 replies
    Cosmos Magazine ^ | April 2018 | Cathal O'Connell
    Cracks in the universe: the search for cosmic strings Galaxy-sized filaments of raw energy may be threaded through spacetime, according to some theories. Will we ever find traces of them? Cathal O’Connell takes up the hunt. Share Tweet Tatyun / Getty Images Our universe exploded into being, expanded at a fantastic speed and cooled. Perhaps too quickly. Some physicists believe the rapid cooling might have cracked the fabric of the universe.These hairline fractures may still be threaded through space-time. Dubbed cosmic strings, mathematical models see them as invisible threads of pure energy, thinner than an atom but light-years long. The...
  • Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss' 241st Birthday Honored With a Google Doodle. [tr]

    04/30/2018 5:08:14 AM PDT · by C19fan · 17 replies
    Time ^ | April 30, 2018 | Laignee Barron
    A German mathematician, physicist and astronomer, Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss rose from humble origins to become one of the world’s greatest minds. Born in 1777 in Brunswick, then part of the Holy Roman Empire, Gauss was the only child of poor parents who had received little or no formal education. His mother was illiterate. But when Gauss started school at age seven, he was quickly recognized as a child prodigy who could solve complex math problems in his head. While still a teenager, Gauss became the first person to prove the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, a math theory to determine...
  • 12 Hilariously Wrong Tech Predictions

    04/28/2018 4:52:10 PM PDT · by SeekAndFind · 78 replies
    INC ^ | 04/28/2018 | Jessica Stillman
    Is Bitcoin a greed-driven fad or will the blockchain technology that underlies it revolutionize the internet? Will artificial intelligence produce a world of ease and plenty or turn on us and kill us all? Is that jet pack you always wanted arriving any day now, or basically never?There are no shortage of people who make their livings by claiming to have answers to these questions. You should probably meet their claims with a healthy dose of skepticism.Futurists aren't all snake oil salesmen, of course, and it's sensible for both individuals and businesses to think ahead and develop contingency plans for possible future...
  • Should Quantum Anomalies Make Us Rethink Reality?

    04/27/2018 12:52:16 AM PDT · by LibWhacker · 52 replies
    Scientific American ^ | 4/19/18 | Bernardo Kastrup
    Every generation tends to believe that its views on the nature of reality are either true or quite close to the truth. We are no exception to this: although we know that the ideas of earlier generations were each time supplanted by those of a later one, we still believe that this time we got it right. Our ancestors were naïve and superstitious, but we are objective—or so we tell ourselves. We know that matter/energy, outside and independent of mind, is the fundamental stuff of nature, everything else being derived from it—or do we? In fact, studies have shown that...
  • Big Bang, Big Claim: Why This Bold Idea Is Right

    04/24/2018 10:57:04 AM PDT · by ETL · 89 replies
    Space.com ^ | Apr 21, 2018 | Paul Sutter, Astrophysicis | LiveScience
    At 13.8 billion years ago, our entire observable universe was the size of a peach and had a temperature of over a trillion degrees. That's a pretty simple, but very bold statement to make, and it's not a statement that's made lightly or easily. Indeed, even a hundred years ago, it would've sounded downright preposterous, but here we are, saying it like it's no big deal. But as with anything in science, simple statements like this are built from mountains of multiple independent lines of evidence that all point toward the same conclusion — in this case, the Big Bang,...
  • "We Truly Don't Know What It Is" --Mystery Milky-Way Spectrum of Light Observed...

    04/18/2018 12:04:23 AM PDT · by LibWhacker · 34 replies
    "We Truly Don't Know What It Is" --Mystery Milky-Way Spectrum of Light Observed 'Not Produced By Any Known Emission' April 17, 2018   "We use special telescopes to catch X-ray light in the sky, and while looking at these X-rays, the telescopes noticed an unexpected feature and captured a spectrum of light, which is not produced by any known atomic emission," said University of Miami astrophysicist Nico Cappelluti. "This emission line is now called the 3.5 kiloelectron volt (keV). One interpretation of this emission line is that it's produced by the decay of dark matter." "This 3.5 keV emission line is...
  • Models of star and galaxy cluster formation incorrect

    12/05/2017 9:12:07 PM PST · by MtnClimber · 17 replies
    Cosmos Magazine ^ | 05 Dec, 2017 | LAUREN FUGE
    The dominant explanation of the formation of star and galaxy clusters is flawed and misrepresents the nature of time, a team of Brazilian researchers claim, in a new study that uses simulations to explain a long-standing paradox in a process called ‘violent relaxation’. Clusters of stars and galaxies are tight groups of celestial bodies shackled together by gravity. Star clusters contain up to one million stars with a common origin and are up to 30 light-years across, while collections of galaxies are among the largest structures in the Universe, composed of up to 1000 galaxies with a mass of a...