Skip to comments.U. S. AND BRITAIN FREEZE JAPANESE ASSETS; OIL SHIPMENTS AND SILK IMPORTS HALTED (7/26/41)
Posted on 07/26/2011 5:20:44 AM PDT by Homer_J_Simpson
#1 - Daddy - Sammy Kaye, with the Kaye Choir
#2 - Maria Elena - Jimmy Dorsey, with Bob Eberly
#3 Green Eyes - Jimmy Dorsey, with Bob Eberly and Helen OConnell
#4 - The Hut-Sut Song Horace Heidt, with Donna & her Don Juans
#5 The Hut-Sut Song Freddy Martin, With Eddie Stone
#6 - Yes Indeed! - Tommy Dorsey, with Jo Stafford and Sy Oliver
#7 - Yours Jimmy Dorsey, with Bob Eberly
#8 - Goodbye Dear, Ill be Back in a Year Horace Heidt, with Ronnie Kemper and Donna Wood
#9 - Til Reveille - Kay Kyser, with Harry, Ginny, Jack, & Max
#10 - My Sister And I - Jimmy Dorsey, with Bob Eberly
Japanese assets frozen in US and UK
Saturday, July 26, 1941 www.onwar.com
In Britain and the United States... Japanese assets in the United States and Britain are frozen.
July 26th, 1941
UNITED KINGDOM: London: People are flocking to ‘Target for Tonight’, a new, authentic kind of war film made by Harry Watt and the film-makers of the Crown Film Unit (formed from the pre-war GPO film unit). The film is an understated, unemotional account of an RAF bombing mission over Germany by a Wellington bomber code-named “F for Freddie”.
The “actors” are real aircrew from Mildenhall airfield, in Suffolk, performing their real-life roles. After bombing the target in heavy flak, the plane is hit and has to limp home in dense fog. It is piloted by Squadron-Leader Pickard.
British notice of denunciation of commercial agreements with Japan and freezing of Japanese assets.
Minesweeper HMS Deloraine launched.
Corvette HMS Rockrose launched. (Dave Shirlaw)
FRANCE: The British ships HMS Cattistock, HMS Mendip and HMS Quorn bombard Dieppe.
U-116, U-134 commissioned.
U-251, U-437 launched. (Dave Shirlaw)
FINLAND: The Battle for Bengtskär. One of the epic small unit actions of WWII (Cris Wetton)
POLAND: Vilna: This morning the Germans arrested members of the ghetto’s Judenrat [Jewish council]. They demanded five million roubles for their release, of which two million must be found by tomorrow morning. Failure to pay will mean their execution.
As the news spreads through the ghetto, the Jewish community is trying desperately to raise the money to save their lives. Men are donating watches and women jewellery.
PORTUGAL: In Lisbon the transport USS West Point (AP-23, ex SS America), embarks American and Chinese diplomatic personnel and their families from consulates in Germany, German-occupied countries and Italy and sets sails for the New York. Also on board are 21 US ambulance drivers who had been passengers on the Egyptian ship SS ZAMZAM which had been sunk the German auxiliary cruiser ATLANTIS on 17 April. (Jack McKillop)
MALTA: Italian E-boats’ make an intrepid attempt to penetrate Grand Harbour and Marsamxett and destroy ships in harbour and submarine base at Manoel Island. Radar cover effective. Guns from St Elmo and Ricasoli in action. Coastal batteries and Hurricanes later engage. Force wiped out. Eighteen Italians taken prisoner.
MEDITERRANEAN SEA: Submarine HMS Cachalot rammed and sunk NW of Benghazi by Italian torpedo boat Generale Achille Papa. (Dave Shirlaw)
CANADA: Fairmile depot ships HMCS Preserver and Provider ordered Marine Industries Ltd, Sorel, Province of Quebec.
Corvette HMCS Weyburn launched Port Arthur, Ontario. (Dave Shirlaw)
U.S.A.: Roosevelt incorporates the armed forces of the Philippines into the US Army and sends General Douglas MacArthur to take up the command of US forces in the Far East. MacArthur says that he is confident that the Philippines can be defended if war should spread to the Far East.
US General MacArthur recalled to duty as a Lieutenant General and is appointed Commander of USAFFE (US Army Forces in the Far East, a name MacArthur detested — he had wanted the new command known as the Far East Command). The Army of the Commonwealth of the Philippines is called into Federal service contemporaneously.
MacArthur continues as military advisor to the Philippine President. MacArthur upon learning of the mobilization of the Philippine National Army but before learning of his own recall to active duty and of the creation of USAFFE, requests payment of the stipend of $50 per soldier serving in the Philippine National Army . This was provided for in his contract with the Commonwealth Government and had been approved by both Secretary of War Dern and President Roosevelt in 1936.
The money was paid to MacArthur on Corregidor during the siege. A few other US Army officers had similar arrangements with the Commonwealth but one of them, Dwight Eisenhower, declined to accept his payment. (Marc Small)
Washington: In an executive order issued last night Roosevelt brought all financial transactions involving Japanese interests under the control of the US government. In effect freezing Japanese assets worth at least GBP 33 million. This is in response to the Japanese occupation of northern French Indochina on 24 July.
He has also closed the Panama Canal to Japanese ships.
Today the British treasury and Dutch governments announced similar restrictions on all orders affecting Japanese holdings in Britain and the Dominions. By request of the Chinese government, the freeze is also applied to Chinese assets in order to thwart Japanese attempts to abuse its position as the occupier of key Chinese financial centres.
At a stroke, Japan has lost
88% of its oil imports and most of its supply of wheat, cotton, zinc, iron ore, bauxite and manganese. Its two biggest export markets, for GBP55 million worth if silk to the US and GBP40 million worth of cotton cloth to Britain, have disappeared.
Japan hit back by freezing US and British assets in Japan. These are believed to be small.
JULY 26, 1941, MESSAGE TEXTS:
a) (MARSHALL to MacARTHUR):
EFFECTIVE THIS DATE THERE IS HEREBY CONSTITUTED A COMMAND DESIGNATED AS THE UNITED STATES ARMY FORCES IN THE FAR EAST STOP THIS COMMAND WILL INCLUDE THE PHILIPPINE DEPARTMENT COMMA FORCES OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES CALLED INTO THE SERVICE OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE PERIOD OF THE EXISTING EMERGENCY COMMA AND SUCH OTHER FORCES AS MAY BE ASSIGNED TO IT STOP HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES ARMY FORCES IN THE FAR EAST WILL BE ESTABLISHED IN MANILA COMMA PHILIPPINE ISLANDS STOP YOU ARE HEREBY DESIGNATED AS COMMANDING GENERAL COMMA UNITED STATES ARMY FORCES IN THE FAR EAST STOP YOU ARE ALSO DESIGNED AS THE GENERAL OFFICER UNITED STATES ARMY REFERRED TO IN A MILITARY ORDER CALLING INTO THE SERVICE OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES THE ORGANIZED FORCES OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES DATED JULY 26 COMMA 1941 STOP ORDERS CALLING YOU TO ACTIVE DUTY ARE BEING ISSUED EFFECTIVE JULY 26 COMMA 1941 STOP REPORT ASSUMPTION OF COMMAND BY RADIO END.
b) (MARSHALL TO GRUNERT):
THE PRESIDENT HAS ISSUED A MILITARY ORDER THIS DATE CALLING INTO THE SERVICE OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE PERIOD OF THE EXISTING EMERGENCY ALL OF THE ORGANIZED MILITARY FORCES OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES STOP
AA cruiser USS San Diego launched. (Dave Shirlaw)
SOUTH AMERICA: Peru and Ecuador declare a truce in the border war.
ATLANTIC OCEAN: At 0328, U-141 attacked Convoy OS-1 and Schüler thought the he has scored one hit on each of three ships. The first vessel was seen being abandoned, the second exploded and the third, which had four masts, was seen to develop a heavy list. In fact, the Botwey was sunk and the damaged Atlantic City was abandoned, but later reboarded and salvaged. (Dave Shirlaw)
>>> AA cruiser USS San Diego launched.
The San Diego was a light cruiser-one of four of the Atlanta class-and the only one of her sisters to survive the war unscathed. The San Diego steamed over 300,000 nautical miles, engaged the enemy on 34 different occasions, and never lost a man. She earned 18 battle stars for her World War 11 service, more than any other Navy ship except for the carrier Enterprise.
In recognition of her battle record, Admiral Halsey designated the San Diego to be the first allied warship to enter Tokyo Bay at the war’s end.
That's a happy crew.
Thanks for the contributions, Viiksitimali.
It was interesting to read your posts today and see the songs that were the hits. I remember them well but the war articles were as new to me. I was 15 that summer. Perhaps as parallel to today that just shows the interests of teens. Music was all that mattered. In spite of discussions by our elders, the war, soon to visit us at Pearl Harbor, was very remote. I played baseball for the town, our coach/manager sang all the words of Maria Elena at every game. We knew the words to all the hits, today I would not even attempt that. Today it seems more solo dance than sing along, although the big band era was in full swing. Anyway thanks for all your efforts to highlight this era. A country that remembers the past is ready for the future.
Anxious Japanese on West Coast Form Long Lines at Bank Windows
................. From some forty Japanese vessels said to be hovering at sea awaiting developments before venturing into American ports, there was no word except form the Japanese luxury liner Tatuta Maru, which informed her office in port site would be in at 5am tomorrow with here $2,500,000 cargo of silk. Later ship line officials said they did not know what the vessel would do.
Part of this reason might be to take Japansese back to the homeland?
And thus, the die was cast for War in the Pacific.
I really enjoy these posts. Thank you.
-———Some papers examined at great length the effect that the threatened American embargoes would have on Japanese war efforts and came to the conclusion that they would hurt the United State with out being able to stop Japan. This is true, Yomiuri claimed, even in regard to oil because the United Sates long since had put high octane gasoline under license to that only low grade fuel was exported to Japan anyhow. And as for Japan's silk exports, the cessation of which to American be be expect to hit Japanese economy, this paper assert that those exports were made merely to pay for imports so that the embargoes would relieve Japan of necessity to export silk.
In the very recent posts it was Japan doing a communication black out and now we do trade embargo and freeze assets. Freezing assets is a major step toward war. But the die was cast, the only unknown was when and how we were going to war. This goes to show that embargoes don't really do much do they? Can anyone cite me when an embargo did work? But you have to do something..................
It means an end to Japan's great silk market in the United States unless Japan would be will to to ship this important product into an area where payments would be subjects to rigid licensing by an unfriendly government.
So far as silk is concerned, the United States suffers, but it is well known in Washington that the Army and Navy have been planning to use substitutes for silks, as in parachutes, wherever possible. This substitution's extent will be governed by the amount of stocks of silk that have been bought in anticipation of the new program.
Work for what?
If, like President Roosevelt, you are now desperate to get the US into the all-out war, then an embargo against an aggressive and hot-headed country like Japan could be a step in that direction.
But it was far from the only step FDR took.
Commander McCollum's Eight Action Plan included seven others -- all intended to poke and prod the excitable Japanese into some fatal "mistake."
Your points are valid, but as I look through history, you can almost see the “invisible hand”. War with Japan was going to happen no matter what FDR did. I maybe wrong, at best it could be deferred or changed to a degree. It appears to me FDR saw it coming and prepared for it. I am not an FDR fan in any respect but just like today, we can see the crap storm coming and at best we can prepare for it but we can’t avoid it.
Very interesting. So many small battles, that become part of the major conflict.
If at first you don’t succeed [starting a war with the Germans], try, try again[start a war with Japan].
Roosevelt’s actions in destroyers for bases, escorting British shipping, dividing the Atlantic into “defense” zones, trailing, radioing U-boat positions to the Brits,providing the co-pilot on the PBY that found the BISMARCK, constitute co-belligerency under international law. But Adolf didn’t bite.
SOOOO, you embargo Japan, a naval power with no oil of its own, from petroleum acquisitions, leaving it with one potential source, Indonesia [the raison d’etre for WW II in the Pacific], or withdrawing from not only Indochina, but China as well. Then you send that nation’s largest potential adversary, the U.S Pacific Fleet, from the West Coast to Pearl Harbor, despite the Navy’s reticence to do so.
There’s a difference between preparing for a war, and actively seeking one.
But at least old Franklin managed to hand the Japanese Navy all the trump cards in their argument with the Japanese Army over whether to go north [Siberia], or south [Indonesia], allowing the Soviets to pull their Far East armies west to face the Germans.So FDR quite possibly affected the outcome of WW II.
So you must have been 18 when you landed in France a few summers down the line, is that right?
War with Japan could easily have been avoided, if that was President Roosevelt's intention.
All he needed to do was agree with Japan's aims and goals.
If FDR had just maintained normal trade relations with Japan, supplied them all the oil they wanted, agreed to their conquest of China and take-over of Indo-China, then there need never have been a Japanese "mistake" putting the US into the war.
If FDR had even kept the US fleet in Los Angeles, as all his naval commanders advised him to, the Japanese would feel no need (and have no ability) to secure their flanks by attacking the US fleet, when Japan invaded towards raw materials in South Asia.
Indeed, if the US had remained friendly to Japan, the Japanese may well have seen that their first strategic interest was in helping their ally Hitler defeat Stalin's Soviet Union by attacking Soviet forces in Siberia.
Then the Axis powers would have won the war and forced Britain to accept peace on their terms.
But avoiding war was not FDR's goal.
Instead, his goal was to come to Britain's aid, just as the US did back when a handsome young FDR was President Woodrow Wilson's Assistant Secretary of the Navy, responsible for naval intelligence.
Now President, his basic problem was: Adolf Hitler's determination to avoid giving Roosevelt the same excuse Wilson had to declare war on Germany -- unlimited U-boat sinkings of US ships.
So what was FDR to do?
Well, if he could poke the Japanese hard enough, maybe they would solve his problem?
And that's what he did.
And that's what they did.
So you must have been 18 when you landed in France a few summers down the line, is that right?
ps I wasn’t interested in music anymore - war can concentrate the mind! Regards,
And thank God he did.
Whoops, I notice I posted one of my replies with photos to yesterday’s thread. Sorry about that-I’ll repost it again to today’s forum. Again, my apologies.
The Catholic Church had suffered atrociously during the Civil War. Thousands of priests had been assassinated and many thousands of religious buildings had been destroyed. The Vatican had qualified the war against the Popular Front as a 'Holy Crusade'. Therefore, although the neo-paganism of the Nazis was alarming for Spanish Catholics, it was still considered far preferable to the hatred inspired by the Soviet Union.
Other conservative groups in Spain were stupefied to see the United Kingdom ally itself with Stalin. Many of them, who until then would have preferred to see a British victory over Germany, changed their opinion when it became clear that the defeat of Germany would be a victory for Stalin.
So it was that the Blue Division arose with massive popular support from all those social and political groups who had supported the Nationalist Uprising of 18 July 1936.
For these sections of Spanish society, the campaign against the Soviet Union was the continuation of a war that had begun in Spain. Therefore, Spain could lay claim to the honour of being 'the first country to defeat communism'. Because of this, it was felt, Spain could not fail to participate in some way in Operation Barbarossa.
This desire to fight communism was integral to the origins of the Blue Division and was given as the main justification for its existence.
Many of those who passed through its ranks also wanted to show their sympathy for the Third Reich. They admired its social and economic policies and wished to see similar ideas implanted in Spain. They also hoped that their presence in the campaign in Russia - a campaign it was assumed would end in victory - would result in Spain improving its international position.
Russia had never before been an enemy of Spain, but the Soviet Union was definitely considered an enemy by many Spaniards. Nothing obliged the Spanish to march to Russia to fight communism, but many thousands of them did: some 45,000 took part in that campaign. The profile of the typical soldier filling the ranks of the Blue Division can be perfectly defined from the beginning: volunteer and anticommunist.
Another casualty of Yelnya
German column heading eastward through The Ukraine-not far from the old Russo-Polish border. July 1941
Infantrymen board a small inflatable boat, which could carry three or four men. They are going to reconnoiter the far shore before the main body attempts to cross. One of the men aboard the boat is armed with a Czechoslovak 7.92mm vz.26 light machine-gun. Some German units were armed with this weapon in lieu of the MG34 machine-gun, which was in short supply. The Germans designated this weapon the MG26(t) or MG146U) depending on whether it was obtained from Czechoslovak or Yugoslavian stocks. It was fed by a 3D-round box magazine; the man about to board the boat is carrying a container with extra magazines.
No description or date but appears to be German mountain unit passing through a village (Ukraine?)
Another abandoned Soviet airfield outside Lvov.
Panzer troops interrogate a Soviet POW. The officer with his back to the camera wears a black panzer jacket while the German tank crewman center wears the mouse-gray "Trikot" shirt. The odds that the Red Army prisoner survived German captivity are very slim.
Traffic jam at a Luga River bridge in late August. The river is neither wide, with steep banks, nor fast flowing yet was obviously an obstacle. German pioneers have constructed a new bridge to the left.
A German soldier inspects a Soviet sniper's nest high in a tree. Snipers were such a threat in the heavily wooded north that the SS-Divison "Totenkopf" commander Theodor Eicke authorized division officers to remove rank insignia on Barbarossa's second day.
Exhausted German soldiers relax in the shade of a building. Unusually, the men appear to wear SS-pattern camouflaged helmet covers and smocks over their regular army tunics.
I can't agree with this statement either. The best case scenario would have only made the war start later.
Taking the Neville Chamberlain approach would have only emboldened the Japanese towards their next conquest. Likely if they wanted to avoid immediate war with the United States it would have been by joining their Axis partner by attacking the British. This would mean an attack on Singapore.
With Singapore gone, it would have opened the doors to the Dutch East Indies.
Eventually, the United States would have had to respond to this expansionism and the only way to stop it would have been war.
I think the prospect of Japan ever joining the Germans in an attack on the Soviets was never a realistic prospect. If it was they probably would have done so from the moment they reaffirmed the Tripartite Pact. I think the battle of Nomonhan really set the stage for that and Japan (and the Kwantung Army) wanted no part in fighting Soviet Siberian Divisions.
Of course, "what-if" history is tons of fun, since nobody can prove you wrong. ;-)
There is no evidence that Japan ever had designs on the United States itself.
Yes, the Philippines were "in the way" of Japanese expansion towards the Dutch East Indies, but that is just the kind of thing the Japanese were willing to negotiate: in exchange for a non-aggression treaty between the US and Japan, the US stands aside while Japan takes over the Dutch oil-rich colonies, and Japan doesn't touch the Philippines.
So what happens later -- after Germany conquered all of Europe and Soviet Russia, after Japan conquered China and all of South Asia -- how well does the US get along with the victorious German and Japanese empires?
Or is there some eventual new war, when they attack America itself?
Well, I don't see Japan ever seriously invading the US mainland.
But Hitler's Germany is a different matter.
Every military victory only increased his appetite for more victories.
And Germany's military had contingency plans to invade the US going back before the First World War.
So there's no telling...
On the other hand, Hitler was in increasingly deteriorating health, unlikely to survive much longer, even without his suicide.
So Germany would have a new leader in, say, 1946 or 1947.
Would the new German leadership be eager to make peace with the new US President, Harry Truman?
Hard to say, but my point is, I think President Roosevelt did exactly the right things in preparing the US for war, and leading us into it.
In general, I don't see how he could have done a better job of it.
My complaints are along these lines:
Think about that: thanks to the diligent efforts of FDR, J Edgar Hoover and others, so far as we know, there were no, zero, German of Japanese spies in the program, but it was literally crawling with Communist spies, who kept Uncle Joe fully informed of every development.
The German officer facing the camera [in the overcoat] in the sixth picture is, I believe, Guenther von Kluge.
Soviet KV taken out by German infantry
German recce unit enters Ukrainian village in early August 1941
Soviet prisoners head west from Uman area of the Ukraine.
German listening post somewhere in White Russia.
German unit in the Uman area of the Ukraine.1941
Photo with a description of "ambush" and date of July, 1941. Appears to be a German in the foreground.
Great pictures as always Larry.
Note my response to PeterPrinciple, I think it answers most of your points.
Remember, the Japanese negotiated in pretty good faith as long as they believed a peaceful solution was possible.
So if FDR had offered the Japanese a non-aggression treaty, wherein the US fleet returns to permanent station in Los Angeles, and US forces in the Philippines stand aside while Japan has it's way with French, British and Dutch colonies, the President could have bought us several more years of "peace."
After that, who knows, it's all speculation, but we know Roosevelt died in early 1945, and Hitler was in very poor health, so by 1950 at the latest, there would be a wholly new cast of characters, and who might they be?
But please don't misunderstand my speculations here -- I think President Roosevelt did exactly the right things (with some exceptions I've mentioned), and deserves all the credit for America's success in the war.
Imho, FDR did exactly the right things -- only trying to point out that he did have other, at least somewhat viable options.
True, but then again, hindsight is 20/20.
I read what you wrote to PeterPrinciple, and I just don’t agree. The Japanese only negotiated for terms that fit their designs on putting Asia and the West Pacific Rim under one Asian pagoda. The best FDR could have done different was bye some time. War would happen. Even if we had done nothing as Japan moved into the Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, the Philippines would eventually become a target. The Japanese knew that the only force that could get in the way of their designs on Asia was the United States Navy. It really was the only show in town outside the IJN and IJA.
Had FDR offered a non-aggression treaty where the fleet would return to its permanent station in San Diego (not Los Angeles, the fleet was based in San Diego prior to 1940’s move to Pearl) it would have bought him some time, but not very much. At best I would say about 2 years, but with carte blanc in the Pacific, I’d bet the Japanese would have stepped up their timetable for conquest of the South Pacific.
I would have said the same thing, until seeing this recent FR post:
San Pedro, Los Angeles port district:
"United States Navy Battle Fleet Home Port 19191940.
In 1888, the War Department took control of a tract of land next to the bay and added to it in 1897 and 1910.
This became Fort MacArthur in 1914 and was a coastal defense site for many years.
Woodrow Wilson transferred 200 United States Navy ships from the Atlantic to the Pacific in 1919 when tension arose between the United States and Japan over the fate of China.
San Diego was considered too shallow for the largest ships, so the battleships anchored in San Pedro Bay on 9 August 1919.
Local availability of fuel oil minimized transportation costs, and consistently good weather allowed frequent gunnery exercises off the nearby Channel Islands of California.
The heavy cruisers of the Scouting Force were transferred from the Atlantic to San Pedro in response to the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
By 1934, 14 battleships, 2 aircraft carriers, 14 cruisers, and 16 support ships were based at San Pedro.
On 1 April 1940, the Pacific Fleet battleships sailed to Hawaii for annual fleet exercises.
The battleships remained in the Hawaiian Islands to deter Japanese aggression until the Attack on Pearl Harbor.
San Pedro remained a popular port of call for Navy ships through World War II; but the battle fleet never returned.
Of course, this is all speculation, but lots of fun, so I'll play along... ;-)
Yes, we have the historical example of Adolf Hitler signing a non-aggression treaty with Stalin, a treaty that Stalin bent over backwards to fulfill his side of the bargain, and give Hitler no excuse to break it.
But Stalin's efforts proved futile, and Hitler invaded anyway, without warning.
So we know for certain that Hitler's promises were worthless and no treaty with him would have lasted any longer than he wanted it to.
Now my point in mentioning this is: we have no similar examples that I know of regarding Japan.
The example we do have -- Japan's non-aggression treaty with the Soviet Union -- both sides observed until August, 1945, after Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
So what I'm saying is: if President Roosevelt had offered the Japanese free reign in Asia and the Western Pacific, in exchange for the protection of, say, the Philippines and Australia, then the Japanese would have been happy to take that deal, and it would have bought us "peace" for much longer than two years.
Indeed, I'm inclined to think that would have totally satisfied the Japanese' ambitions, so the result would be not just years, but decades of "peace."
Of course, I'm not advocating that FDR should have done that -- far from it -- merely suggesting he could have.
I'm also stating factually that it is utterly impossible, given Roosevelt's nature and personal history, that he ever would have offered up such a deal.
Just consider, his family had made its wealth in China, so FDR was a China-phile and did not want to see it overrun by Japan.
Sorry, I should have included US Navy Vet, since it was his post, and I'd presume he vouches for its accuracy.
Here again is the link to US Navy Vet's post.
It's number 9 on the thread.
Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.