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Why Does Music Feel So Good?
National Geographic ^ | 4/11/2013 | Virginia Hughes

Posted on 04/14/2013 10:36:39 AM PDT by nickcarraway

One day several years ago Valorie Salimpoor took a drive that would change the course of her life. She was at the peak of what she now calls her “quarter-life crisis,” not knowing what kind of career she wanted or how she might use her undergraduate neuroscience training. Hoping an outing might clear her head, that day she jumped in her car and switched on the radio. She heard the charging tempo and jaunty, teasing violin of Johannes Brahms’s Hungarian Dance No. 5.

“This piece of music came on, and something just happened,” Salimpoor recalls. “I just felt this rush of emotion come through me. It was so intense.” She pulled over to the side of the street so she could concentrate on the song and the pleasure it gave her.

When the song was over, Salimpoor’s mind raced with questions. “I was thinking, wow, what just happened? A few minutes ago I was so depressed, and now I’m euphoric,” she says. “I decided that I had to figure out how this happened — that that’s what I’m going to do with the rest of my life.”

Music moves people of all cultures, in a way that doesn’t seem to happen with other animals. Nobody really understands why listening to music — which, unlike sex or food, has no intrinsic value — can trigger such profoundly rewarding experiences. Salimpoor and other neuroscientists are trying to figure it out with the help of brain scanners.

Yesterday, for example, researchers from Stanford reported that when listening to a new piece of classical music, different people show the same patterns of synchronized activity in several brain areas, suggesting some level of universal experience. But obviously no one’s experience is exactly the same. In today’s issue of Science, Salimpoor’s group reports that when you listen to a song for the first time, the strength of certain neural connections can predict how much you like the music, and that these preferences are guided by what you’ve heard and enjoyed in the past.

After Salimpoor had the car epiphany, she rushed home to her computer and Googled “music and the brain.” That led her to graduate school at McGill University, working in the lab of neuroscientist Robert Zatorre.

A few years ago, Salimpoor and Zatorre performed another type of brain scanning experiment in which participants listened to music that gave them goosebumps or chills. The researchers then injected them with a radioactive tracer that binds to the receptors of dopamine, a chemical that’s involved in motivation and reward. With this technique, called positron emission tomography or PET, the researchers showed that 15 minutes after participants listened to their favorite song, their brains flooded with dopamine.

The dopamine system is old, evolutionarily speaking, and is active in many animals during sex and eating. “But animals don’t get intense pleasures to music,” Salimpoor says. “So we knew there had to be a lot more to it.”

In the new experiment, the researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to track real-time brain activity as participants listened to the first 30 seconds of 60 unfamiliar songs. To quantify how much they liked the music, participants were given the chance to buy the full version of each song — with their own money! — using a computer program resembling iTunes. The program was set up like an auction, so participants would choose how much they were willing to spend on the song, with bids ranging from $0 to $2.

You can imagine how tricky it was to design this experiment. All of the participants had to listen to the same set of never-heard-before songs, and yet, in order to get enough useable data, there had to be a reasonable chance that they would like some of the songs enough to buy them.

Salimpoor began by giving 126 volunteers comprehensive surveys about their musical preferences. “We asked them to list all of the music they listen to, everything they like, everything they’ve ever bought,” Salimpoor says. She ultimately scanned 19 volunteers who had indicated similar preferences, mostly electronic and indy music. “In Montreal there’s a big indy scene,” she says.

To create the list of unfamiliar songs, Salimpoor first looked at songs and artists that showed up on many of the volunteers’ surveys. She plugged those choices into musical recommendation programs, such as Pandora and iTunes, to find similar but less well-known selections. She also asked people who worked at local music stores what new songs they’d recommend in those genres.

Here’s a sampling of 3 songs from the final list of 60:

The brain scans highlighted the nucleus accumbens, often referred to as the brain’s ‘pleasure center’, a deep region of the brain that connects to dopamine neurons and is activated during eating, gambling and sex. It turns out that connections between the nucleus accumbens and several other brain areas could predict how much a participant was willing to spend on a given song. Those areas included the amygdala, which is involved in processing emotion, the hippocampus, which is important for learning and memory, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which is involved in decision-making.

The data are “compelling,” especially because the study objectively quantified the participants’ preferences, notes Thalia Wheatley, a psychology professor at Dartmouth College who has studied links between music, motion and emotion. The emphasis on connectivity between regions, rather than any particular region by itself, is also intriguing, she says. ”Cortical activity alone does not predict bid value. Hooking up the temporal and evaluative processing in the cortex with the (more primitive) reward areas appears to be the key.”

So why is it that one person might spend $2 on a song while another pans it? Salimpoor says it all depends on past musical experiences. “Depending on what styles youre used to — Eastern, Western, jazz, heavy metal, pop — all of these have very different rules they follow, and they’re all implicitly recorded in your brain,” she says. “Whether you realize it or not, every time you’re listening to music, you’re constantly activating these templates that you have.”

Using those musical memory templates, the nucleus accumbens then acts as a prediction machine, she says. It predicts the reward that you’ll feel from a given piece of music based on similar types of music you’ve heard before. If you like it better than predicted, it registers as intense pleasure. If you feel worse than predicted, you feel bored or disappointed.

“New music is presumably rewarding not only because it fits implicitly learned patterns but because it deviates from those patterns, however slightly,” Wheatley says. But this finding leads to new questions. “It just made me wonder whether people have different preferences or tolerances for how much a new song deviates from the well-worn path of previously heard music structures.”

There are lots of other questions for future studies to probe. How does our brain make those musical templates? How long do we have to listen to a song before we know whether we like it? Why did my sister and I have such drastically different musical tastes growing up, even though our exposures were pretty much the same?

But for now the study has given Salimpoor a new way to think about what happened to her that day in the car. ”That day, it all seemed like such a big mystery — what the heck is happening in my brain?” she says. But if she heard the song again today, she’d be able to tell a reasonable story of her mind’s workings.

“I’d be like, oh my god I just released dopamine, and my nucleus accumbens is now communicating with the superior temporal gyrus, and that’s pulling up some other memories of when I was 12 and playing the violin,” she says, laughing. “And then that’s linking it to my visual centers, so I can imagine this perfect synchronized orchestra and me playing a violin in there. And I’d be predicting the next sounds from each instrument in the orchestra, and the whole orchestra, so it’s a local and global prediciton going on at the same time.”

Music, she says, is an intellectual reward. “It’s really an exercise for your whole brain.”


TOPICS: Health/Medicine; Music/Entertainment; Science
KEYWORDS:
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1 posted on 04/14/2013 10:36:39 AM PDT by nickcarraway
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To: nickcarraway

There is math and symmetry in music.


2 posted on 04/14/2013 10:52:03 AM PDT by blueunicorn6 ("A crack shot and a good dancer")
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To: blueunicorn6

i don’t feel good when i listen to Springsteen though hmmmm...


3 posted on 04/14/2013 10:53:55 AM PDT by max americana (fired liberals in our company after the election, & laughed while they cried (true story))
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To: nickcarraway; a fool in paradise; Slings and Arrows

In before John Cage 4’33’’

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTEFKFiXSx4


4 posted on 04/14/2013 10:54:24 AM PDT by Revolting cat! (Bad things are wrong! Ice cream is delicious!)
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To: nickcarraway
all relative, guess she's not old enough yet to have music that can bring tears to your eyes from long ago pain...
5 posted on 04/14/2013 11:01:04 AM PDT by Chode (Stand UP and Be Counted, or line up and be numbered - *DTOM* -ww- NO Pity for the LAZY)
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To: nickcarraway
I knew that, I just didn't know that I knew it!

Music = ear candy...

I think all music is wonderful with the proviso that "rap" is NOT music, it is a bestial chant which demeans both the performer and the listener.

Regards,
GtG

6 posted on 04/14/2013 11:06:48 AM PDT by Gandalf_The_Gray (I live in my own little world, I like it 'cuz they know me here.)
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To: nickcarraway

No Danny Gatton? No Hellecasters? Thbbbbtt.


7 posted on 04/14/2013 11:07:27 AM PDT by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ( Ya can't pick up a turd by the clean end!)
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To: Chode

Best post ever.


8 posted on 04/14/2013 11:08:57 AM PDT by Salamander (Like acid and oil on a madman's face, reason tends to fly away.....)
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To: blueunicorn6

There is math and symmetry in music.


Exactly !!!

The same way that there is math and symmetry in art and nature.

I would be curious if there were a type or style of music that “everybody likes”. Without fail, just a certain rhythm that “everybody” finds appealing.

Back in the 60’ or 70’s, a music producer discovered a beat or pattern that drove people crazy. It came out of the blues and was quickly adopted to disco and then destroyed.

Of course, the original beat will always exist, they just took it way to far.

I’m trying to recall the producer.


9 posted on 04/14/2013 11:26:37 AM PDT by Zeneta (No eternal reward will forgive us now for wasting the dawn.)
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To: Chode

I love Chicago. Peter Cetera is one of those singers who stirs up my emotions with that awesome voice of his.


10 posted on 04/14/2013 11:35:07 AM PDT by POWERSBOOTHEFAN (Causing trouble since 1976)
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To: nickcarraway

bump


11 posted on 04/14/2013 11:44:41 AM PDT by Skooz (Gabba Gabba we accept you we accept you one of us Gabba Gabba we accept you we accept you one of us)
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To: POWERSBOOTHEFAN
always liked CTA
12 posted on 04/14/2013 11:47:51 AM PDT by Chode (Stand UP and Be Counted, or line up and be numbered - *DTOM* -ww- NO Pity for the LAZY)
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To: Chode

Or that is a head rush of remembered joy or passion, as intense as when you first heard it-as if you could close your eyes and be in that moment again-your post says it all...


13 posted on 04/14/2013 11:49:06 AM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: nickcarraway

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1yiCyCvW4g


14 posted on 04/14/2013 11:51:05 AM PDT by timestax (AMERICAN MEDIA= DOMESTIC ENEMY)
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To: Chode

I grew up listening to the rock and country my parents mostly did-that hasn’t changed-it has just gotten louder...


15 posted on 04/14/2013 11:53:27 AM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: Texan5
music, as Salamander said, is a time machine

it can take you back in time to the best of times or the worst of times

16 posted on 04/14/2013 11:58:28 AM PDT by Chode (Stand UP and Be Counted, or line up and be numbered - *DTOM* -ww- NO Pity for the LAZY)
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To: max americana
>"i don’t feel good when i listen to Springsteen though hmmmm..."

Reminds me of when Watson forgets the Exlax.

17 posted on 04/14/2013 12:00:29 PM PDT by rawcatslyentist ("Behold, I am against you, O arrogant one," Jeremiah 50:31)
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To: nickcarraway
When I hear "Ode To Billy Joe", I am transported back to the town where our family's Fish Camp is located. I'm walking along a back road, by a creosote plant, and I can actually SMELL the creosote, as I'm listening to the song.

Isn't it amazing that music can do that?

18 posted on 04/14/2013 12:07:30 PM PDT by SuziQ
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To: blueunicorn6
There is math and symmetry in music.

That's probably why music is #6 of the seven liberal arts of classical antiquity:

  1. grammar
  2. rhetoric
  3. logic
  4. arithmetic
  5. geometry
  6. music
  7. astrology

19 posted on 04/14/2013 12:13:57 PM PDT by Fiji Hill
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To: Chode
Guess she's not old enough yet to have heard music that can bring tears to your eyes from long ago pain...

Like this one: Little Mother--Vaughn De Leath (1928)

20 posted on 04/14/2013 12:20:19 PM PDT by Fiji Hill
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To: SuziQ

For the better part of 20 years, when “I Can See Clearly Now” came on the radio, I’d change the station, leaving the kid staring at me.

The first time I heard it, I was young, in a full-on Latin fury, smashing the windows and grille of my fiancé’s new (parked) truck with a tire iron-I’d left the engine of my vehicle running-with the radio on-for a fast getaway. I really hated to relive that pain and rage, and I still have to grit my teeth ...


21 posted on 04/14/2013 12:28:01 PM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: Fiji Hill

Playing music also requires you to do two things at once. You must maintain the beat while playing the proper notes on your instrument. This is why some musicians are so arrogant, they actually can do two things at once. Kick in ad libbing, and the brain really has to work. The problem is, it’s just music. It doesn’t mean that musicians can handle three things at once in all areas. My personal experience has been that the truly great musicians must have too much brainpower dedicated to music and it leaves them weak in other areas.


22 posted on 04/14/2013 12:41:47 PM PDT by blueunicorn6 ("A crack shot and a good dancer")
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To: nickcarraway
A few years ago, Salimpoor and Zatorre performed another type of brain scanning experiment in which participants listened to music that gave them goosebumps or chills.

Intro of Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No 1 does it for me.

23 posted on 04/14/2013 12:42:01 PM PDT by Sherman Logan
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To: nickcarraway

Does she act this way when she hears the Looney tunes theme as well?


24 posted on 04/14/2013 12:47:11 PM PDT by GrandJediMasterYoda (Someday our schools will teach the difference between "lose" and "loose")
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To: blueunicorn6

Interesting observation, and there is a lot of sense to it.

My favorite aunt was a professional dancer, and has a dance studio. She taught all the girls in the family as little kids to dance, at that studio. I never thought much about it at so young an age, but it did require a lot more multitasking to follow the music, watch the teacher and execute the moves of the ballet exercise or the Spanish dance, etc. What we do on a public-or private-dance floor is a no brainer in comparison.


25 posted on 04/14/2013 12:55:06 PM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: nickcarraway; Drumbo; Publius; Kathy in Alaska; LUV W; AZamericonnie; Cindy; Fiji Hill

Ping

One of you please also ping any of the other FReeper Canteen DJs or others who you feel may be interested.

I have had long discussions of this very topic on other music forums.

My own personal opinion is that most people like music with which they have grown into adulthood with few exceptions. In addition, I think that music is ‘candy’ to the frontal lobe which is very primitive.


26 posted on 04/14/2013 12:56:26 PM PDT by spel_grammer_an_punct_polise (Learn three chords and you, too, can be a Rock Star!)
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To: Chode; POWERSBOOTHEFAN

I liked the orginal “Chicago Transit Authority” but after the success of “Colour My World’ they went commercial to their own financial success but also to their own detriment although they still did some good music after that. I preferred their early stuff.

In the mid to late 60s when they first burst on the scene the music critics did not like them and I have always wondered why.


27 posted on 04/14/2013 1:01:42 PM PDT by spel_grammer_an_punct_polise (Learn three chords and you, too, can be a Rock Star!)
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To: Revolting cat!
In before John Cage 4’33’’

I do a wicked a capella version of that.

28 posted on 04/14/2013 1:02:52 PM PDT by Tijeras_Slim
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To: Chode
music, as Salamander said, is a time machine

it can take you back in time to the best of times or the worst of times

I tell time by the hit parade. When I hear a song from the past, it brings to mind what was going on in my life, or in the word, at the time--but it works for me only up to the 1970's, when I quit paying attention to the hits.

29 posted on 04/14/2013 1:04:02 PM PDT by Fiji Hill
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To: Chode
it can take you back in time to the best of times or the worst of times

I am a firm believer that Classic Rock stations were invented to keep us humble.

30 posted on 04/14/2013 1:04:14 PM PDT by Tijeras_Slim
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To: Chode

+1


31 posted on 04/14/2013 1:04:59 PM PDT by tomkat
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To: spel_grammer_an_punct_polise
prolly the horn section that i liked
32 posted on 04/14/2013 1:08:37 PM PDT by Chode (Stand UP and Be Counted, or line up and be numbered - *DTOM* -ww- NO Pity for the LAZY)
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To: Fiji Hill
yup, me too...
33 posted on 04/14/2013 1:10:09 PM PDT by Chode (Stand UP and Be Counted, or line up and be numbered - *DTOM* -ww- NO Pity for the LAZY)
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To: nickcarraway

Bump for later reading.

I ran across a book a number of years ago that had a fascinating title, and thesis. “The Secret Power of Music” by David Tame.

http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/902874.The_Secret_Power_of_Music


34 posted on 04/14/2013 1:11:55 PM PDT by TEXOKIE (We must surrender only to our Holy God and never to the evil that has befallen us.)
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To: Tijeras_Slim
100%
35 posted on 04/14/2013 1:12:36 PM PDT by Chode (Stand UP and Be Counted, or line up and be numbered - *DTOM* -ww- NO Pity for the LAZY)
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To: Tijeras_Slim

“keep us humble” And to reinforce the memories of what happened to us as a consequence of our more impulsive actions...


36 posted on 04/14/2013 1:15:13 PM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: Chode

“prolly the horn section that i liked”

Exacty! The harmonization of the horns!.....like “Blood, Sweat And Tears” and “Chase”!


37 posted on 04/14/2013 1:37:04 PM PDT by spel_grammer_an_punct_polise (Learn three chords and you, too, can be a Rock Star!)
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To: nickcarraway

There is intrinsic value in music. There is a natural affinity towards tempos, harmonies and rhythms.


38 posted on 04/14/2013 1:41:02 PM PDT by Secret Agent Man (I can neither confirm or deny that; even if I could, I couldn't - it's classified.)
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To: nickcarraway

I believe one day animals will appreciate music. I think right now the fact they don’t is really more for their own safety and self-preservation.


39 posted on 04/14/2013 1:42:45 PM PDT by Secret Agent Man (I can neither confirm or deny that; even if I could, I couldn't - it's classified.)
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To: spel_grammer_an_punct_polise
seems like the 60's was all about getting away from all that, yet Sly and the Family Stone had a trumpet, but to the critics that was OK
40 posted on 04/14/2013 1:49:56 PM PDT by Chode (Stand UP and Be Counted, or line up and be numbered - *DTOM* -ww- NO Pity for the LAZY)
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To: spel_grammer_an_punct_polise

Bill Chase could wail. Tower of Power had some players, too. Some of those guys must have had lungs that went down to their knees.


41 posted on 04/14/2013 2:02:37 PM PDT by blueunicorn6 ("A crack shot and a good dancer")
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To: blueunicorn6

“Tower Of Power” is still performing in California and some of the group members are the originals. I should have added them to my list. ;-)


42 posted on 04/14/2013 2:12:29 PM PDT by spel_grammer_an_punct_polise (Learn three chords and you, too, can be a Rock Star!)
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To: Texan5

Precise movements to music.....oh yeah. I agree with you. Kick in the grace and athleticism and it really makes you marvel at the great ones. I know. I sound like Frasier Crane’s lost third brother. But damnit, if it’s done well, it’s beautiful. Excuse me.....I have to watch NASCAR now.


43 posted on 04/14/2013 2:13:27 PM PDT by blueunicorn6 ("A crack shot and a good dancer")
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To: Texan5

One of the greatest new tunes I’ve seen/heard.
Seen: she’s hot, heard: they rock!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjgIzKxfd4I


44 posted on 04/14/2013 2:14:40 PM PDT by bicyclerepair (0bama is a POS, with all due respect to excrement.)
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To: spel_grammer_an_punct_polise

YOU’RE STILL A YOUNG MAN still sends a shiver down my spine. GET IT ON from Chase still makes me smile. Great memories.


45 posted on 04/14/2013 2:23:58 PM PDT by blueunicorn6 ("A crack shot and a good dancer")
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To: bicyclerepair

Grace Potter is good-I saw her on a TV show awhile back, doing a cover version of some 80’s girl group song.


46 posted on 04/14/2013 2:38:24 PM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: blueunicorn6

NASCAR = precise (fast) movements to engine music...


47 posted on 04/14/2013 2:40:27 PM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: nickcarraway

bflr


48 posted on 04/14/2013 2:45:29 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: nickcarraway
Hate to throw a monkey wrench into her works, but I always found that a song I liked when I first heard it, would quickly become boring and not liked. Some songs that you do not like when you first hear them however, have the ability to grow on you as they say, and you like them the more you hear them.

Think that is the driving force behind the free to play marketing behind radio stations. The more people hear certain songs, the more they like them.

49 posted on 04/14/2013 2:48:58 PM PDT by justa-hairyape
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To: blueunicorn6
Here ya go! Bill Chase - Get it on.mp3
50 posted on 04/14/2013 2:50:33 PM PDT by spel_grammer_an_punct_polise (Learn three chords and you, too, can be a Rock Star!)
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