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19 SHIPS SUNK, 201 PLANES DESTROYED AT TRUK; AMERICAN TANKS HELP TURN BACK FOE AT ANZIO (2/21/44)
Microfilm-New York Times archives, Monterey Public Library | 2/21/44 | George F. Horne, Richard W. Johnston, Frank L. Kluckhohn, Warwick Fairfax, Frederick Graham, more

Posted on 02/21/2014 5:22:08 AM PST by Homer_J_Simpson

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TOPICS: History
KEYWORDS: milhist; realtime; worldwarii
Free Republic University, Department of History presents World War II Plus 70 Years: Seminar and Discussion Forum
First session: September 1, 2009. Last date to add: September 2, 2015.
Reading assignment: New York Times articles and the occasional radio broadcast delivered daily to students on the 70th anniversary of original publication date. (Previously posted articles can be found by searching on keyword “realtime” Or view Homer’s posting history .)
To add this class to or drop it from your schedule notify Admissions and Records (Attn: Homer_J_Simpson) by freepmail. Those on the Realtime +/- 70 Years ping list are automatically enrolled. Course description, prerequisites and tuition information is available at the bottom of Homer’s profile. Also visit our general discussion thread.
1 posted on 02/21/2014 5:22:08 AM PST by Homer_J_Simpson
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To: Homer_J_Simpson
Selections from West Point Atlas for the Second World War
Eastern Europe, 1941: Russian Leningrad and Ukraine Offensives – Operations, 2 December 1943-30 April 1944
Allied Advance to Volturno River, Reorganization, and Attack on Gustav Line (17 January-11 May 1944)
Anzio-Cassino Area, 1943: Attempts to Cross Rapido and Garigliano Rivers, 17-20 January 1944. Anzio Landing, 22 January 1944. German Counterattack at Anzio, 16-19 February 1944
New Guinea and Alamo Force Operations: Clearing the Huon Peninsula and Securing the Straits, 19 September 1943-26 April 1944
Cartwheel, the Seizure of the Gilberts and Marshalls, and Concurrent Air and Naval Operations, 30 June 1943-26 April 1944
The Far East and the Pacific, 1941: Original Allied Strategic Concept, May 1943; Situation in Pacific, 1 November 1943
2 posted on 02/21/2014 5:22:36 AM PST by Homer_J_Simpson ("Every nation has the government that it deserves." - Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821))
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To: r9etb; PzLdr; dfwgator; Paisan; From many - one.; rockinqsranch; 2banana; henkster; meandog; ...
Japanese Stunned (Horne) – 2
All of Eniwetok Atoll Except Parry Isle is Won (Johnston) – 3
Allies Now Peer at China’s Coast (Kluckhohn, Fairfax) – 3-4
3 U-Boats are Sunk Trying Gibraltar – 4
War News Summarized – 4
2,000 Planes Mass (Graham) – 5-6
Arnold Stresses Attrition by Air – 6
Fortress Group Gets Unit Commendation for Skeleton-Force Attack on Brunswick – 6
The Nazi Propaganda Minister on the Job (photo) – 7
Finnish Diplomats Return to Helsinki (by George Axelsson) – 7
Bond Buyers Total 3,960,000 in State – 7
500 Germans Taken (by Daniel de Luce, Reynolds Packard and Milton Bracker) – 8-9
10-Mile Gain Paces Advance on Pskov – 9
Following in the Trail of the Advancing Russians (photo) – 10
Kirk Heads U.S. Naval Task Force to Strike with British in Invasion – 10-11
Factories Called City’s Mainstay – 11
Fewer Heil Hitler, Reich Paper Says – 12
Campaign in Italy (by Hanson W. Baldwin) – 12
The Texts of the Day’s Communiques on the Fighting in Various War Zones – 13-15
Air Power and the War (by Alexander P. de Seversky) – 15
Stilwell Barely Avoids Enemy Shellfire; Indian Orderly is Hero in Burma Battle – 15
3 posted on 02/21/2014 5:23:46 AM PST by Homer_J_Simpson ("Every nation has the government that it deserves." - Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821))
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To: Homer_J_Simpson

http://www.onwar.com/chrono/1944/feb44/f21feb44.htm

New Zealanders clear the Greens
Monday, February 21, 1944 www.onwar.com

In the Solomon Islands... Japanese resistance on the Green Islands, north of Bougainville, ends. The islands are occupied by elements of the New Zealand 3rd Division (Barrowclough).

On the Eastern Front... In the north, Soviet forces capture Soltsy, southwest of Shimsk, as well as Kholm, 60 miles to the south. Meanwhile, in the Ukraine, Soviet forces are attacking towards Krivoi Rog.

In Tokyo... Prime Minister General Tojo takes over the office of Chief of the Army General Staff, in place of Field Marshal Sugiyama. The navy minister, Admiral Shimada, also takes an additional office, replacing Admiral Nagano as Chief of Staff.


4 posted on 02/21/2014 5:24:29 AM PST by Homer_J_Simpson ("Every nation has the government that it deserves." - Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821))
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To: Homer_J_Simpson

http://www.etherit.co.uk/month/thismonth/21.htm

February 21st, 1944 (MONDAY)

ÉIRE: Dublin: The US requests that Dublin expel Axis diplomats.

UNITED KINGDOM: Escort carrier HMS Reaper commissioned.

GERMANY: “Big Week” 617 B-17s and 244 B-24s are dispatched to hit aircraft industry at Brunswick and various airfields in Germany. 16 aircraft are lost.

ITALY:

Alberto di Filippis writes to his brother from the village of Cava dei Tirreni (courtesy of Brian Millo)

Cava, 21 February 1944

Dear brother,

I am at last managing to send you some news. I am well. As is Prospero and everybody at home. We had 18 days of emergency, from 10 to 28 September, with a complete English (sic) victory. A great many English are occupying the Croce pass and are encamped there, mostly close to Monticello: they’re all most courteous and generous. Some of them left us weeping. The military events did not cause damage to the house: but a fire triggered some looting, and it was almost completely destroyed, from the second to the third floor. We have done some repairs and have sorted ourselves out: but there is still much to do — and we have no money. It goes without saying that life has become fantastically expensive as a result of the rapacious growth of a ruthless black market. The Allies have begun to fight it, but to wipe it out will want more time.

And what about you? Send me detailed news. We all long for it passionately. I cannot give you confirmation of Ferdinando [the third brother]: communications with the rest of Italy are cut off. His most recent postcard dates back to the end of August, and it arrived here hardly two days ago. Ever more affectionate hugs from us all to you all. I pray always for you. God grant that we may kiss each other again.

Your brother Albert.

INDIAN OCEAN: Unescorted SS Fenris torpedoed amidships by U-168, but was able to reach Bombay in damaged condition under own power for repairs.

CHINA: The 8th Route Army takes Taiku.

JAPAN: Prime Minister Tojo assumes the office of Chief of Army General Staff. Navy Minister Shimada replaces Admiral Nagano as Chief of Naval General Staff.

PACIFIC OCEAN: From Glen Boren’s diary: After the raid on Truk, we departed for the Marianas. At about 1630 on February 21, 1944, two Jap ‘Betties’ sighted our convoy. One of them was shot down by our CAP but the other one got away.

About 2100, Torpedo defence was sounded as more ‘Betties’ were sighted on radar. Shortly after that, General Quarters sounded as they moved in for the kill. 11 or 12 ‘Betties’ were shot down during the night by the convoy and none of our ships were hit. After being located, we figured we would get a real hot reception in the morning as we moved into strike position.

US Marines with support of naval bombardment and carrier aircraft secure Eniwetok Atoll.

CANADA:
Destroyer HMCS Sioux (ex-HMS Vixen) commissioned.

Corvette HMCS Hespeler (ex-HMS Guildford Castle) commissioned.

Minesweepers HMCS Guysborough, Kenora, Canso and Wasaga departed Halifax for Devonport via Azores.

U.S.A.:
Submarine USS Chivo laid down.

Aircraft carrier USS Leyte laid down.
Submarine USS Sea Cat launched.

Destroyer escorts USS Otter and Roche commissioned.

Destroyer USS Ross commissioned.


5 posted on 02/21/2014 5:25:21 AM PST by Homer_J_Simpson ("Every nation has the government that it deserves." - Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821))
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To: Homer_J_Simpson

Sounds as though US Navy fliers have turned Truk Lagoon into a mecca for divers in future decades.


6 posted on 02/21/2014 5:33:20 AM PST by Fiji Hill
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To: Homer_J_Simpson
headline: "3 U-Boats are Sunk Trying Gibraltar – 4"

One, however was known to escape...

And is still being searched for...

;-)

7 posted on 02/21/2014 5:41:42 AM PST by BroJoeK (a little historical perspective....)
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To: Homer_J_Simpson
headline: "Kirk Heads U.S. Naval Task Force to Strike with British in Invasion – 10-11"

Kirk will command allied forces from his flag-ship, USS Enterprise:


8 posted on 02/21/2014 5:47:59 AM PST by BroJoeK (a little historical perspective....)
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To: Homer_J_Simpson

“Yugoslav Civil War Flares Despite Plea”

“Intensified fratricidal fighting in three Yugoslav sectors was reported ...”

“The Partisans,” including a Czech volunteer brigade, the Croat Ustashis, and the Royal Yugoslav Government Chetniks. The Czeck-supported Partisans seem to have won ... but no doubt the descendants of all parties are rehashing the conflict to this very day.


9 posted on 02/21/2014 5:49:49 AM PST by Tax-chick (The future is not going to take us seriously.)
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To: BroJoeK

LOL!


10 posted on 02/21/2014 5:50:09 AM PST by Tax-chick (The future is not going to take us seriously.)
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To: Homer_J_Simpson

Hanson Baldwin observes that the Italians aren’t being much help to us in the campaign.


11 posted on 02/21/2014 6:02:33 AM PST by Tax-chick (The future is not going to take us seriously.)
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To: Tax-chick

Perceptive guy, Baldwin. The Italians weren’t much help to the Germans, either.


12 posted on 02/21/2014 10:05:44 AM PST by henkster (Communists never negotiate.)
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To: henkster

That’s true. It’s almost like they didn’t want to be in the war!


13 posted on 02/21/2014 10:12:27 AM PST by Tax-chick (The future is not going to take us seriously.)
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To: Homer_J_Simpson

14 posted on 02/21/2014 10:17:48 AM PST by CougarGA7 ("War is an outcome based activity" - Dr. Robert Citino)
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To: BroJoeK; Tax-chick; Homer_J_Simpson; henkster
We're in the middle of "Big Week," where the Army Air Force will make daily raids on aircraft related industries with a large fighter cover. Bomber Harris had to be bludgeoned into supporting the effort by bombing the same targets at night. The goal was to knock the Luftwaffe out of the war.

It didn't happen, although Luftwaffe losses were sizable. As has been the pattern, the damage to the industry wasn't as great as we thought/hoped.

The best news is that, in contrast with the Schweinfurt raids, with fighter cover our losses were in the acceptable range. The other good news is that what is left of the Luftwaffe fighter force in Western Europe is being pulled back to Germany to take on the bombers closer to home. We'll have air superiority over Normandy.

15 posted on 02/21/2014 1:49:48 PM PST by colorado tanker
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To: Tax-chick
The Italians have checked out of the war. They got their butts kicked across North Africa, Tunisia and Sicily. When the opportunity arose with the government's armistice, they just quit being soldiers.

Can't say that I blame them. Rommel used them as cannon fodder. All of Il Duce's dreams turned out to be mirages and now their country is a war zone.

16 posted on 02/21/2014 1:57:48 PM PST by colorado tanker
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To: colorado tanker; BroJoeK; Tax-chick; Homer_J_Simpson

Big Week did all of that. The Luftwaffe was not able to interfere with the Normandy invasion. However, Big Week was not a cakewalk. It put a lot of stress on the American aircrews and ground crews to make this effort. American losses were also high, and crew morale had some rough spots. But we could take the losses. The Luftwaffe could not.


17 posted on 02/21/2014 2:20:05 PM PST by henkster (Communists never negotiate.)
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To: henkster; BroJoeK; Tax-chick; Homer_J_Simpson

In 1944, the U.S. built an astonishing 96,270 military aircraft. That compares with 3,611 in 1940. Amazing.


18 posted on 02/21/2014 2:31:51 PM PST by colorado tanker
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To: colorado tanker

One site I found states there were 4,680,000 automobiles manufactured in the U.S. in 1940. Zero in 1944.


19 posted on 02/21/2014 2:37:25 PM PST by Homer_J_Simpson ("Every nation has the government that it deserves." - Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821))
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To: Homer_J_Simpson

They really shut down the economy for the war effort.


20 posted on 02/21/2014 2:39:24 PM PST by GeronL (Vote for Conservatives not for Republicans!)
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To: Homer_J_Simpson; GeronL
Well, there were a few ways around the rules . . .


21 posted on 02/21/2014 2:48:58 PM PST by colorado tanker
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To: colorado tanker

what were they thinking?


22 posted on 02/21/2014 2:49:52 PM PST by GeronL (Vote for Conservatives not for Republicans!)
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To: GeronL
They were thinking this:

But could only build that . . .

23 posted on 02/21/2014 2:55:27 PM PST by colorado tanker
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To: BroJoeK
One, however was known to escape...

You have to expect that it was badly damaged and probably can't submerge. I'm very confident that allied aircraft will get it.

24 posted on 02/21/2014 4:54:36 PM PST by fso301
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To: colorado tanker; henkster

Thanks, that’s all very informative.

I’ll be out all day tomorrow and miss the war news. Maybe I can catch up on Sunday.


25 posted on 02/21/2014 6:39:16 PM PST by Tax-chick (The future is not going to take us seriously.)
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To: fso301; Homer_J_Simpson; colorado tanker
fso301: "You have to expect that it was badly damaged and probably can't submerge."

Das Boot was based on U-96, a class VIIA, which compares roughly to the US Balao class.
The Balao was somewhat larger, faster & longer ranged, but only half the diving depth of a class VII.
And indeed, in the movie's most dramatic moments, Das Boot escapes by sitting on the bottom at nearly 1,000 feet.

Today's US submarine diving capabilities are classified, but publically acknowledged in the range of 1,000 feet.

Class VIIA, Balao:

26 posted on 02/22/2014 3:49:12 AM PST by BroJoeK (a little historical perspective....)
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To: BroJoeK; Homer_J_Simpson; colorado tanker
BroJoeK to fso301; Homer_J_Simpson; colorado tanker And indeed, in the movie's most dramatic moments, Das Boot escapes by sitting on the bottom at nearly 1,000 feet.

I remember seeing that movie. Yes, it is very similar to the attacks we learned about yesterday. You have to wonder if the German commanders responsible for ordering those U-boats through the Strait had seen the movie?

If I remember correctly from the movie, after resurfacing, the U-boat was never shown submerging again (until almost inside it's pen at La Rouchelle). I'm not so sure about that scene of the British air raid at La Rouchelle because at that stage of the war, what single engine British aircraft were capable of raiding La Rouchelle other than carrier based planes? Would the British have risked sending a carrier into such unfriendly waters at that stage of the war?

27 posted on 02/22/2014 6:39:19 AM PST by fso301
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To: Homer_J_Simpson
On 2/21/1944 one of Ernie Pyle's several columns about Buck Eversole appeared:

Buck Eversole: One of the Great Men of the War

IN ITALY, February 21, 1944 – The company commander said to me, "Every man in this company deserves the Silver Star."

We walked around in the olive grove where the men of the company were sitting on the edges of their foxholes, talking or cleaning their gear.

"Let’s go over here," he said. "I want to introduce you to my personal hero."

Courtesy photo
Buck Eversole

I figured that the lieutenant’s own "personal hero," out of a whole company of men who deserved the Silver Star, must be a real soldier indeed.

Then the company commander introduced me to Sgt. Frank Eversole, who shook hands sort of timidly and said, "Pleased to meet you," and then didn’t say any more.

I could tell by his eyes and by his slow and courteous speech when he did talk that he was a Westerner. Conversation with him was sort of hard, but I didn’t mind his reticence for I know how Westerners like to size people up first.

The sergeant wore a brown stocking cap on the back of his head. His eyes were the piercing kind. I noticed his hands – they were outdoor hands, strong and rough.

Later in the afternoon I came past his foxhole again, and we sat and talked a little while alone. We didn’t talk about the war, but mainly about our West, and just sat and made figures on the ground with sticks as we talked.

We got started that way, and in the days that followed I came to know him well. He is to me, and to all those with whom he serves, one of the great men of the war.

*

Frank Eversole’s nickname is "Buck." The other boys in the company sometimes call him "Buck Overshoes," simply because Eversole sounds a bit like "overshoes."

Buck was a cowboy before the war. He was born in the little town of Missouri Valley, Iowa, and his mother still lives there. But Buck went West on his own before he was sixteen, and ever since has worked as a ranch hand. He is twenty-eight, and unmarried.

He worked a long time around Twin Falls, Idaho, and then later down in Nevada. Like so many cowboys, he made the rodeos in season. He was never a star or anything. Usually he just rode the broncs out of the chute for pay – seven-fifty a ride. Once he did win a fine saddle. He has ridden at Cheyenne and the other big rodeos.

Like any cowboy, he loves animals. Here in Italy one afternoon Buck and some other boys were pinned down inside a one-room stone shed by terrific German shellfire. As they sat there, a frightened mule came charging through the door. There simply wasn’t room inside for men and mule both, so Buck got up and shooed him out the door. Thirty feet from the door a direct hit killed the mule. Buck has always felt guilty about it.

Another time Buck ran onto a mule that was down and crying in pain from a bad shell wound. Buck took his .45 and put a bullet through its head. "I wouldn’t have shot him except he was hurtin’ so," Buck says.

*

Buck Eversole has the Purple Heart and two Silver Stars for bravery. He is cold and deliberate in battle. His commanders depend more on him than on any other man. He has been wounded once, and had countless narrow escapes. He has killed many Germans.

 

He is the kind of man you instinctively feel safer with than with other people. He is not helpless like most of us. He is practical. He can improvise, patch things, fix things.

His grammar is the unschooled grammar of the plains and the soil. He uses profanity, but never violently. Even in the familiarity of his own group his voice is always low. He is such a confirmed soldier by now that he always says "sir" to any stranger. It is impossible to conceive of his doing anything dishonest.

After the war Buck will go back West to the land he loves. He wants to get a little place and feed a few head of cattle, and be independent.

"I don’t want to be just a ranch hand no more," he says. "It’s all right and I like it all right, but it’s a rough life and it don’t get you nowhere. When you get a little older you kinda like a place of your own."

Buck Eversole has no hatred for Germans. He kills because he’s trying to keep alive himself. The years roll over him and the war becomes his only world, and battle his only profession. He armors himself with a philosophy of acceptance of what may happen.

"I’m mighty sick of it all," he says very quietly, "but there ain’t no use to complain. I just figured it this way, that I’ve been given a job to do and I’ve got to do it. And if I don’t live through it, there’s nothing I can do about it."

Ernie Pyle

28 posted on 02/23/2014 11:20:28 AM PST by untenured
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