Skip to comments.The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005 goes to Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock
Posted on 10/05/2005 2:51:27 AM PDT by AdmSmith
Yves Chauvin Institut Français du Pétrole, Rueil-Malmaison, France,
Robert H. Grubbs California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA and
Richard R. Schrock Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA
"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis".
Metathesis – a change-your-partners dance
This year's Nobel Prize Laureates in chemistry have made metathesis into one of organic chemistry's most important reactions. Fantastic opportunities have been created for producing many new molecules - pharmaceuticals, for example. Imagination will soon be the only limit to what molecules can be built!
Organic substances contain the element carbon. Carbon atoms can form long chains and rings, bind other elements such as hydrogen and oxygen, form double bonds, etc. All life on Earth is based on these carbon compounds, but they can also be produced artificially through organic synthesis.
The word metathesis means 'change-places'. In metathesis reactions, double bonds are broken and made between carbon atoms in ways that cause atom groups to change places. This happens with the assistance of special catalyst molecules. Metathesis can be compared to a dance in which the couples change partners.
Animation (Plug in requirement: Flash Player 6)http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/2005/animation.html
In 1971 Yves Chauvin was able to explain in detail how metatheses reactions function and what types of metal compound act as catalysts in the reactions. Now the "recipe" was known. The next step was, if possible, to develop the actual catalysts.
Richard Schrock was the first to produce an efficient metal-compound catalyst for methasesis. This was in 1990. Two years later Robert Grubbs developed an even better catalyst, stable in air, that has found many applications.
Metathesis is used daily in the chemical industry, mainly in the development of pharmaceuticals and of advanced plastic materials. Thanks to the Laureates' contributions, synthesis methods have been developed that are more efficient (fewer reaction steps, fewer resources required, less wastage), simpler to use (stable in air, at normal temperatures and pressures) and environmentally friendlier (non-injurious solvents, less hazardous waste products).
This represents a great step forward for "green chemistry", reducing potentially hazardous waste through smarter production. Metathesis is an example of how important basic science has been applied for the benefit of man, society and the environment.
2/3 to the land of free.
Technical information http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/2005/adv.html
1/3 to MIT. ;)
Thanks for the ping. I usually don't use my science list for chemistry, but the Nobel Prize is an exception. Cranking up the ping machine ...
So far this year the city of Cambridge, MA, is ahead of the continent of Europe.
Better living through chemistry! :)
Thanks for the ping!
Really an old word in a new job.
Yup. The book "As The Future Catches You" sharply points out that nearly all patents (as one measure of the creation of new ideas) come from just a few zip codes. Some places have achieved the critical mass needed for huge intellectual output. (Unfortunately the accompanying dangerous radiation from the chain reaction includes a high acoustic and legislative intensity of morons, whineons, boreons, fruitons, nutons, and other stupid particles produced by the underlying layer of administratium.)
It's interesting that very often, real genius can express itself in terms of common analogies that are understandable to people outside the particular field of interest. "An exchange of partners in a dance", beautiful.