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Scientists Get Clues on How Planets Form
AP on Yahoo ^ | 4/5/06 | Alicia Chang - ap

Posted on 04/05/2006 6:01:27 PM PDT by NormsRevenge

LOS ANGELES - Scientists think they have solved the mystery of how planets form around a star born in a violent supernova explosion, saying they have detected for the first time a swirling disk of debris from which planets can rise.

The discovery is surprising because the dusty disk orbiting the pulsar, or dead star, resembles the cloud of gas and dust from which Earth emerged. Scientists say the latest finding should shed light on how planetary systems form.

"It shows that planet formation is really ubiquitous in the universe. It's a very robust process and can happen in all sorts of unexpected environments," said lead researcher Deepto Chakrabarty, an astrophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Details appear in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature.

Using NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope, MIT scientists observed bright radiation released by a disk of rubble around a young pulsar 13,000 light years from Earth. The pulsar was once a giant star that collapsed in a supernova explosion about 100,000 years ago.

While researchers didn't directly see planets forming in the disk, they believe the building blocks are present.

In 1992, another team of scientists found planets circling a different pulsar, but they didn't observe a disk and couldn't tell how the planetary system formed.

Chakrabarty said the debris disk most likely formed from metal-rich material that failed to escape the supernova. The disk resembled that seen around sun-like stars, leading researchers to conclude it might spawn a new planetary system.

If planets did exist in the recently discovered debris disk, they wouldn't be habitable because of the violent process that gave rise to the disk, said astronomer Charles Beichman of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena.

"This is more Chernobyl than Malibu," said Beichman, who had no role in the research.

Scientists have long believed that planets like Earth were formed when dust surrounding a young star began to clump, smashing and fusing into one another.

___

On the Net:

Nature journal: http://www.nature.com

Spitzer telescope: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Extended News; Government
KEYWORDS: astronomy; bokglobule; catastrophism; clues; form; planets; scientists; spitzer; spitzertelescope; telescope; xplanets
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An undated artist rendering provided by NASA/JPL-Caltech, depicts a dead star called a pulsar, center, and the surrounding disk of rubble, discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. A study in Thursday's, April 6, issue of the journal Nature says researchers have solved the mystery of how planets grow around a star born in a violent supernova explosion. (AP Photo/NASA, JPL-Caltech)


1 posted on 04/05/2006 6:01:28 PM PDT by NormsRevenge
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To: NormsRevenge

This image was taken with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys in October 2005 and provided April 4, 2006. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has photographed dense knots of dust and gas in our Milky Way Galaxy. This cosmic dust is a concentration of elements that are responsible for the formation of stars in our galaxy and throughout the universe. These dark, opaque knots of gas and dust are called 'Bok globules,' and they are absorbing light in the center of the nearby emission nebula and star-forming region, NGC 281. NGC 281 is located nearly 9,500 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Cassiopeia. (AP Photo/NASA)


2 posted on 04/05/2006 6:03:40 PM PDT by NormsRevenge (Have you hugged an illegal alien today?)
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To: NormsRevenge

A NASA image of the constellation Cassiopeia, in which scientists have spied a disk around a pulsar about 13,000 light-years from Earth, taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Planets outside our solar system might form, phoenix-like, out of the debris circling a dead star known as a pulsar, researchers reported on Wednesday after finding the makings for a planet near such a body. (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory - NASA-JPL/Handout/Reuters)


3 posted on 04/05/2006 6:04:48 PM PDT by NormsRevenge (Have you hugged an illegal alien today?)
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To: NormsRevenge

4 posted on 04/05/2006 6:07:01 PM PDT by Andy from Beaverton (I only vote Republican to stop the Democrats)
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To: Andy from Beaverton
lol... and just so ya can see more of what you're getting for your Spitzer Space Telescope bucks..

In this infrared false-colored image from NASA's Spitzer Space
Telescope, the galaxy 'Messier 82' emits smoke due to stellar fires
on March 16, 2006. 'Messier 82' is located about 12 million light-
years away in the 'Ursa Major' constellation.
NO SALES NO ARCHIVES REUTERS/NASA/JPL/Handout

5 posted on 04/05/2006 6:12:12 PM PDT by NormsRevenge (Have you hugged an illegal alien today?)
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To: NormsRevenge
While researchers didn't directly see planets forming in the disk, they believe the building blocks are present. In 1992, another team of scientists found planets circling a different pulsar, but they didn't observe a disk and couldn't tell how the planetary system formed.

Ah yes, Ye old...."more evidence for theories, grants and tenure" line. Translated to working puke speak...."We don't have a clue, but with more money, we might someday get one..."

6 posted on 04/05/2006 6:19:14 PM PDT by ScreamingFist (Annihilation - The result of underestimating your enemies. NRA)
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To: NormsRevenge

Billions and billions of years ago, God realized he needed to clean out his cat's litter box....


7 posted on 04/05/2006 6:25:57 PM PDT by dr_who_2
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To: NormsRevenge
...the galaxy 'Messier 82' emits smoke due to stellar fires...

Wonder when the enviro-whackos will blame Bush and Halliburton for all that pollution.

8 posted on 04/05/2006 6:27:52 PM PDT by Adiemus
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To: KevinDavis; RadioAstronomer; Dawsonville_Doc; RightWhale

space ping


9 posted on 04/05/2006 6:36:01 PM PDT by King Prout (The UN 1967 Outer Space Treaty is bad for America and bad for humanity - DUMP IT.)
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To: NormsRevenge

Cue the young earth creationists in 5, 4, 3, 2 . . .


10 posted on 04/05/2006 6:36:07 PM PDT by Larry Lucido
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To: Adiemus; NormsRevenge
the worst observed case of astroenteritis...

(I wish I could remember which FReeper I stole that from)

11 posted on 04/05/2006 6:42:42 PM PDT by King Prout (The UN 1967 Outer Space Treaty is bad for America and bad for humanity - DUMP IT.)
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To: NormsRevenge

Yup, they're getting real close to the answer of how dustballs form under the bed too.


12 posted on 04/05/2006 6:43:31 PM PDT by muawiyah (-)
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To: NormsRevenge

I thought everything was formed in 6 days?


13 posted on 04/05/2006 6:44:07 PM PDT by ElTianti
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To: King Prout

Thanks for the ping. :-)


14 posted on 04/05/2006 6:47:56 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer (Senior member of Darwin Central)
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To: King Prout
the debris disk most likely formed from metal-rich material

That would be us, including the asteroid belt. Metal is useful and is the reason for developing space especially as it concerns asteroid mining. Some see wonders and questions, others see economic opportunity.

15 posted on 04/05/2006 6:50:27 PM PDT by RightWhale (Withdraw from the 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty)
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To: RightWhale

I *want* to crash the global platinum-family valuation ;)

(and make a tidy profit while doing so)


16 posted on 04/05/2006 6:52:21 PM PDT by King Prout (The UN 1967 Outer Space Treaty is bad for America and bad for humanity - DUMP IT.)
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To: RadioAstronomer

de nada, patron


17 posted on 04/05/2006 6:52:47 PM PDT by King Prout (The UN 1967 Outer Space Treaty is bad for America and bad for humanity - DUMP IT.)
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To: NormsRevenge

LOS ANGELES - Scientists think they have solved the mystery of how planets form around a star born in a violent supernova explosion, saying they have detected for the first time a swirling disk of debris from which planets can rise.

Dim witted people will observe that word and believe they did something actually. Speculation, assumption, guessing.

First time: A first time experience and they can determine a whole working hypothesis.

The discovery is surprising because the dusty disk orbiting the pulsar, or dead star, resembles the cloud of gas and dust from which Earth emerged. Scientists say the latest finding should shed light on how planetary systems form.

Resembles the cloud of gas: please where are those old family photos. Speculation assumption, guessing.

"It shows that planet formation is really ubiquitous in the universe. It's a very robust process and can happen in all sorts of unexpected environments," said lead researcher Deepto Chakrabarty, an astrophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

 

Ubiquitous=? One planet many formations.

Can happen, yea might happen could happen, should happen, thought to happen. Speculation, assumption, guessing.

Using NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope, MIT scientists observed bright radiation released by a disk of rubble around a young pulsar 13,000 light years from Earth. The pulsar was once a giant star that collapsed in a supernova explosion about 100,000 years ago.

The farthest man can accurately measure from earth is about 20 light years some will say 100, this is all due to the angle the earth makes in the rotation around the sun which would be about 1 degree when measured 6 months apart, in those kind of distances it would be like looking down a straight line, it would not even resemble a triangle.

Chakrabarty said the debris disk most likely formed

Scientists have long believed that planets like Earth were formed when dust surrounding a young star began to clump, smashing and fusing into one another.

That is an out right lie they have only believed recently, many scientist were Christians. Even many scientist are and were Christians today yet they do not stand up for Jesus because it goes against the flow of worldly thinking.

18 posted on 04/05/2006 6:54:07 PM PDT by Creationist (If the earth is old show me your proof. Salvation from the judgment of your sins is free.)
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To: Creationist

I just have two words:

Pure flapdoodle!


19 posted on 04/05/2006 6:57:04 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer (Senior member of Darwin Central)
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To: RadioAstronomer

I believe that it is flap a doodle which would then make it 4 words. :-D


20 posted on 04/05/2006 7:01:20 PM PDT by Creationist (If the earth is old show me your proof. Salvation from the judgment of your sins is free.)
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To: RightWhale; Brett66; xrp; gdc314; anymouse; NonZeroSum; jimkress; discostu; The_Victor; ...

21 posted on 04/05/2006 7:02:08 PM PDT by KevinDavis (http://www.cafepress.com/spacefuture)
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To: King Prout

Copper, that's all I want. Just a few (billion) tons of copper.


22 posted on 04/05/2006 7:05:30 PM PDT by RightWhale (Withdraw from the 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty)
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To: Creationist

LOL! Ok. :-)


23 posted on 04/05/2006 7:06:36 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer (Senior member of Darwin Central)
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To: Creationist
"... many scientist were Christians ..."

Being a Christian is not a barrier to being a Scientist, merely an impediment.

24 posted on 04/05/2006 7:08:17 PM PDT by NicknamedBob (I don't want a World with empty dreams ... Dump the 1967 Outer Space Treaty Now! ... Farm Mars!)
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To: RightWhale

copper? wo fur?
iridium, platinum, ruthenium, osmium... sure.
but copper?


25 posted on 04/05/2006 7:09:32 PM PDT by King Prout (The UN 1967 Outer Space Treaty is bad for America and bad for humanity - DUMP IT.)
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To: King Prout

Copper is often ignored when everybody is going for the Inca gold. Just as lead and zinc are ignored when going for British silver. The glitter and glory is in the noble metals, but the secret is in the base metals. The big money will be in Roman iron and Boeing aluminum, but Trojan copper will suffice, and will be found in quantity enough to pay. Besides, copper makes better spear points than platinum does.


26 posted on 04/05/2006 7:16:42 PM PDT by RightWhale (Withdraw from the 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty)
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To: Creationist
The farthest man can accurately measure from earth is about 20 light years some will say 100, this is all due to the angle the earth makes in the rotation around the sun which would be about 1 degree when measured 6 months apart, in those kind of distances it would be like looking down a straight line, it would not even resemble a triangle.

Have you been reading some old science books? Say, 200 years old?

27 posted on 04/05/2006 7:19:53 PM PDT by VadeRetro (I have the updated "Your brain on creationism" on my homepage.)
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To: RightWhale

but iridium makes better plasma nozzles ;)


28 posted on 04/05/2006 7:24:47 PM PDT by King Prout (The UN 1967 Outer Space Treaty is bad for America and bad for humanity - DUMP IT.)
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To: RightWhale

'nite, jefe


29 posted on 04/05/2006 7:26:51 PM PDT by King Prout (The UN 1967 Outer Space Treaty is bad for America and bad for humanity - DUMP IT.)
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To: VadeRetro; RadioAstronomer
re: Limits of parallax techniques.

Hipparcos's original design goal was parallaxes with a standard deviation of 2 to 5 milliarcseconds, depending on brightness and position on the sky.

If you want the relative error of the observed parallax (i.e. the ratio observational error / observed parallax ) to be (say) 10%, then that means (taking the 2 milliarcsecond figure for purposes of discussion) Hipparcos parallaxes are good down to 20 milliarcseconds, i.e. out to 50 parsecs (= 165 light years) distance. On the other hand, if you can live with 20% relative errors, then the parallaxes are good down to 10 milliarcseconds, i.e. 100 parsecs (= 325 light years) distance. Or if you need 1% relative errors, then they're only good down to 200 milliarcseconds, i.e. out to 5 parsecs (= 16 light years) distance. Etc etc.

source: http://www.cv.nrao.edu/fits/traffic/sciastroresearch/sar.9707

FWIW, Hipparcos was originally intended to do parallax distance out to somewhere in the 800-1000 ly range, but it got stuck in a smaller parking orbit, thus reducing its range.

30 posted on 04/05/2006 8:10:25 PM PDT by longshadow (FReeper #405, entering his ninth year of ignoring nitwits, nutcases, and recycled newbies)
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To: NormsRevenge

Does this mean that black holes are the Universe's Dust Busters?


31 posted on 04/05/2006 8:44:51 PM PDT by WestVirginiaRebel (Common sense will do to liberalism what the atomic bomb did to Nagasaki-Rush Limbaugh)
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To: Creationist; RadioAstronomer
I believe that it is flap a doodle which would then make it 4 words. :-D

~~~~~~~

Make that two other words, then:

Bravo Sierra!!!

32 posted on 04/05/2006 9:08:08 PM PDT by TXnMA
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To: Larry Lucido; Creationist
Cue the young earth creationists in 5, 4, 3, 2 . . .

Right on cue (#18)... LOL!!!

33 posted on 04/05/2006 9:12:33 PM PDT by TXnMA
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To: RightWhale; King Prout
Besides, copper makes better spear points than platinum does.

Especially when alloyed with a little tin...

Hey -- you may have a real 'new age' thingy going there... '-)

34 posted on 04/05/2006 9:20:21 PM PDT by TXnMA
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Placemarker
35 posted on 04/05/2006 9:20:49 PM PDT by CarolinaGuitarman ("There is grandeur in this view of life....")
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To: NicknamedBob; Alamo-Girl; betty boop; curiosity
Being a Christian is not a barrier to being a Scientist, merely an impediment.

No impediment at all, says this physical chemist...

36 posted on 04/05/2006 9:27:17 PM PDT by TXnMA
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To: King Prout

You shouldn't pick your nozzles, especially in public. :P


37 posted on 04/05/2006 9:31:07 PM PDT by Constantine XIII
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To: NicknamedBob

Now that was uncalled for. *rolls eyes*


38 posted on 04/05/2006 9:31:53 PM PDT by Constantine XIII
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To: Constantine XIII; TXnMA

Lest you be concerned that I am anti-Christian or something, I have no problem reconciling "Big Bang" equals "Let there be Light!"


39 posted on 04/06/2006 2:41:28 AM PDT by NicknamedBob (I don't want a World with empty dreams ... Dump the 1967 Outer Space Treaty Now! ... Farm Mars!)
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To: TXnMA; betty boop
No impediment at all, says this physical chemist...

Indeed. Those who see their Christianity as an impediment to their science misunderstand one or the other.

After all, Christ is both the author and finisher of our faith and the One by whom and for whom everything that was made, was made - whether spiritual or physical.

Thank you so much for the ping!

40 posted on 04/06/2006 6:35:37 AM PDT by Alamo-Girl
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To: NicknamedBob
Not being a Christian and being a scientist is nothing more than a misguided soul telling personal religious beliefs to lure those who believe in away from God.

This planetary article is nothing but speculation. The words in the first paragraph "think they have" are believed by many as though they did really happen, without any evidence or proof.

The words "resembles the cloud of gas and dust from which Earth emerged" are speculative, there is not one shred of evidence that this is the way anything is formed. In the 1000's of years man has looked to the sky no one has documented a new star forming only dying. And by the way where are those pic's of the cloud of gas which our solar system emerged. The words "most likely formed" are again believed by some as the gospel truth, as though that is the way it happened. The statement is speculative, take it to court and see if a judge will rule on your side with a statement like that. There is not any evidence in that statement only theory.

You believe in scientist that feed you assumptions and speculation as though it is true. Without evidence you stand firm to a belief that takes great leaps of faith to believe, it is a religious belief.
41 posted on 04/06/2006 11:18:08 AM PDT by Creationist (If the earth is old show me your proof. Salvation from the judgment of your sins is free.)
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To: VadeRetro

Do you know how to use trig?


42 posted on 04/06/2006 11:19:53 AM PDT by Creationist (If the earth is old show me your proof. Salvation from the judgment of your sins is free.)
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To: Creationist

How are the Cepheid variables of historical interest?


43 posted on 04/06/2006 11:22:14 AM PDT by RightWhale (Withdraw from the 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty)
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To: NicknamedBob
Famous Christian Scientists (From http://whychristianity.com) Michael Faraday (1791-1867) The son of a blacksmith who became one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century. His work on electricity and magnetism not only revolutionized physics, but has led to so much in our lifestyles today which depend on them (including computers and telephone lines and so Web sites). Faraday was a devoutly Christian member of the Sandemanians, which significantly influenced upon him and strongly affected the way in which he approached and interpreted nature. The Sandemanians originated from Presbyterians who had rejected the idea of state churches, and tried to go back to a New Testament type of Christianity. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Mendel was the first to lay the mathematical foundations of genetics, in what came to be called "Mendelianism". He began his research in 1856 (three years before Darwin published his Origin of Species) in the garden of the Monastery in which he was a monk. Mendel was elected Abbot of his Monastery in 1868. His work remained comparatively unknown until the turn of the century, when a new generation of botanists began finding similar results and "rediscovered" him (though their ideas were not identical to his). An interesting point is that the 1860's was the formation of the X-Club, dedicated to lessening religious influences and propagating an image of "conflict" between science and religion. One sympathizer was Darwin's cousin Francis Galton, whose scientific interest was in genetics (a proponent of eugenics - selective breeding among humans to "improve" the stock). He was writing how the "priestly mind" was not conducive to science whilst, at around the same time, an Austrian monk was making the breakthrough in genetics. The rediscovery of the work of Mendel came too late to affect Galton's contribution. Kelvin (William Thompson) (1824-1907) Kelvin was foremost among the small group of British scientists who helped to lay the foundations of modern physics. His work covered may areas of physics, and he was said to have more letters after his name than anyone else in the Commonwealth, since he received numerous honorary degrees from European Universities who recognized the value of his work. He was a very committed Christian, certainly more religious than the average for his era. Interestingly, his fellow physicists George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) were also men of deep Christian commitment, in an era when many were nominal, apathetic, or anti-Christian. The Encyclopaedia Britannica says "Maxwell is regarded by most modern physicists as the scientist of the 19th century who had the greatest influence on 20th century physics; he is ranked with Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein for the fundamental nature of his contributions." Lord Kelvin was an Old Earth creationist, who estimated the Earth's age to be somewhere between 20 million and 100 million years, with an upper limit at 500 million years based on cooling rates (a low estimate due to his lack of knowledge about radiogenic heating). Max Planck (1858-1947) Planck made many contributions to physics, but is best known for quantum theory, which has revolutionized our understanding of the atomic and sub-atomic worlds. In his 1937 lecture "Religion and Naturwissenschaft," Planck expressed the view that God is everywhere present, and held that "the holiness of the unintelligible Godhead is conveyed by the holiness of symbols." Atheists, he thought, attach too much importance to what are merely symbols. Planck was a churchwarden from 1920 until his death, and believed in an almighty, all-knowing, beneficent God (though not necessarily a personal one). Both science and religion wage a "tireless battle against scepticism and dogmatism, against unbelief and superstition" with the goal "toward God!" Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Einstein is probably the best known and most highly revered scientist of the twentieth century, and is associated with major revolutions in our thinking about time, gravity, and the conversion of matter to energy (E=mc2). Although never coming to belief in a personal God, he recognized the impossibility of a non-created universe. The Encyclopaedia Britannica says of him: "Firmly denying atheism, Einstein expressed a belief in "Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the harmony of what exists." This actually motivated his interest in science, as he once remarked to a young physicist: "I want to know how God created this world, I am not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that element. I want to know His thoughts, the rest are details." Einstein's famous epithet on the "uncertainty principle" was "God does not play dice" - and to him this was a real statement about a God in whom he believed. A famous saying of his was "Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind."

Yea I see your point God did hinder there discoveries.
44 posted on 04/06/2006 11:42:37 AM PDT by Creationist (If the earth is old show me your proof. Salvation from the judgment of your sins is free.)
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To: RightWhale
The ones documented would have interest. But then as someone said about scientist over a hundred years ago would their instruments be as accurate as todays, or tomorrow's or next century.My point about measuring distance to a star that is many light years away is when you make the triangle (measure in June and December)the angle is only about 1 degree or if you were to draw it to scale it would look like a straight line.

Two straight lines of 100 light years long with a base of around 187 million miles.

That would be like two people standing at arms length looking at an object 10 miles away (this is an example not a scaled down proof), and triangulating the distance.
45 posted on 04/06/2006 11:57:35 AM PDT by Creationist (If the earth is old show me your proof. Salvation from the judgment of your sins is free.)
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To: Creationist

I can aim a rifle, iron sights, within one arc minute. With pistol it is about 3 arc minutes. Astronomers using iron sights can do as well on stars. With precision gears and some optical aid they can measure much finer. Still, 50 to 100 parsecs is considered adequately far for that technique with telescopic magnification, and one parsec, as for Alpha Cent, is iron sights accuracy. For greater distance they like to use absolute magnitude.


46 posted on 04/06/2006 12:04:33 PM PDT by RightWhale (Withdraw from the 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty)
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To: Creationist
Have you heard of Cepheid variables? The Hubble constant?

The question is not whether parallax works or has limitations, but whether you know anything about what has happened to extend the range of our knowledge. Your first post has been characterized as pure flapdoodle, Bravo Sierra, etc. It is so out of date as to be amusing in its militant Ludditism.

47 posted on 04/06/2006 1:24:02 PM PDT by VadeRetro (I have the updated "Your brain on creationism" on my homepage.)
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To: VadeRetro

It matches nicely with his ignorance of geology.


48 posted on 04/06/2006 1:25:12 PM PDT by blowfish
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To: ScreamingFist
"Ah yes, Ye old...."more evidence for theories, grants and tenure" line. Translated to working puke speak...."We don't have a clue, but with more money, we might someday get one..."

Actually, astromomy is a very well developed science. One of the big advantages Astronomers have is they all get to work with the source material, everybody gets to look at the skies. Astronomers know a good deal about their science and it seems strange to me that you would impugn their knowledge with...Um, what are your qualifications again?

49 posted on 04/06/2006 1:36:37 PM PDT by muir_redwoods (Free Sirhan Sirhan, after all, the bastard who killed Mary Jo Kopechne is walking around free)
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To: Creationist
"Yea I see your point God did hinder there discoveries."

In truth, I fear you do not, for that was not my point.

50 posted on 04/06/2006 2:43:00 PM PDT by NicknamedBob (I don't want a World with empty dreams ... Dump the 1967 Outer Space Treaty Now! ... Farm Mars!)
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