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Young Swedes lack knowledge about communism
www.thelocal.se ^ | 05/09/2007 | Paul O'Mahony

Posted on 05/09/2007 1:25:37 PM PDT by WesternCulture

Less than fifteen years after the last Soviet troops pulled out of the Baltic States, a new survey has shown that young Swedes are still in the dark about the fate of its neighbours behind the Iron Curtain.

A poll carried out by Demoskop on behalf of the Organization for Information on Communism (Föreningen för upplysning om kommunismen - UOK) found that 90 percent of Swedes between the ages of 15 and 20 had never heard of the Gulag. This can be contrasted with the 95 percent who knew of Auschwitz.

"Unfortunately we were not at all surprised by the findings," Ander Hjemdahl, the founder of UOK, told The Local.

"We had a strong hunch that this would be the case having spent a few years travelling around to various schools," he added.

Of the 1004 young Swedes involved in the nationwide poll, 43 percent believed that communist regimes had claimed less than one million lives. A fifth of those surveyed put the death toll at under ten thousand. The actual figure is estimated at around 100 million.

The poll also found that 40 percent of young Swedes believed that communism contributed to increased prosperity in the world; 22 percent considered communism a democratic form of government; 82 percent did not regard Belarus as a dictatorship.

This information gap has roots that date back many years, according to Anders Hjemdahl.

"There were strategic reasons. For example, I think the Social Democrats only won one absolute majority in the post-war years. Therefore they had to rely on the support of smaller parties, one of which was the communist party.

"Another reason is that a large majority of Swedish journalists are left-wingers, many of them quite far left," he said.

Hjemdahl speculates that some historical ignorance may also be explained by the fact that Sweden accepted Stalin's takeover of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

"Sweden expressed its de jure recognition of the Soviet Union's World War II annexation of the Baltic States. Nazi Germany and Franco's Spain were the other countries to grant such strong recognition," he said.

The organization has provoked a strong reaction in the few short hours it published its findings in Dagens Nyheter.

"We have had lots of responses over the course of the morning. Some aggressive communists have called us to voice their opinions.

"But we also had two victims of communism crying on the phone, explaining that they had waited fifty years for this," said Hjemdahl.

He also added that the organization has plans to make its effort international and is currently working on translating its material into English.

Honorary members and contributors to UOK include former Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar, Latvia's EU Commissioner Sandra Kalniete and Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt.

Paul O'Mahony


TOPICS: Culture/Society
KEYWORDS: alexandervassiliev; auschwitz; baltic; balticstates; belarus; bildt; carlbildt; communism; democracy; dictator; dictatorship; estonia; eu; gulag; holocaust; journalism; journalists; latvia; lithuania; msm; scandinavia; socialism; soviet; stalin; stalinism; sweden
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1 posted on 05/09/2007 1:25:41 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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To: WesternCulture
found that 90 percent of Swedes between the ages of 15 and 20 had never heard of the Gulag.

Ignorance is bliss , or so the knowledgeable ones tell me.
2 posted on 05/09/2007 1:30:38 PM PDT by kinoxi
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To: WesternCulture

God I hope they don’t poll our public schools (gulp) - they would probably find results similar to Sweden.


3 posted on 05/09/2007 1:30:52 PM PDT by lesko
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To: WesternCulture

And the Europeans call us isolated and ignorant of the world around us.... The swedes take the cake.


4 posted on 05/09/2007 1:31:28 PM PDT by x_plus_one (As long as we pretend to not be fighting Iran in Iraq, we can't pretend to win the war.)
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To: WesternCulture
Truth is going to take some years to seep down to the masses of Europe.

But once it does...look out!!!

5 posted on 05/09/2007 1:34:55 PM PDT by what's up
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To: lesko
God I hope they don’t poll our public schools (gulp) - they would probably find results similar to Sweden.

I recall O'Reilly had a poll of college freshmen......somewhere in the neighborhooh of 68% could NOT name who America fought in World War II.

6 posted on 05/09/2007 1:37:17 PM PDT by Puppage (You may disagree with what I have to say, but I shall defend to your death my right to say it)
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To: WesternCulture

But, but, but... I thought Swedes were among the most educated in the world. ...well, says the Euro Peon Union anyway.


7 posted on 05/09/2007 1:37:59 PM PDT by jdm
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To: lesko
“God I hope they don’t poll our public schools (gulp) - they would probably find results similar to Sweden.”

- In the whole of the Western World (except the newly liberated parts of Eastern Europe) the result would probably be about the same.

Outside the Western World (including Russia) a lot of people are even LESS aware of what crimes the enemies of democracy and freedom have committed throughout history. In India, for instance, even people with university education don’t know much about Hitler, WWII or the Holocaust - and this nation, India, alone houses one sixth of the world’s population...

8 posted on 05/09/2007 1:40:06 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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To: WesternCulture

Numbers like these sound like the result of a deliberate effort to whitewash history.


9 posted on 05/09/2007 1:44:37 PM PDT by AIM-54
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To: WesternCulture

3000+ years of Indian history is too lengthy to accomodate world history to a satisfactory level. Of a 400-page history text-book, perhaps about 20 would have been devoted to 20th Century world history(compared to the unending volumes regarding Indian independence and the politics of the time). And since the bulk of it comes towards the end, most students tend to skip it, so as to rely on the bulk of the rest to score in exams. The availability of question choices in the final examinations also encourage this.


10 posted on 05/09/2007 1:54:46 PM PDT by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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To: AIM-54

I am afraid you are right, Phoenix. Here in Europe most if not all MSM are clearly leaned towards the left. Such ignorance is well prepared by them and then inoculated into the public.

A Spanish Defence Forces report this week affirmed that Europe is rapidly loosing importance in the world and not even being able to tackle the most urgent problems, such as terrorism.

BTW, the only leaders that seem able to change this situation were both right wing: German Chancellor Merkel and Elected French President Sarkozy.

I don’t know which word you use in English to describe Europe’s evolution in the last 50 years: dive or plunge?


11 posted on 05/09/2007 1:57:51 PM PDT by J Aguilar (Veritas vos liberabit)
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To: jdm
“But, but, but... I thought Swedes were among the most educated in the world. ...well, says the Euro Peon Union anyway.”

- As a Swede, I’d like say we are well educated in areas like international politics, languages, mathematics, economics and most scientific and technological domains of knowledge.

The subject of History, however, has had a weak position in Swedish education compared to several other European countries for large parts of the 20th century (especially in the period of 1960-1990 (when Socialism was at its height in Sweden).

During the last 20 years or so, public interest for History has increased substantially and in many ways, History education has improved. In this particular case (Communist crimes against Humanity) however, there’s obviously still lots of work to be done.

12 posted on 05/09/2007 2:01:20 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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To: CarrotAndStick
“3000+ years of Indian history is too lengthy to accomodate world history to a satisfactory level.”

- Most people on Earth have a history that goes back thousands of years.

Countries like Denmark, Norway and Sweden are much older nations than, for instance, India and our civilizations are also thousands of years old (although the Vikings didn’t develop a literature of their own until the era called THE ‘Viking age’, roughly 750-1000 AD), but how could this allow us to forget about neither Nazism or Pol Pot.

According to the logic of your post, it’s okay if people in Greece, Italy and India forget about Stalin and Hitler while Americans, on the other hand, ought to become experts in this field.

13 posted on 05/09/2007 2:14:00 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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To: x_plus_one

You can bet they all know about Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But not the Berlin Airlift, the Marshall Plan, etc.


14 posted on 05/09/2007 2:14:13 PM PDT by unkus
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To: WesternCulture

Do you think it is any different in this country?

Who hasn’t heard of McCarthyism? Who has heard of Alger Hiss?

McCarthy was a U.S. Senator who was mostly right even if he did push things a bit far. The communist threat he was concerned with was real.

Alger Hiss was an ultra-liberal and a Soviet Spy. The Left denied that for over 40 years but the Soviet archives that were opened in 1992 proved his guilt. You are not going to learn that in a U.S. classroom these days.


15 posted on 05/09/2007 2:20:00 PM PDT by InterceptPoint
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To: lesko

I don’t think so. I believe they’d be much worse.


16 posted on 05/09/2007 2:24:43 PM PDT by MadAnthony1776 ("liberalism" = "do as I say, not as I do")
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To: WesternCulture

Not surprising, and if things continue as they are, this will be true in the US soon enough...


17 posted on 05/09/2007 2:25:02 PM PDT by AzSteven ("War is less costly than servitude, the choice is always between Verdun and Dachau." Jean Dutourd)
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To: WesternCulture

I want to clarify that it was not my opinion earlier, but a reason for the negligence of Nazi/Communist history.

Another reason would be the easier load on teachers to be able to teach old history, things too far out into the past, than to teach the complex dynamics that lead to WWI and WW2 and the Cold War, etc. I would think this isn’t just unique to India, but the rest of the world, on the whole... Teachers Unions, perhaps?


18 posted on 05/09/2007 2:28:49 PM PDT by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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To: AIM-54

Oh, please. Spare me. Most Americans have very little knowledge about the USSR.

I agree with those who post that a similar survey in the U.S. would yield similar results.


19 posted on 05/09/2007 2:31:59 PM PDT by instantgratification
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To: instantgratification

Please see Post 14


20 posted on 05/09/2007 2:34:05 PM PDT by unkus
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To: WesternCulture

Liberals read Marx, Conservatives understand Marx.


21 posted on 05/09/2007 2:35:43 PM PDT by dfwgator (The University of Florida - Still Championship U)
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To: InterceptPoint
You are wrong. The Soviet archives proved the Rosenbergs were guilty. But nothing proved Alger Hiss had anything to do with the Soviets. The GRU general who ran Soviet intelligence up to the early 1940's , Gen. Pavlov, stated Hiss was not a Soviet agent. So did the KGB officer who searched the archives after the collapse of the USSR (Gen. Kobyakov) and the prime archive researcher, who has been searching the archives since the collapse of the USSR.
22 posted on 05/09/2007 2:38:08 PM PDT by instantgratification
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To: AzSteven

“Not surprising, and if things continue as they are, this will be true in the US soon enough...”

- I hear a lot of Americans, both Conservatives and Liberals, complain about the quality of US education nowadays.

In Europe there is also a huge concern about education and often we hear reports of how our national educational systems are failing in this or that way (wether we are Dutch, Spaniards or Swedes etc), but I’d say US Americans seem to worry more about these issues.

Personally, I don’t feel I know enough about US education to say its worse or better than its European counterpart.

In any case, The US must be doing something right. Being Swedish, I’m well aware we have awarded the US more Nobel prices than any other country.


23 posted on 05/09/2007 2:43:51 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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To: instantgratification
I agree with those who post that a similar survey in the U.S. would yield similar results.

That the US education system is also derelict in teaching history is absolutely no excuse. We have the same problem, only to a slightly lesser extent.

24 posted on 05/09/2007 2:53:21 PM PDT by AIM-54
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To: WesternCulture
Countries like Denmark, Norway and Sweden are much older nations than, for instance, India and our civilizations are also thousands of years old (although the Vikings didn’t develop a literature of their own until the era called THE ‘Viking age’, roughly 750-1000 AD

I'd wager that looking at things like trade, science and military exchanges, the events happening in the Roman Empire, and India, had more profound effects, more consistently, than most of the rest of the world, for much of history, until perhaps, the late 19th century. The habitable parts of the New World was discovered greatly owing to this fact(I am aware of Viking landings in the N. American coasts, but not much changed there, as a consequence). As a result, the histories of these regions are much less monotonous than the ones you cited, and through that, comes the bulk.

I agree with you on the point about emphasising modern history over the past. It is extremely important for people to know communism/socialism, and its ills, than about empires of yore.

25 posted on 05/09/2007 2:56:09 PM PDT by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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To: AIM-54

Depends on the country. The US is in the middle of the pack in most areas. Finland, Japan, Korea, and Canada, for example, come out ahead of the US in all areas of study. Consistently.


26 posted on 05/09/2007 3:01:43 PM PDT by instantgratification
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To: J Aguilar
I don’t know which word you use in English to describe Europe’s evolution in the last 50 years: dive or plunge?

I suppose you could use 'retrogression', 'devolution', or 'degeneration'. I sometimes use my made up term 'de-Enlightenment', because the Enlightenment led to the Age of Reason and scientific method. What we have now with the denial of truth inherent in political correctness and multi-culturalism is quite the opposite.

27 posted on 05/09/2007 3:13:35 PM PDT by AIM-54
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To: instantgratification
Depends on the country. The US is in the middle of the pack in most areas. Finland, Japan, Korea, and Canada, for example, come out ahead of the US in all areas of study. Consistently. Which explains the popularity of private schools and home schooling. Public schooling, like most government run operations, is quite mediocre. That's why so many of our politicians send their kids to private schools.
28 posted on 05/09/2007 3:29:10 PM PDT by AIM-54
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To: AIM-54

Well, Canadian schools are largely government run. So are Finnish schools. But they still come out ahead of the U.S.

Also, why was American education, government run for well over a century, the model for the world a century ago?

Something else is going on here. It is societal. My guess is the breakdown of the family.


29 posted on 05/09/2007 3:31:09 PM PDT by instantgratification
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To: CarrotAndStick
“I want to clarify that it was not my opinion earlier, but a reason for the negligence of Nazi/Communist history.”

- I understood all along you weren’t aiming at making excuses for anybody, but I still think it’s important to point out that something is very, very wrong in the case of India (and many other nations with an ‘inferiority complex’ towards the West).

India suffers from a self centered, ‘introspective’ approach to many issues, be it education, culture or politics. Often, this attitude is characterized by an almost laughable degree of chauvinism (for instance, people in India are taught by education, media etc that India is the home, the ‘Mother’ of more or less every aspect of human civilization. India is said to be the ‘Mother’ of all religions, of every field of learning, of every science and of every trade, invention etc).

Another aspect in the case of India (which, in part, explains the poor interest for genocide's abroad) is the absence of what we would call the idea of ‘human dignity’. In reality, a human life doesn’t matter at all.

The well known Indian concept of ‘Karma’ isn’t about ethics. Karma is only a way to explain the ‘order’ of the Universe. It’s about the interdependence of cause and effect, of ‘now’ and ‘eternity’. Using Karma logic, one could well say the Nazi genocide was bad Karma for the people who took part in it, but on the other hand, the Jews MUST have done something bad to ‘deserve’ this fate.

India is admirable in many ways and I feel optimistic about the future of that great nation, but I also hope India one day will discover the world beyond its borders, just like so many foreigners have discovered India.

Back to Communism/Fascism/Totalitarianism.

There are two major reasons why everyone ought to know about WWII and the evils of Communism and Fascism/Nazism:

1. They are comparatively recent events that, to a very large extent, shaped and reshaped the modern world and few other individual occurrences in World History provide more of ‘keys’ to understanding why the world looks like it does today.

2. Communism and Fascism are still phenomena we have to deal with. They are NOT defeated.

30 posted on 05/09/2007 3:37:06 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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To: WesternCulture

You couldn’t have hit the truth more better. I agree completely.


31 posted on 05/09/2007 3:51:36 PM PDT by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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To: instantgratification
Something else is going on here. It is societal. My guess is the breakdown of the family.

I'd say that the kind of promiscuity among teenagers, owing to the existence of reliable birth control, has put the fear/detestment/stigmatisation of pregnancy and child-rearing in many young women. With that, the population plunges. Just a badly-thought theory here...

32 posted on 05/09/2007 3:56:42 PM PDT by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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To: instantgratification

The American education system was pretty good up until the 70s, the same time our societal decay started taking root.

There is a relationship - the introduction of relativism (at the expense of Classical Liberalism) being the common denominator.


33 posted on 05/09/2007 4:06:47 PM PDT by AIM-54
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To: instantgratification
Sorry but I think it is you who are wrong in this case.

Below is the Wikipedia entry for Alger Hiss that refers to General Kobyakov's search of the Soviet archives for any proof that Hiss was a Soviet spy. The highlights are mine.

I'm assuming that the Wikipedia entry covering the search of the archives describes the proof that you are referring to that supposedly "proves" that Alger Hiss was not a Soviet spy. In fact there is a mountain of evidence proving that he was and I'll be happy to provide some of it since it has mostly escaped the MSM reporting on the Hiss case.

The key thing you should get out of the Wikipedia entry is that a total of two days were spent looking through a massive Soviet archive looking for Hiss material. This in not a two day job. The Soviet archives naturally refer to Hiss by code name and you have to do the necessary detective work to identify who is who in the various reports. Without this additional effort any search would be worthless and could only turn up uncoded references to Hiss. The Soviets were much too disciplined to make that mistake. There were other non-Soviet services that did make that mistake, however, and that is a part of that mountain of evidence that I refer to. These eastern bloc archives refer to Hiss by is real name and they are consistent with Soviet data.

In fact most of the supporters of the "Hiss is Innocent" theory have given up on defending Hiss and have admitted that the evidence is just too great to any longer be denied.

From Wikipedia:

"Soviet archives

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Alger Hiss petitioned General Dimitry Antonovich Volkogonov, who had become President Yeltsin's military advisor and the overseer of all the Soviet intelligence archives, to request the release of any Soviet files on the Hiss case. Interestingly, both former President Nixon and the director of his presidential library, John H. Taylor, wrote a similar letter, though the actual contents of those letters are not publicly available.

Russian archivists and researchers responded by reviewing their files, and in the fall of 1992 reported back that they had found no evidence that Alger Hiss had ever engaged in espionage for the Soviet Union or any evidence that Hiss was a member of the Communist Party. However, Volkogonov subsequently revealed that he had spent only two days on his search and had mainly relied on the word of KGB archivists. He stated, "What I saw gave me no basis to claim a full clarification. [Hiss attorney] John Lowenthal pushed me to say things of which I was not fully convinced."[22]

General-Lieutenant Vitaly Pavlov, who ran Soviet intelligence work in North America in the late 1930s and early 1940s, provided some corroboration of Volkogonov in his memoirs, stating that Hiss never worked for the USSR as one of his agents.[23]

In 2004, General Julius Kobyakov, a retired Russian intelligence official, revealed that he had been the person who actually searched the files for Volkogonov. According to Kobyakov, his research revealed that there was no indication that Alger Hiss had been either a paid or unpaid agent of the Soviet Union only "after careful study" of KGB archives and "after querying sister services" (military intelligence)"

34 posted on 05/09/2007 5:34:24 PM PDT by InterceptPoint
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To: InterceptPoint
No, my recollections are from interviews in Russian media. Pavlov and one other general from the era both stated Hiss never worked for the KGB or passed secrets to the Soviets.

There is no independent corroboration from Soviet archives to indicate Hiss worked for the Soviets. There has been corroboration of other agents. Why would they corroborate others and not Hiss if he was an agent??

Therefore, I believe you are still mistaken.
35 posted on 05/09/2007 5:47:13 PM PDT by instantgratification
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To: AIM-54

They do.


36 posted on 05/09/2007 5:51:09 PM PDT by Jet Jaguar (Just say no to Brady Bunch Republicans.)
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To: instantgratification
There is no independent corroboration from Soviet archives to indicate Hiss worked for the Soviets.

I trust the archives more than a bunch of Communist Generals. They have every reason to lie and you really can't put any faith in what they tell you. Add to that the fact that the Soviet system was highly compartmentalized. It isn't given that the Generals would know anything about Hiss.

As to the Soviet archives themselves there is much evidence pointing to Hiss. In fact there are a few items that have been discovered that refer to Hiss without a code name. I quote from Chapter 4, page 164 of "In Denial" by John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr:

"Finally, Weinstein and Vassiliev note that several of their KGB documents from the 1930's, when Hiss and KGB agent Hede Massing competed to recruit Noel Field, name Hiss as a GRU agent in plain text, without a cover name."

Weinstein and Vassiliev had unusual access to the Soviet archives in the early 90's and they have sterling credentials as historians as do Haynes and Klehr.

You can add to this certain Hungarian archives that were made available post Cold War that also name Hiss without the use of cover names.

And you can add to this all of the references to Hiss (and there are many) where a code name is used and the reference can only be to Hiss due to the context and date of the individual Soviet archive documents.

And if that is not enough there is the evidence that the primary accusers of Hiss back in the late 40's (Whittaker Chambers and Hede Massing) were telling the truth about many other matters besides the Hiss case that have been confirmed.

I think all of this, and there is much more, weighs more heavily than the statements of a couple of communist cold war generals.

37 posted on 05/09/2007 7:10:06 PM PDT by InterceptPoint
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To: InterceptPoint
Soviet archives are not highly compartamentalized, as anyone who has perused those copied by Bukovsky knows full well.

The general who denied knowledge of Hiss was head of Western operations during the relevant period. So yeah, he would know this.

As for "believing a bunch of generals", I would be skeptical if the Russians had not corroborated other operatives or informants, such as the Rosenbergs, or released details of the intelligence coup gained by Philby's defection. Now, of course, this information is no longer available, as the archives have been resealed to all but a few.

As for pieces of the archives missing - that just did not happen in the USSR. This is one area in which the Soviets were meticulous.
38 posted on 05/09/2007 7:19:35 PM PDT by instantgratification
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To: instantgratification
Soviet archives are not highly compartamentalized, as anyone who has perused those copied by Bukovsky knows full well.

I didn't say that the archives are compartmentalized. It is the activities themselves that are. If you don't know who "Lawyer" is when you read the archives then you don't know anything. Those who were cleared to know the identity of Hiss know. Those that weren't could not know. You cannot prove that this General had that access.

Hiss was guilty as sin.

39 posted on 05/09/2007 7:25:28 PM PDT by InterceptPoint
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To: InterceptPoint
Who hasn’t heard of McCarthyism? Who has heard of Alger Hiss?

McCarthy was a U.S. Senator who was mostly right even if he did push things a bit far. The communist threat he was concerned with was real.

Even that understates the case. McCarthy didn't "push things too far," he simply tried to investigate the issue openly and reasonably. The "objective" journalists and the "liberal" politicians, being as tendentious then as they are now, demanded that he name who the communists were, for the purpose of of condemning him after he did it.

The reality was that communist penetration of the US government was far more extensive than Senator McCarthy ever claimed. But as far as the "objective" journalists and the "liberal" politicians were concerned, opposing communists at all was "pushing things too far."


40 posted on 05/10/2007 5:09:58 AM PDT by conservatism_IS_compassion (The idea around which liberalism coheres is that NOTHING actually matters except PR.)
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To: WesternCulture
The wisest and most cautious of us all frequently gives credit to stories which he himself is afterwards both ashamed and astonished that he could possibly think of believing . . .
It is acquired wisdom and experience only that teach incredulity, and they very seldom teach it enough. - Adam Smith
That's a kind way of saying that there's a sucker born every minute.

Socialism is simply the second guessing of those who actually do things, as a way of evading the reasonablness of according such people credit for their accomplishments. It is difficult for people to avoid being suckers for socialism's second guesses, and consequently many people don't realise that second guessing is all they are trusting when they trust socialists.


41 posted on 05/10/2007 5:41:19 AM PDT by conservatism_IS_compassion (The idea around which liberalism coheres is that NOTHING actually matters except PR.)
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To: InterceptPoint

“Lawyer” could be anyone.

You have failed to prove your case.


42 posted on 05/10/2007 1:16:50 PM PDT by instantgratification
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To: instantgratification
“Lawyer” could be anyone.

True enough. OK I guess that means that Alger Hiss was innocent after all. Wow. Who would have guessed? You learn something everyday.

43 posted on 05/10/2007 2:02:23 PM PDT by InterceptPoint
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To: unkus

Do we know the names of any infamous gulags? The Communist version of Auschwitz or Dachau?


44 posted on 05/11/2007 12:42:58 PM PDT by NucSubs (Rudy Giuliani 2008! Our liberal democrat is better than theirs!)
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To: WesternCulture

I had no idea there were any young Swedes left...


45 posted on 05/11/2007 12:44:11 PM PDT by eleni121 (+ En Touto Nika! By this sign conquer! + Constantine the Great)
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To: NucSubs

Not off hand. Weren’t they just numbered. Google Alexander Soltzenetzn (bad spelling).


46 posted on 05/11/2007 12:57:31 PM PDT by unkus
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To: NucSubs
"Do we know the names of any infamous gulags? The Communist version of Auschwitz or Dachau?" - I know one of the most infamous Gulag camps was called Solovki. However, there were a few others. From www.wikipedia.org : [edit] Acronyms BAM Baikalo-Amurskaya Magistral, Baikal-Amur Mainline (railway) BBK Belomorsko-Baltiyskiy Kanal, White Sea-Baltic Canal ITL -- "Ispravitelno-trudovoi lager'", or "corrective labor camp". LO -- "Lesoobyedinenie", Logging works complex CW -- Construction Works CS -- Construction Site Dalstroy -- Far East CW directorate Yeniseystroy -- Yenisey CW directorate SMU -- "stroitelno-montazhnoe upravlenie", Administration of construction and installation works NKVD MVD UVD GUVD PL -- to mark sites that also detained Polish nationals TMFM -- Traitor of Motherland Family Member (Russian: ЧСИР: член семьи изменника Родины), a category of repressed; some camps were specifically designated to this category. [edit] GULAG GULAG -- "Glavnoe Upravlenie Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerej", or The Chief Directorate of Corrective Labor Camps BAMLag, Directorate of BAM camps BBLag, Directorate of BBK camps GULGMP -- Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerej (GUL) Gornopererabatyvayushchey i Metallurgicheckoy Promyshlennosti, Chief Directorate of Camps in Mining and Metallurgical Industry GULLP -- GUL Lesnoj i Lesopererabatyvayushchey Promyshlennosti, Chief Directorate of Forestry and Wood Processing Industry GULTP -- GUL Tyazholoy Promyshlennosti, Chief Directorate of Camps in Heavy Industry GULZhDS -- "GUL Zheleznodorozhnogo stroitelstva", Chief Directorate of Railway CW GUSHOSDOR,GULShosDor. GULShDOR -- "GUL Shosseynykh dorog", Chief Directorate of Camps in Highway CW Sevvostlag(severo-vostochnye lagerya) -- Directorate of North-Eastern Camps USLON, Upravlenie Severnykh Lagerey Osobogo Naznacheniya, Directorate of Northern Special-Significance Camps a.k.a. USKMITL - Upravlenie Solovetskogo and Karelo-Murmanskikh ITL, Directorate of Solovki and Karelia-Murmansk Camps SLON, Solovetski Lager Osobogo Naznachenia, Solovki Camp of Special Significance. [edit] Construction works Administration of corrective labor camps of "Apatit" industrial complex. General Administration of Petroleum Refinery and Synthetic Fuels Construction of MVD (PL) ITLs servicing CSs ## 6, 16, 18, 90, 100, 105, 106, 108, 141, 159, 211, 213, 247, 258, 263, 304, 313, 442, 447, 462, 496, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 513, 514, 514, 560, 565, 585, 600, 601, 620, 665, 770, 790, 791, 833, 855, 859, 865, 880, 915, 882, 883, 885, 994, 896, 907, 940 (PL) (PL) ITLs servicing GUShosDor CSs ## 1 -- 8, 19 (PL) (PL) ITLs servicing SMU ## 41 -- 53 (PL) Krasnoyarsk CS and ITL of Yeniseystroy (PL) ITL of Special CSs for Cellulose-Paper enterprises of Karelo-Finnish SSR (PL) ITL of CS for Arkhangelsk Cellulose-Paper Complex (PL) ITL od CSs for hydroelectric power plants on the Buya River (PL) ITL od CSs for Vladimir hydroelectric power plant (PL) ITL for CSs ##1, 2, 3 of Bashkirian Petroleum Plants Special CW (Bashspecneftestroy) (PL) ITL for CSs ##1, 2, 3 of Tatarstan Petroleum Plants Special CW (Tatspecneftestroy) (PL) ITL for CS of the Kazan petroleum refinery ITL for CSs of hydroelectric power plants on the upper Oka River (PL) ITL for CSs of Transcaucasian metallurgical enterprises (PL) ITL for CSs of Znamienitaya dam and sluice (PL) ITL for CSs of Volga-Don canal (PL) ITL for CSs of Krasnoyarsk-Yeniseysk railway (PL) ITL for CSs of Karaganda basin open-cast coal mines (PL) Taishet Construction Works [edit] Not figured out yet Alluvajsky CS and ITL (PL) Jensky CS and ITL (PL) Matkozensky CS and ITL (PL) Yanstroy ITL of Dalstroy (PL) 184) ITL i Budowa Górnosamgorskiego Systemu Irygacyjnego, 194) ITL i Budowa Mstyjskich GES,((?)Mstizhi ({?} Mstizh, ) 155) ITŁ Budowy Kombinatu nr 11, 156) ITŁ Budowy Kopalń Rudy Żelaza, 157) ITŁ Budowy Przedsiębiorstw Górniczo-Metalurgicznych, 158) ITŁ Budowy Przystani Południowej, 159) ITŁ Budowy Specjalnej, 139) ITŁ Budownictwa Przemysłowego i Mieszkaniowego, 161) ITŁ Budowy Usolskich Zakładów Sprzętu Górniczego, 164) ITŁ i 10 Budowa Polowa NKWD, 182) ITŁ i Budowa Borownickiej GES, 188) ITŁ i Budowa Kombinatu Aktowrackiego, 189) ITŁ i Budowa Kombinatu nr 7, 190) ITŁ i Budowa Kopalni Rudy, 191) ITŁ i Budowa Kopalni Węgla, 201) ITŁ i Budowa Rejonu Specjalnego, 133) ITŁ i Budowa nr 4 Baszspiecnieftiestroju, 134) ITŁ i Budowa Zakładu nr 8 NKW, 135) ITŁ i Ekspedycja Poszukująca Ropy Naftowej, 136) ITŁ "DS" Jenisejstroju, 137) ITŁ Biełomorstroju, 138) ITŁ Bierieloskiego Rejonowego Zarządu Poszukiwań Geologicznych Dalstroju, 162) ITŁ Dmitrowskich Zakładów Mechanicznych, 163) ITŁ Ekspedycji Geologiczno-Poszukiwawczej, 208) ITŁ Jańskiego Zarządu Górniczo-Przemysłowego, 209) ITŁ Kołymsko-Indygirskiej Żeglugi Rzecznej Dalstroju, 210) ITŁ Kombinatu nr 6, 211) ITŁ Kombinatu nr 9, 212) ITŁ Krasnojarskiego Zakładu Afinacji, 213) ITŁ nr 17 GUSZOSDOR-u, 214) ITŁ przy Budowie Karagandażyłstroju, 215) ITŁ przy Budowie Specjalnej 881, 216) ITŁ przy Oboronstroju, 217) ITŁ przy Uglickich Zakładach Konstrukcji Mostowych nr 4 GUSZOSDOR-u, 218) ITŁ przy Zarządzie Budowy Dyrekcji Kopalń Rudy nr 10, 219) ITŁ Rudbakalstroju, 232) ITŁ Transportu Samochodowego Dalstroju, 233) ITŁ Usolgidroles, 234) ITŁ Zarządu Dróg Bitych Dalstroju, 235) ITŁ Zarządu Gospodarstw Pomocniczych Dalstroju, Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [edit] A Akhtuba ITL, Akhunlag, Akmolinsk camp of wives of traitors of the Motherland (АЛЖИР, Акмолинский лагерь жён изменников Родины), an example of a morose Gulag wordplay: Алжир is Algeria (in Siberia...) Aktiubinsk ITL, Aldan ITL of Dalstroy, Aldan ITL, Altay ITL, Amgun ITL, Amur ITL, Amur railway ITL, Lower Amur ITL Angara ITL, Angninsk ITL, Arkhangelsk ITL, Astrachan ITL, Azov ITL, Azov LO [edit] Not figured out yet Araliczewski ITL, Archpierpunkt, Atbasarski ITL, [edit] B Bamlag, Belomorsko-Baltiisky ITL, BBK (White Sea-Baltic Canal) ITLs Balagansk LO Belogorsk ITL Belorechensk ITL Belozersk LO Bereznikovo ITL Beskudnikovo Special LO Birsk ITL Bodaybo ITL Bogoslovsk ITL Bratsk ITL Bukachacha ITL Bureya ITL [edit] Not figured out yet Baydar ITL Bakal ITL Bakov ITL Baleya ITL Balachlag Barashevo ITL and Industrial Complex of GULAG, Bazen ITL Byelokorovitsy camp of the OITK NKVD of BSSR Bereza ITL Bereza ITL of Northern direcorate of GULZDS Bezymianski ITL, Bobrov LO Bor ITL Beregovoi Camp, Buriepolomsk ITL [edit] C Chapayevsk ITL Chauny ITL of Dalstroy, Cheboksary ITL Chelyabinsk ITL Cherepovets ITL Chernogorsk ITL Chernogorsk Special ITL Chernoistochensk ITL Chukotka ITL of Dalstroy [edit] Not figured out yet Chystiunski ITL for handicapped [edit] D Dzhezkazgan ITL Donlag (Don) Lower Don ITL Dubogorsk ITL Dzhugdzhur ITL (Джугджур) Дмитровлаг [edit] Not figured out yet Daleki Camp Drogowy ITL of Dalstroy Dubrawny ITL, Dzydynski ITL, [edit] G Gagarin ITL Gdov ITL Glazov ITL Glazov LO Guryev ITL Gusinoozersk ITL Upper Izhma ITL Mountain Shoriya ITL (Горная Шория) [edit] Not figured out yet Górniczy Lagier, Górnosaldynski ITL, [edit] I Ilim Special ITL Indigirka ITL of Dalstroy Inta ITL Inza- Syzran ITL [edit] Not figured out yet Ozyorny Camp 236) Iwdielski ITŁ, 237) Jagriński ITŁ i Budowa 203, 238) Jański Zarząd Górniczo-Przemysłowy i ITŁ Dalstroju, [edit] K Khabarovsk ITL Khakassia ITL Khakassia LO Khimki ITL Kengir 244) Kamieński ITŁ, 245) Kamyszowy Łagier, 246) Kandałakszyński ITŁ, Карлаг ITL Karagandzki ITŁ, 248) Karakumski ITŁ, 249) Kargopolski ITŁ, 250) Kaspijski ITŁ, 251) Kazłag, 252) Kemerowożyłstroj i ITŁ, 253) Kimpiersajski ITŁ, 254) Kitojski ITŁ, 255) Kiziełowski ITŁ, 256) Kluczewski ITŁ, 257) Koczkarskie ŁO, 258) Kokszyński ITŁ, 259) Kolski ITŁ i Budowa Specjalna 33, 260) Kosłański ITŁ, 261) Koświński ITŁ, 262) Kotłaski Punkt Przesyłowo-Przeładunkowy GUŁAG-u, 263) Kotłaski Rolniczy ITŁ, 264) Kotłaskie Rolnicze ŁO, 265) Kowrowski ITŁ, 266) Krasnogorski ITŁ, 267) Krasnojarski ITŁ, 268) Krasnojarski Zarząd Budowy Specjalnej i ITŁ p/ja 138, 269) Kułojski ITŁ, 270) Kuniejewski ITŁ, 271) Kurjanowski ITŁ, 272) Kusjiński ITŁ, 273) Kuzbaski ITŁ, 274) Kuzniecki ITŁ, 275) Likowski ITŁ i Budowa 204, 276) Łąkowy Łagier, 277) ŁO Dolnoindygirskiego Rejonowego Zarządu Poszukiwań Geologicznych Dalstroju, 278) ŁO przy Sowchozie "Sacca i Vanzettiego", 279) ŁO Szpitala Centralnego Dalstroju, 280) ŁO Zakładów Woroszyłowskich, 281) Łobwiński ITŁ, 282) Łokczimski ITŁ, 283) Łużański ITŁ i Budowa 200, 284) Łysogorskie ŁO, 285) Magadański ITŁ Dalstroju, Magadan ITL Dalstroy 286) Majkaińskie ŁO, 287) Makarowskie ŁO, 288) Markowski ITŁ, 289) Martynowski ITŁ, 290) Maryjski ITŁ, 291) Miechrieński ITŁ, 292) Miedwieżjegorski Inwalidzki ITŁ, 293) Miejskie ŁO, 294) Mineralny ITŁ, 295) Miniejewskie ŁO ChOZU MWD, 296) Minusińskie ŁO SGU, 297) Mołotowski ITŁ, 298) Monczegorski ITŁ i Budowa Kombinatu "Siewieronikiel", 299) Moskiewski ITŁ Eksploatacji Lasów, 300) Moskiewski Węglowy ITŁ, 301) Mostowski ITŁ, [edit] N 302) Nadkaspijski ITŁ i Budowa 107, 303) Nadmorski ITŁ, 304) Nadmorski ITŁ Dalstroju, 305) Nadmorski Kolejowy ITŁ i Budowa 206, 306) Nadmorski Rejon Dalstroju, 307) Nadwołżański ITŁ, 308) Niebitdaski ITŁ, 309) Nieftiestrojłag, 310) Niemnyrski ITŁ, 311) Nierczyński ITŁ, 312) Nierczyńskie Rolnicze ŁO, 313) Nikołajewski ITŁ, 314) Nogiński ITŁ, 315) Norylski ITŁ, 316) Nowokamieński ITŁ, 317) Nowotambowski ITŁ, 318) Nyrobski ITŁ, 319) Obóz Specjalny nr 11, 320) Obski ITŁ, 321) Obski ITŁ i Budowa 501, 322) Olchowski Inwalidzki ITŁ, 323) OŁP Budowy nr 1 GUŁAG-u NKWD, 324) Omski ITŁ, 325) Omski ITŁ i Budowa 166, 326) Omsukczański ITŁ Dalstroju, 327) Oneski ITŁ, 328) Opocki ITŁ, 329) Orłowski ITŁ, 330) Ostrowski ITŁ, 331) Panińskie ŁO, 332) Pawłodarski ITŁ, 333) Peczorski ITŁ, 334) Piaskowy ITŁ, 335) Podgorny ITŁ, 336) Podleśne ŁO, 337) Polański ITŁ, 338) Polarny ITŁ, 339) Południowokuzbaski ITŁ, 340) Południowo-Wschodni ITŁ, 341) Południowo-Zachodni ITŁ Dalstroju, 342) Południowo-Zachodni Zarząd Górniczo-Przemysłowy i ITŁ Jenisejstroju, 343) Południowy ITŁ, 344) Południowy ITŁ przy Budowie 505 GUŁZDS, 345) Ponyski ITŁ, 346) Północnodwiński ITŁ, 347) Północnokuzbaski ITŁ, 348) Północnopeczorski ITŁ, 349) Północnouralski ITŁ, 350) Północno-Wschodni ITŁ, 351) Północny ITŁ Dalstroju, 352) Północny Kolejowy ITŁ, 353) Północny Zarząd ITŁ i Budowy 503, 354) Prorwiński ITŁ, 355) Przełęczowy ITŁ, 356) Pudoskie ŁO, 357) Pudożgorski ITŁ, [edit] R 358) Rajczyski ITŁ, 359) Rybiński ITŁ, 360) Rzeczny Łagier, [edit] S 361) Sachaliński ITŁ, 362) Samarski ITŁ, 363) Sarański ITŁ, 364) Saratowski ITŁ, 365) Selengijski ITŁ, 366) Siegieski ITŁ, 367) Solikamski Inwalidzki ITŁ, 368) Solikamski ITŁ, 369) Sorocki ITŁ, 370) Sosnowski ITŁ, 371) Sriedniebielski ITŁ, 372) Stalingradzki ITŁ, 373) Starosielskie ŁO, 374) Stepowy ITŁ, 375) Stiepniackie ŁO, 376) Suchodolski ITŁ, 377) Swijaskie ŁO, 378) Swobodzieński ITŁ, 379) Syberyjski ITŁ, 380) Szachtyński ITŁ, 381) Szczugorski ITŁ, 382) Szeksniński ITŁ GUŁGTS, 383) Szeksniński ITŁ MWD, 384) SZOSDORŁAG, 385) Szyrokowski ITŁ, 386) Środkowoazjatycki ITŁ, [edit] T Tsymlansk ITL, 387) Tachtamygdyńskie ŁO, 388) Tagilski ITŁ, 389) Tajgowy ITŁ, 390) Tajgowy Zarząd Górniczo-Przemysłowy i ITŁ Jenisejstroju, 391) Tajszecki ITŁ GUŁAG-u, 392) Tajszecki ITŁ GUŁŻDS, 393) Tajszecki ITŁ UITŁK UNKWD Obwodu Irkuckiego, 394) Tasicjewski ITŁ, 395) Tawdyjski ITŁ, 396) Tichwiński ITŁ, 397) Tiemnikowski ITŁ, 398) Tieńkiński ITŁ Dalstroju, 399) Tomski ITŁ, 400) Tomsko-Asiński ITŁ, 401) Tom-Usyjski ITŁ, 402) Tranzytowe ŁO Dalstroju, 403) Tugaczyński ITŁ, 404) Tuimski Zarząd Górniczo-Przemysłowy i ITŁ Jenisejstroju, 405) Tujmazyński ITŁ, 406) Tyrnyauski Kombinat i ITŁ, [edit] U Ukhta-Izhma ITL 408) Uleński Zarząd Górniczo-Przemysłowy i ITŁ, 409) Ulminski ITL|Ulmiński ITŁ, 410) Umaltynski ITL|Umaltyński ITŁ, 411) Unzenski ITL|Unżeński ITŁ, 412) Urgalski ITL i Budowa GULZDS|Urgalski ITŁ i Budowa GUŁŻDS, Usolsk ITL Ust-Kut ITL Ust-Vym ITL Vanino ITL of Dalstroi Varnavino ITL Vyatka ITL 422) Wiartsilski ITL|Wiartsilski ITŁ, Viazma ITL Vershina-Darasun ITL Vishera ITL Vladivostok ITL Vladivostok Transit Site of Dalstroy Volga watershed ITL Volga ITL of hydrosystem construction Lower Volga ITL Volgobalt ITL Vorkuta ITL Voronino ITL Eastern Railroad ITL Eastern Administration of Lead Mining and ITL of Dalstroy Eastern Urals ITL Vytegra ITL Eastern ITL of Dalstroy Yenisey ITL Yermakovskoye LO (Ермаковское, Krasnoyarsk Krai) Yugorsk ITL (Khantia-Mansia) 443) Zaimandrowski ITL|Zaimandrowski ITŁ, Trans Polar circle ITL Zhygalov LO.
47 posted on 05/11/2007 6:22:58 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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To: WesternCulture

Link to the wikipedia article listing the camps (looks less messy than my former post):

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Gulag_camps


48 posted on 05/11/2007 6:28:01 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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To: unkus

The correct spelling seems to be ‘Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’.

Had to look it up.

I’ve read ‘The Gulag Archipelago’. Learned a lot but, quite unfortunately, nothing about how to spell Russian names in our alphabet.

I’ll blame Bush.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleksandr_Isaevich_Solzhenitsyn


49 posted on 05/11/2007 6:43:58 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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To: eleni121

“I had no idea there were any young Swedes left”

- Sadly enough, there are more young Swedes left than there are young Swedes opposed to the left.

Haven’t you heard?


50 posted on 05/11/2007 6:51:50 PM PDT by WesternCulture
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