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She Crucified Her Enemies And Burnt London To The Ground. Meet Britain's First Feminist, Boadicea
Daily Mail ^ | 2-6-2008 | Paul Johnson

Posted on 02/07/2008 3:19:53 PM PST by blam

She crucified her enemies and burnt London to the ground. Meet Britain's first feminist, Boadicea

By PAUL JOHNSON
Last updated at 21:32pm on 6th February 2008

Britain's history is rich in fiery queens, and the first such heroine, tall with red hair down to her waist, commanding and brave, was Boadicea, warrior leader of the ancient Britons.

She lived at the same time as the emperors Claudius and Nero, and led a surprisingly successful British revolt against Roman rule in AD60-61 (which, for reference, was when St Paul was writing epistles and St Mark composing his Gospel).

She was a notable orator. Her enemies, the Romans, said her voice was strident, but, as Margaret Thatcher found, any woman seeking to establish authority over an assembly of men is open to this accusation.

Queen of mean: Alex Kingston as Boadicea for ITV

The history we have of her from such a distant epoch is part fact, part fiction, and not much is really known with certainty about her. But her name lives on and her tragedy rings a kind of muffled bell in all of us.

The Roman historian Tacitus - who wrote within living memory of the rebellion and was therefore nearest to the action in literary terms - records that she was the wife of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni, a tribe in what we now call East Anglia.

He had made a deal with the Roman conquerors that when he died his co-heirs would be his own two daughters and the Emperor Nero. That way he hoped to preserve his kingdom and his family fortune.

But, on his death, the Romans ignored the will, flogged Boadicea, raped her daughters and seized all her husband's property and estates. As a result, says Tacitus, the Iceni rose in revolt, backed by the Trinobantes, a tribe from what is now Essex.

This army of Britons destroyed the Roman colony at Colchester, annihilated the ninth Roman legion, which came to relieve the town, and forced the Roman Governor of Britain, Paulinus, to evacuate London, which was also destroyed. Seventy thousand Romans were killed.

The rampaging Britons targeted places where "loot was richest and protection weakest," wrote Tacitus. "They could not wait to cut throats, hang, burn and crucify, as though avenging, in advance, the retribution that was on its way."

It duly arrived. Paulinus collected 10,000 troops and lured the Britons into a pitched battle on grounds of his choosing, at a place Tacitus does not identify but seems to have been somewhere in the Midlands.

The Britons congregated in huge numbers, on foot and horseback, and "their confidence was so great that they brought their wives with them to see the victory, installing them in carts stationed at the edges of the battlefield."

Boadicea (or Boudica as she is more often called these days) is said to have driven round all the tribes in a chariot with her daughters in front of her, and addressed them in a fighting speech with marked feminist over-tones.

She showed them her bruised body and outraged daughters, and ended with the rallying cry: "Win this battle or perish. That is what I, a woman, plan to do. Let the men live in slavery if they will."

Tacitus says that more than half the British army were women, and the outcome was an easy Roman victory. Eighty thousand Britons fell at a cost of 400 Roman dead and a slightly larger number of wounded.

The queen, he adds, poisoned herself, and the rebellion ended not only in defeat but terrible famine among the surviving Britons.

But that may not be the whole story. A century and a half after Tacitus, a Roman senator named Cassius Dio wrote a history of Rome in 80 volumes, with a more detailed version of the conquest of Britain and Boadicea's uprising.

He put the number of Romans slain at 80,000 and said the whole island was lost for a while in this "terrible disaster". What added to Rome's shame, he wrote, was that "all this ruin was brought about by a woman".

His explanation for the uprising was economic mismanagement on the part of the Roman masters. They had unreasonably called in large loans of money made years earlier to prominent British chiefs.

This rings true. The Roman occupation of Britain was marked by brutal financial exploitation of the ruling elites and oppression of the natives of all degrees.

Dio says that Buduica (or Budhika), as he calls her, was chosen leader by the tribes and "directed the conduct of the entire war". He says she had "greater intelligence than is generally found in women," was "very tall, in appearance most terrifying, in the glance of her eye most fierce, and her voice was harsh.

"A great mass of the tawniest hair fell to her hips. Around her neck was a large golden necklace. She wore a tunic of many colours over which a thick mantle was fastened by a brooch. She grasped a spear to help her terrify all who saw her."

She practised magic and divination, and concealed a hare in her garments, which she would let escape to see how it would run so as to make her prophesies.

Her followers are portrayed as savages, and Dio describes obscene cruelties inflicted by them on Roman women, for example, cutting off their breasts and sewing them onto their mouths.

The speech he ascribes to her spurring on her followers was along the same lines as Tacitus's: freedom or death - better to perish in battle than live under Roman rule as slaves.

But it contains an added note, with great historical resonance. The queen stressed that the Britons were a special people, separated from the rest of mankind by a sea, and enjoying, until the Romans came, a liberty unknown elsewhere.

According to Dio, her army totalled 230,000 and the final battle, far from being a rout, was very close. Many Britons escaped and were preparing further resistance but the queen fell sick and died.

The Britons "mourned her deeply and gave her a costly burial. But feeling that now at last they were really defeated, they scattered to their homes".

The archaeological evidence to support all this is both firm and disappointing. Firm because a black and red layer of ash discovered in the earth confirms that Colchester and London were burned down in about AD60. But disappointing because of the warrior queen herself and her army no physical evidence has yet been found.

A large area surrounded by deep ditches at Thetford in Norfolk has been called "the palace of Boudica", but similar sites exist elsewhere and their purpose is debatable.

Yet she is an immensely striking and even attractive figure - and national concept - and, in the absence of real evidence, imaginations have worked hard.

In the early 16th century, a history of Britain presented her as "Voadicia", a Northumbrian lady and had her burning down Doncaster. A chronicle of Scotland made her a Scottish heroine from Falkirk.

Then, around 1614, the playwright John Fletcher wrote a play called Bonduca, which cunningly surrounded her with druids, King Caractacus and other bits of ancient British furniture - though to please his own king, James I, Fletcher made her a witch and a horrible woman.

Rallying the troops: Boadicea inspired Britons to fight for their freedom

Fifteen years later, a historian named Edmund Bolton produced the theory that Stonehenge, whose purpose and date had baffled antiquarians, was in fact Boadicea's tomb.

Over the centuries, other sites for her burial place were canvassed - such as Parliament Hill Fields in London and Gop Hill in Flintshire, where locals said they had seen her ghost driving a chariot.

There is another theory, held by people who congregate for the summer solstice at Glastonbury, that she is buried deep below Platform 8 at King's Cross Station.

Interest in her increased in the late 19th century alongside the belief that Britain's unwritten constitution was of immemorial antiquity and that she had played some part in its foundation.

Gladstone encouraged the sculptor Thomas Thornycroft in the massive presentation of the queen in her chariot, with her two daughters, that stands at the northern end of Westminster Bridge, opposite Big Ben.

Queen Victoria, who thought her predecessor's treatment by the Romans "outrageous" (she too had been widowed early and had many daughters) was particularly keen that Boadicea should be given a fine memorial.

It is certainly a splendid piece of work. Children love it, and so do feminists. It inspired the suffragettes in their campaign for votes for women, and it crowns Queen Boadicea as a heroine for ever.

Though not entirely undisputed. A British author named Gildas, writing in the sixth century, was part of a British ruling class who benefited from the Roman occupation, and he had a different take on the warrior queen.

To him, far from being a hero, Boadicea was "a treacherous lioness" who butchered the governors the Romans left to rule the country.

We should not be surprised by this portrayal of her as a "baddie". Throughout history, one person's hero has been another's villain. That is particularly so with modern heroes.

In America, men like the outstanding steelmaker Andrew Carnegie and the oilman John D. Rockefeller became heroes of the cult of the entrepreneur. But to others they were "robber barons" or, in the words of President Theodore Roosevelt, "malefactors of great wealth".

People must agree to differ about heroes. I admire Chile and its people greatly, but I was concerned when my friend Salvador Allende became its president and opened the country to hordes of armed radicals from all over the world. The result was the world's highest inflation, universal violence and the threat of civil war.

So I applauded the takeover by General Pinochet and still more his success in making the economy the soundest in Latin America. But by preventing the transformation of Chile into a communist satellite, the general earned the furious hatred of the Soviet Union, whose propaganda machine successfully demonised him among the chattering classes all over the world.

It was the last triumph of the KGB before it vanished into history's dustbin. But Pinochet remains a hero to me.

My other heroes tend to be people who successfully accomplish things I would not dare even to contemplate. I could not possibly sail single-handedly round the world, even if I had the skill, like a pretty and fragile woman of my acquaintance, Clare Francis.

The man who runs a fruit stall near my house has swum the English Channel several times for charity. He is a hero for me. I admire heroines of the Far Eastern slums like Mother Teresa, who was a realist as well as an idealist (as are most true saints). The vicious attacks sometimes launched on her fill me with horrified fury.

I always have a soft spot for those who speak out against the conventional wisdom and who are not afraid to speak the truth even if it puts them in a minority of one. And in this case there is some common feeling, for during most of my life I have been outspoken and have suffered accordingly.

I think we appreciate heroism most if we have a tiny spark of it ourselves, which might be fanned into a flame if the wind of opportunity arose.

So how do we recognise the heroes and heroines of today? First, by absolute independence of mind, which springs from the ability to think everything through for yourself, and to treat whatever is the current consensus on any issue with scepticism.

Second, having made up your mind independently, to act - resolutely and consistently. Third, to ignore or reject everything the media throw at you, provided you remain convinced you are doing right. Finally, to act with personal courage at all times, regardless of the consequences to yourself.

All history teaches, and certainly all my personal experience confirms, that there is no substitute for courage. It is the noblest and best of all qualities, and the one indispensable element in heroism in all its different manifestations.


TOPICS: News/Current Events; United Kingdom
KEYWORDS: anachronisms; boadicea; bodacious; boudica; boudicca; britain; britainbeforerome; feminist; godsgravesglyphs; iceni; idhitit; mancetter; midlands; militarywomen; nuneaton; romanempire; tacitus; warrior; worldhistory

1 posted on 02/07/2008 3:19:59 PM PST by blam
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To: SunkenCiv

GGG Ping.


2 posted on 02/07/2008 3:20:22 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam
(Ahem)

BOADICEA TV - KINGSTON CLEANS TOILETS WITH COCA-COLA

The budget on BOADICEA TV movie WARRIOR QUEEN was so tight, British actress ALEX KINGSTON had to wash her hands and clean her toilet with Coca-Cola.

The cast and crew on the Romanian set had no access to running water and had to make do with bottles of sparkling water and Coca-Cola.

But Kingston's simple trailer rider - an electric kettle - helped her stay sane when she jetted between the ER set and her epic about the ancient Queen of The Iceni.

She says, "It's in my contract - 'must have an electric kettle'. So I could boil up the water, but I had to flush my toilet with the Coca-Cola and wash my hands with the Coca-Cola.

"I can say that if you ever run out of bleach, Coca-Cola works really well. It gave me a nice clean toilet."

12/10/2003 20:51

3 posted on 02/07/2008 3:23:52 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam

Interesting. I’d never heard of her.


4 posted on 02/07/2008 3:25:34 PM PST by sageb1 (This is the Final Crusade. There are only 2 sides. Pick one.)
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To: blam

What is the show called?


5 posted on 02/07/2008 3:27:09 PM PST by Cinnamon Girl (McCain calls it "radical islamic terrorism," the dems don't refer to it at all)
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To: blam

I’ve seen a show about her on the history channel. That’s one bad bi**h.


6 posted on 02/07/2008 3:27:55 PM PST by cripplecreek (Duncan Hunter, Conservative excellence in action.)
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To: blam

The Queen Boudica Gallery

7 posted on 02/07/2008 3:28:08 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam
But, on his death, the Romans ignored the will, flogged Boadicea, raped her daughters and seized all her husband's property and estates.

That must have been Billus Clintonus.

8 posted on 02/07/2008 3:29:59 PM PST by SirJohnBarleycorn
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To: Cinnamon Girl
Warrior Queen


9 posted on 02/07/2008 3:31:51 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKQwgpaLR6o


10 posted on 02/07/2008 3:33:52 PM PST by nuconvert (There are bad people in the pistachio business.)
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To: blam
People must agree to differ about heroes. I admire Chile and its people greatly, but I was concerned when my friend Salvador Allende became its president and opened the country to hordes of armed radicals from all over the world. The result was the world's highest inflation, universal violence and the threat of civil war.

I read this without looking at who the author was. Paul Johnson of course.

If they do an actual history with this film it should be very good.

11 posted on 02/07/2008 3:33:58 PM PST by Harmless Teddy Bear (A good marriage is like a casserole, only those responsible for it really know what goes into it.)
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To: blam
"he Crucified Her Enemies And Burnt London To The Ground."

You say that like it's a bad thing. But seriously, get ready England. Your Islamics are planning to do the same.

12 posted on 02/07/2008 3:38:33 PM PST by Enterprise (Those who "betray us" also "Betray U.S." They're called DEMOCRATS!)
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To: blam

Bodacious babe!


13 posted on 02/07/2008 3:39:12 PM PST by Right Wing Assault ("..this administration is planning a 'Right Wing Assault' on values and ideals.." - John Kerry)
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To: blam

Didn’t she invent the ta-ta or something?


14 posted on 02/07/2008 3:39:33 PM PST by NonValueAdded (What Would Hobson Choose?)
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To: SirJohnBarleycorn

LOL!!


15 posted on 02/07/2008 3:41:37 PM PST by Enterprise (Those who "betray us" also "Betray U.S." They're called DEMOCRATS!)
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To: blam

I saw a History Channel program on her, back when they were doing history. I seem to recall they had located the battlefield, or at least knew the general location and topography.


16 posted on 02/07/2008 3:41:52 PM PST by colorado tanker
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To: sageb1
Interesting. I’d never heard of her.

Oh, I really like her. She's that English actress who starred as Dr. Green's (Anthony Edwards) wife way back when ER was intersting.

Apparently, this was on British TV back in 2003. Wish they would show it on this side of the pond. It sounds very interesting.

17 posted on 02/07/2008 3:46:59 PM PST by mtbopfuyn (I think the border is kind of an artificial barrier - San Antonio councilwoman Patti Radle)
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To: blam

I saw a History Channel program on her, back when they were doing history. I seem to recall they had located the battlefield, or at least knew the general location and topography.


18 posted on 02/07/2008 3:48:41 PM PST by colorado tanker
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To: blam
Sounds like revisionist claptrap to me. I've always read that she was roundly defeated when the second Roman legion was arrayed against her, and that her "triumph" last only a scant few years, marked mostly by raids on remote Roman outposts and villages that had been overburdened by taxes.

The revisionists make her out to be some kind of William Wallace in a bodice. Color me skeptical.

19 posted on 02/07/2008 3:53:51 PM PST by IronJack (=)
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To: blam; Xenalyte
Bah!

Our own Xenalyte could take her out.

20 posted on 02/07/2008 4:35:15 PM PST by BenLurkin
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To: IronJack

History is written by the victors. Who knows.


21 posted on 02/07/2008 4:53:24 PM PST by Clock King (Bring the noise!)
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To: SirJohnBarleycorn

Yes, and he claimed he thought it was “Hilarious”... :))


22 posted on 02/07/2008 4:58:26 PM PST by sailor4321
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To: IronJack

How so? William Wallace came up a cropper in the end as well...


23 posted on 02/08/2008 11:16:00 AM PST by thundrey
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To: thundrey
William Wallace came up a cropper in the end as well...

But at least he inspired the Scots to unite, and ultimately to succeed in establishing Scottish independence. Boudica did nothing more than rouse some rabble to pillage a village, then get exterminated when the Romans had had their fill of her.

24 posted on 02/08/2008 6:15:01 PM PST by IronJack (=)
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To: blam; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 49th; ...

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Thanks Blam. Just by coincidence, Hillary is running for president. Historically, Boadicca was a disaster for the Iceni, yet is trotted out as an inspiration when Britain (which used to rule more territory than the Roman Empire) has some axe to grind against somebody.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are Blam, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

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25 posted on 02/09/2008 11:42:31 AM PST by SunkenCiv ("We are ready for any unforeseen event that may or may not occur." -- VP Al Gore, 9/22/97)
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To: blam

This warrior queen can be rediscovered several times a year. What better reason to discover her again than a TV show.


26 posted on 02/09/2008 1:10:41 PM PST by RightWhale (Clam down! avoid ataque de nervosa)
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To: blam

Boudicca - she was some woman. Wish she was around today.
She sounds really “hot” to me.


27 posted on 02/09/2008 1:21:12 PM PST by ZULU (Non nobis, non nobis Domine, sed nomini tuo da gloriam. God, guts and guns made America great.)
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To: SunkenCiv; Halgr; processing please hold; yorkie
Interesting article! Truer words were never spoken:

So how do we recognise the heroes and heroines of today? First, by absolute independence of mind, which springs from the ability to think everything through for yourself, and to treat whatever is the current consensus on any issue with scepticism.

Second, having made up your mind independently, to act - resolutely and consistently. Third, to ignore or reject everything the media throw at you, provided you remain convinced you are doing right. Finally, to act with personal courage at all times, regardless of the consequences to yourself.

ping!
28 posted on 02/09/2008 2:59:56 PM PST by nicmarlo
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To: mtbopfuyn

“Wish they would show it on this side of the pond. It sounds very interesting.”

I saw it on TV here somewhere. You could tell there were budget problems. her acting was a bit Hippyish.


29 posted on 02/09/2008 7:20:04 PM PST by FastCoyote (I am intolerant of the intolerable.)
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To: IronJack

Boudica did nothing more than rouse some rabble to pillage a village, then get exterminated when the Romans had had their fill of her.

You don’t know the h*ll what you are talking about. I’ll take Paul Johnson’s word and those from primary sources way faster than I would a guy who’s blowing a lot of hot air. Methinks I smell a bit of a mysoginist, not wanting to give a woman credit for anything other than hearth and kinder. You know, the old a woman’s place is in the home rap. If she did half of what they say, she was pretty damn heroic against all odds. Why don’t you go back to browbeating your wife, that’s if anyone would have even considered marrying you in the first place.


30 posted on 02/09/2008 9:49:50 PM PST by flaglady47
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To: flaglady47

YOU GO GIRL!


31 posted on 02/09/2008 11:10:53 PM PST by oswegodeee (Dee ( Born and raised in the south, yummy corn bread and BBQ ))
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To: flaglady47
I’ll take Paul Johnson’s word and those from primary sources way faster than I would a guy who’s blowing a lot of hot air.

Then why don't you take the word of the hundreds of historians who came before Paul Johnson and esteemed Boudica nothing more than a historical footnote? Could it be because Paul Johnson glorifies some barbarian trash who managed to upset a couple of Roman applecarts before being swatted like a flea?

Methinks I smell a bit of a mysoginist, not wanting to give a woman credit for anything other than hearth and kinder. You know, the old a woman’s place is in the home rap.

Methinks I smell a revisionist feminazi, aggrandizing the acts of some obscure "heroine" in order to assert a parity that nature doesn't recognize.

If she did half of what they say, she was pretty damn heroic against all odds.

"Heroic?" I doubt it. Defiant? Maybe. Vengeful? Little doubt. But I don't know that she accomplished much in the long run, or that the price of her defiance in any way offset the cost to her and her fellow savages.

Why don’t you go back to browbeating your wife, that’s if anyone would have even considered marrying you in the first place.

Not content to expose your ignorance, you compound it with childishness. You're no credit to your gender. Or to humanity, from what I can gather.

32 posted on 02/10/2008 8:15:27 AM PST by IronJack (=)
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Comment #33 Removed by Moderator

To: blam

Mel Gibson is supposed to be producing a film about her due out this year. Haven’t heard anything more about the film than that, though.


34 posted on 02/10/2008 8:39:12 AM PST by Tree of Liberty (Islam delenda est)
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To: blam

>>But, on his death, the Romans ignored the will, flogged Boadicea, raped her daughters and seized all her husband’s property and estates.<<

I’d say pretty much anything she did in response was justified.


35 posted on 02/10/2008 8:44:11 AM PST by gondramB (Preach the Gospel at all times, and when necessary, use words.)
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To: blam
The Jews weren't the only people to try throw off the Romans. The "Pax Romana" was not for the benefit of the conquered peoples in the Empire.

"Show me just what Mohammed brought that was new, and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached." - Manuel II Palelologus

36 posted on 02/10/2008 8:49:14 AM PST by goldstategop (In Memory Of A Dearly Beloved Friend Who Lives In My Heart Forever)
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To: IronJack

Not content to expose your ignorance, you compound it with childishness. You’re no credit to your gender. Or to humanity, from what I can gather.

I go back to my comment that I smell a mysoginist. Even your name “Iron” Jack reeks of it. Go ahead and quote all of those hundreds of historians that say otherwise. I’m looking forward to reading your list and their comments. Paul Johnson, by the way, is a conservative historian, and I doubt he would be raising this woman to heroic proportions based on some feminazi platform. I think you are a bitter man who has had some bad experiences with women. My “woman’s” intuition is picking up on your negative vibes bigtime.


37 posted on 02/10/2008 7:26:15 PM PST by flaglady47 (Space for rent: seeking new candidate tagline that will last more than 1 week)
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To: IronJack
Luke, you're going to find that many of the truths we cling to depend greatly on our own point of view. </Obi-Wan Kenobi>
38 posted on 02/11/2008 12:03:04 AM PST by wafflehouse (When in danger, When in doubt, Run in circles, Scream and Shout!)
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Boadicea May Have Had Her Chips On Site Of McDonald’s
The Telegraph (UK) | 5-25-2006 | Nick Britten
Posted on 05/24/2006 8:59:01 PM PDT by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1637917/posts

Military History of the Great Powers(The complete list)
Me | 5/28/2003 | Me
Posted on 05/28/2003 9:18:49 PM PDT by NP-INCOMPLETE
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/919367/posts

“60 AD Boudica Rebellion- Lost Single Roman Legion slaughtered 60000 british celts.”

(besides that, led to the annihilation of the Iceni)


39 posted on 02/11/2008 2:19:26 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________Profile updated Sunday, February 10, 2008)
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boudica site:freerepublic.com
Google

40 posted on 02/11/2008 2:20:40 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________Profile updated Sunday, February 10, 2008)
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http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Warrior-Queen-Boudica-Posters_i1653724_.htm


41 posted on 02/11/2008 2:24:47 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________Profile updated Sunday, February 10, 2008)
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To: blam
I heard that Mel Gibson was considering making a movie about her life.

Kind of the female version of Braveheart.

42 posted on 02/11/2008 2:28:31 PM PST by mware (Americans in arm chairs doing the work of the media.)
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http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/britannia/boudica/boudicanrevolt.html

“’...According to one report almost eighty thousand Britons fell. Our own casualties were about four hundred dead and a slightly larger number of wounded. Boudica poisoned herself.’ ...Hostile tribes, as well as those who had been neutral, were harried and suffered punitive reprisals... There also was famine, as the Britons had neglected to sow their crops for the season, assuming that they would capture the Roman stores.”


43 posted on 02/11/2008 2:29:43 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________Profile updated Sunday, February 10, 2008)
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To: IronJack

I agree to some extent — she led the Iceni and various other tribes which rose to disaster, and Britain was quiet for centuries thereafter (other than some Roman governors who declared themselves Emperor). No province was more Romanized than Britain.


44 posted on 02/11/2008 2:33:16 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________Profile updated Sunday, February 10, 2008)
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To: SunkenCiv
Her tactics at the final battle were laughably ineffective. The Romans backed into a defile and threw three phalanges of trained legionnaires at the rabble, and cut them to pieces, first with a javelin attack from the high ground, then followed up by a relentless wedge driven deep into their center. They were pushed up against their own wagons and supply train when they tried to run, and the Romans slaughtered them wholesale. Most historians agree that the "sickness" this "noble queen" suffered was poison, taken at her own hand to avoid capture.

Oh, and it should be noted that the Romans were outnumbered at least 8 to 1. Retribution virtually laid waste to East Anglia for the next 10 years.

45 posted on 02/11/2008 2:58:25 PM PST by IronJack (=)
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46 posted on 06/08/2011 8:48:05 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
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