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IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
July 4, 1776 | Thomas Jefferson

Posted on 07/04/2008 1:51:11 AM PDT by Jim Robinson

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.— That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.— Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy of the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

-- John Hancock

New Hampshire:
Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton

Massachusetts:
John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island:
Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery

Connecticut:
Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott

New York:
William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris

New Jersey:
Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark

Pennsylvania:
Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross

Delaware:
Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean

Maryland:
Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia:
George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton

North Carolina:
William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn

South Carolina:
Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton

Georgia:
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton


TOPICS: Breaking News; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: 1776; declaration; founders; foundingfathers; fourthofjuly; godblessamerica; godsgravesglyphs; independence; independenceday; july4th; onenationundergod; sacredhonor; sovereignty; weholdthesetruths
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Hope you all have a glorious Independence Day!!'
1 posted on 07/04/2008 1:51:11 AM PDT by Jim Robinson
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To: Jim Robinson

Thank You!


2 posted on 07/04/2008 1:53:30 AM PDT by Westlander (Unleash the Neutron Bomb)
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To: Jim Robinson
God Bless America

Keep her strong, safe, and free

3 posted on 07/04/2008 1:56:02 AM PDT by Rome2000 (Peace is not an option)
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To: Jim Robinson

Happy Birthday, everyone!


4 posted on 07/04/2008 1:56:46 AM PDT by arderkrag (Libertarian Nutcase (Political Compass Coordinates: 9.00, -2.62 - www.politicalcompass.org))
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To: Jim Robinson
The best America has had to offer is the best mankind has ever seen.

God Bless her!

Bump

5 posted on 07/04/2008 2:03:19 AM PDT by andyandval
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To: Jim Robinson

Trivia Point.. Pa Signer Benjamin Rush was President of Insurance Company of North America founded in 1792 the First stock owned Insurance Company in America!.. The First Police written was a Ocean Marine Policy From then Batavia (Indonesia) to the Uk .... Insuring Coffee.. The fIRST INSURANCE COMPANY WAS bEN fRANKLIN BUT IT WAS A mUTUAL..

hAPPY 4TH OF jULY FROM KUWAIT!


6 posted on 07/04/2008 2:03:21 AM PDT by philly-d-kidder (Kuwait where the Weather is over a 120 F and we don't sweat it!! It's the sand we are afraid off!)
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To: Jim Robinson
"Thomas Jefferson still survives."

Thanks for the FoRum.

7 posted on 07/04/2008 2:11:30 AM PDT by FredZarguna ("Is it the 4th?")
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To: Jim Robinson

8 posted on 07/04/2008 2:22:46 AM PDT by B-Chan (Catholic. Monarchist. Texan. Any questions?)
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To: philly-d-kidder
Fun Fact: Declaration of Independence signer John Witherspoon (NJ) is a direct ancestor of actress and cutie-pie Reese Witherspoon.
9 posted on 07/04/2008 2:23:11 AM PDT by B-Chan (Catholic. Monarchist. Texan. Any questions?)
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To: All

And don’t forget the reason that we are still free.

The Armed Forces Of The United States of America


10 posted on 07/04/2008 2:23:38 AM PDT by The Magical Mischief Tour
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To: Jim Robinson

Thank you so much for posting the “Declaration”!
It has been a while since I have read the words.

It will make my day of celebration all the more meaningful.


11 posted on 07/04/2008 2:30:02 AM PDT by Aurorales
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To: Jim Robinson

bttt


12 posted on 07/04/2008 2:40:27 AM PDT by Free Vulcan (No prisoners. No mercy. Fight back or STFU!!!)
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To: Jim Robinson
Thank you, Jim, for Free Republic.

Today is one of the few I miss working on Independence Mall

Happy 4th from Kansas

13 posted on 07/04/2008 2:42:14 AM PDT by DaveMSmith (If you know these things, you are blessed if you act upon them. John 13:17)
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To: Jim Robinson

Happy Independece Day from across the Atlantic!


14 posted on 07/04/2008 2:42:14 AM PDT by Smile-n-Win (Let's drill!)
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To: Jim Robinson

Friend!

Same to you. And yours, of course.

There is a line in that Declaration that says more about America and the people who started it than any other. And we hear often that “It’s against it...” or “It violates it...”

But I hope all can understand what the true meaning is and what was said.

“He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation”

Note what it says. our constitution. Uncapitalized. Doesn’t mean some writings on sheepskin. It means what is TRULY IN OUR HEARTS in terms of fairness and the role that the common man should have in furthering government, and indeed about the purpose of government itself.

Our constitution.

Hard work.
Honesty.
Fairness.
Legal and understandable and sensible law and trial proceedings.
Forgiveness for the stupid ass mistakes we’ve all made.
A universal acceptance that if somebody contracts and promises something to someone, then they are obligated.
A common goal and a common dream with focus on the family.
The incomparable and subtle beauty and force of the English language. Like whatever.

We get the government we deserve. And I have a huge amount of faith in my fellow Americans. I personally believe that all the old methods have failed.

regards,
David


15 posted on 07/04/2008 2:46:58 AM PDT by djf (I don't believe in perpetual motion. Perpetual mutton, that's another thing entirely!)
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To: Jim Robinson

Happy 232 Birthday America!


16 posted on 07/04/2008 3:06:49 AM PDT by Biggirl (A biggirl with a big heart for God's animal creation, with 4 cats in my life as proof. =^..^==^..^=)
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To: Jim Robinson

July 4th greetings from one of the original 13 states, CT.


17 posted on 07/04/2008 3:07:42 AM PDT by Biggirl (A biggirl with a big heart for God's animal creation, with 4 cats in my life as proof. =^..^==^..^=)
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To: Jim Robinson

Thank You, Jim, you too!


18 posted on 07/04/2008 3:15:58 AM PDT by Smokin' Joe (How often God must weep at humans' folly.)
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To: Jim Robinson
By Red Skelton:


I - - Me; an individual; a committee of one.

Pledge - - Dedicate all of my worldly goods to give without self-pity.

Allegiance - - My love and my devotion.

To the Flag - - Our standard; Old Glory ; a symbol of Freedom; wherever she waves there is respect, because your loyalty has given her a dignity that shouts, Freedom is everybody's job.

United - - That means that we have all come together.

States - - Individual communities that have united into forty-eight great states. Forty-eight individual communities with pride and dignity and purpose. All divided with imaginary boundaries, yet united to a common purpose, and that is love for country.

And to the Republic - - Republic--a state in which sovereign power is invested in representatives chosen by the people to govern. And government is the people; and it's from the people to the leaders, not from the leaders to the people.

For which it stands One Nation - - One Nation--meaning, so blessed by God.

Indivisible - - Incapable of being divided.

With Liberty - - Which is Freedom; the right of power to live one's own life, without threats, fear, or some sort of retaliation.

And Justice - - The principle, or qualities, of dealing fairly with others.

For All - - For All--which means, boys and girls, it's as much your country as it is mine.

And now, boys and girls, let me hear you recite the Pledge of Allegiance:

I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic, for which it stands; one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

Since I was a small boy, two states have been added to our country,
and two words have been added to the Pledge of Allegiance: Under God.
Wouldn't it be a pity if someone said that is a prayer, and that would be eliminated from schools, too?



19 posted on 07/04/2008 3:34:36 AM PDT by Diogenesis (Igitur qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum)
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To: Jim Robinson

Thank you Jim!

Have a Happy Independence Day!

sneakers


20 posted on 07/04/2008 3:35:00 AM PDT by sneakers (Liberty is the answer to the human condition.)
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