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New Chromosome Research Undermines Human-Chimp Similarity Claims
Institution for Creation Research ^ | Apr 1, 2010 | Jeffrey Tomkins, Ph.D., & Brian Thomas, M.S.

Posted on 08/05/2010 1:51:06 PM PDT by lasereye

A recent high-profile article in the journal Nature released the results of a study with implications that shocked the scientific community because they contradict long-held claims of human-chimp DNA similarity.1 A previous Acts & Facts article showed that much of the research surrounding the often touted claims of 98 percent (or higher) DNA similarity between chimps and humans has been based on flawed and biased research.2 The problem is that the similarity has been uncertain because no one has performed an unbiased and comprehensive DNA similarity study until now. And the results are not good news for the story of human evolution.

One of the main deficiencies with the original chimpanzee genome sequence published in 20053 was that it was a draft sequence and only represented a 3.6-fold random coverage of the 21 chimpanzee autosomes, and a 1.8-fold redundancy of the X and Y sex chromosomes. In a draft coverage, very small fragments of the genome are sequenced in millions of individual reactions using high-throughput robotics equipment. This produces individual sequence fragments of about 500 to 1,200 bases in length. Based on overlapping reads, these individual sequences are assembled into contiguous clusters of sequence called sequencing contigs. In the case of a chimpanzee, an organism with a genome size of about 3 billion bases, a 3.6-fold coverage means that approximately 10.8 billion bases of DNA were sequenced (3.6 x 3.0). The result is a data set consisting of thousands of random sequencing contigs, or islands of contiguous sequence that need to be oriented and placed in position on their respective chromosomes.

In the 2005 chimpanzee genome project and resulting Nature journal publication, the sequence contigs4 were not assembled and oriented based on a map of the chimpanzee genome, but rather on a map of the human genome. Given the fact that the chimpanzee genome is at least 10 percent larger5 overall than the human genome, this method of assembly was not only biased toward an evolutionary presupposition of human-chimp similarity, but was also inherently flawed.

The title of the recent journal article accurately sums up the research findings: "Chimpanzee and Human Y Chromosomes are Remarkably Divergent in Structure and Gene Content." Before getting into the details of their results, it is important to understand that for the first time, the chimpanzee DNA sequence for a chromosome was assembled and oriented based on a Y chromosome map/framework built for chimpanzee and not human. As a result, the chimpanzee DNA sequence could then be more accurately compared to the human Y chromosome because it was standing on its own merit.

The Y chromosome is found only in males and contains many genes that specify male features, as well as genetic and regulatory information that is expressed throughout the whole body. Because of the recent outcome comparing the chimp and human Y chromosomes in a more objective assessment, it is possible that major discrepancies will be revealed among the other chromosomes that are claimed to be so similar.

From a large-scale perspective, the human and chimp Y chromosomes were constructed entirely differently. On the human Y chromosome, there were found four major categories of DNA sequence that occupy specific regions. One can think of this in terms of geography. Just as a continent like Europe is divided into countries because of different people groups, so are chromosomes with different categories of DNA sequence.

Not only were the locations of DNA categories completely different between human and chimp, but so were their proportions. One sequence class, or category containing DNA with a characteristic sequence, within the chimpanzee Y chromosome had less than 10 percent similarity with the same class in the human Y chromosome, and vice versa. Another large class shared only half the similarities of the other species, and vice versa. One differed by as much as 3.3-fold (330 percent), and a class specific to human "has no counterpart in the chimpanzee MSY [male-specific Y chromosome]."1

As far as looking at specific genes, the chimp and human Y chromosomes had a dramatic difference in gene content of 53 percent. In other words, the chimp was lacking approximately half of the genes found on a human Y chromosome. Because genes occur in families or similarity categories, the researchers also sought to determine if there was any difference in actual gene categories. They found a shocking 33 percent difference. The human Y chromosome contains a third more gene categories--entirely different classes of genes--compared to chimps.

Under evolutionary assumptions of long and gradual genetic changes, the Y chromosome structures, layouts, genes, and other sequences should be much the same in both species, given the relatively short--according to the evolutionary timeline--six-million-year time span since chimpanzees and humans supposedly diverged from a common ancestor. Instead, the differences between the Y chromosomes are marked. R. Scott Hawley, a genetics researcher at the Stowers Institute in Kansas City who wasn't involved in the research, told the Associated Press, "That result is astounding."6

Because virtually every structural aspect of the human and chimp Y chromosomes was different, it was hard to arrive at an overall similarity estimate between the two. The researchers did postulate an overall 70 percent similarity, which did not take into account size differences or structural arrangement differences. This was done by concluding that only 70 percent of the chimp sequence could be aligned with the human sequence--not taking into account differences within the alignments.

In other words, 70 percent was a conservative estimate, especially when considering that 50 percent of the human genes were missing from the chimp, and that the regions that did have some similarity were located in completely different patterns. When all aspects of non-similarity--sequence categories, genes, gene families, and gene position--are taken into account, it is safe to say that the overall similarity was lower than 70 percent. The Nature article expressed the discrepancy between this data and standard evolutionary interpretations in a rather intriguing way: "Indeed, at 6 million years of separation, the difference in MSY gene content in chimpanzee and human is more comparable to the difference in autosomal gene content in chicken and human, at 310 million years of separation."1

So, the human Y chromosome looks just as different from a chimp as the other human chromosomes do from a chicken. And to explain where all these differences between humans and chimps came from, believers in big-picture evolution are forced to invent stories of major chromosomal rearrangements and rapid generation of vast amounts of many new genes, along with accompanying regulatory DNA.

However, since each respective Y chromosome appears fully integrated and interdependently stable with its host organism, the most logical inference from the Y chromosome data is that humans and chimpanzees were each specially created as distinct creatures.

References

1. Hughes, J.F. et al. 2010. Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure gene content. Nature. 463 (7280): 536-539.

2. Tomkins, J.P. 2009. Human-chimp similarities: common ancestries or flawed research? Acts & Facts. 38 (6): 12.

3. The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. 2005. Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome. Nature. 437 (7055): 69-87.

4. For the sequencing technology in use at the time, a typical DNA sequence read used four different types of DNA clone substrates and had individual read lengths from between 200 to 1,000 high-quality DNA bases. Because of repetitive blocks of sequence, these are difficult to computationally assemble into long contiguous blocks of sequence without a map or framework to orient the repetitive DNA sequence lengths.

5. Statistics on sequencing and mapping of the chimp genome are difficult to pin down even though the mapping and sequencing were largely completed by 2006. A report describing the massive effort to produce a more accurate view of the chimpanzee genome has not yet been published.

6. Borenstein, S. Men More Evolved? Y Chromosome Study Stirs Debate.Associated Press, January 13, 2010.


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: belongsinreligion; celticcross; charlesdarwin; chimpanzee; chimpchromosome; chimpsandhumans; creationism; dna; evolution; flatearth; genome; greatpyrimid; human; youngearth
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1 posted on 08/05/2010 1:51:08 PM PDT by lasereye
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To: lasereye

Thanks for this.


2 posted on 08/05/2010 1:56:57 PM PDT by Mrs. Don-o (The TV ad says 8 out of 10 people suffer from hemorrhoids. So... the other 2 people enjoy them?)
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To: lasereye
50 percent of the human genes were missing from the chimp

3 posted on 08/05/2010 1:56:57 PM PDT by oh8eleven (RVN '67-'68)
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To: lasereye
Did the chimps commission the study to disassociate themselves from Obama? lol
4 posted on 08/05/2010 1:58:41 PM PDT by Dem Guard (The + IRS = Theirs)
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To: lasereye
The only part of this at all relevant is the advancement of the claim that rates of genetic change are probably different than have previously been claimed.

That is going to happen when you apply new technological capabilities to previously surveyed situations.

Eventually you find water on the Moon

5 posted on 08/05/2010 1:58:55 PM PDT by muawiyah
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To: lasereye
WElllllll just duh!!!!! But as with the ‘system’ perfected by those globull warming scientist I am NOT expecting the evolution crowd to be dissuaded by LITERAL facts... Think of all the children programmed to believe they an one of the animals.
6 posted on 08/05/2010 2:01:33 PM PDT by Just mythoughts
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To: lasereye

Evolution is the biggest Hoax of modern times, rivaling ‘Flat Earth’ theory in previous times. IMHO


7 posted on 08/05/2010 2:02:04 PM PDT by J Edgar
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To: lasereye

Well, so much for evolution.


8 posted on 08/05/2010 2:02:23 PM PDT by hampdenkid
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To: Dem Guard

My question is - where are the apes’ ancestors?
Do they have to find their own?


9 posted on 08/05/2010 2:03:21 PM PDT by MrB (The difference between a (de)humanist and a Satanist is that the latter knows who he's working for.)
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To: J Edgar

Evolution is the most insidious and perniscious hoax of all creation, pun intended.

Application of its logical implications are the reason we’re in the political/social problems we see today.


10 posted on 08/05/2010 2:04:50 PM PDT by MrB (The difference between a (de)humanist and a Satanist is that the latter knows who he's working for.)
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To: lasereye

If man evolved from chimpanzees why are there still chimpanzees?


11 posted on 08/05/2010 2:05:16 PM PDT by isthisnickcool (NOVEMBER-2-2010!)
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To: MrB

They aren’t dumb enough to worry about this. :-)


12 posted on 08/05/2010 2:07:22 PM PDT by Dem Guard (The + IRS = Theirs)
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To: isthisnickcool

The chimpanzees are evolving from man.


13 posted on 08/05/2010 2:08:56 PM PDT by donhunt (Where does this totalitarian ashwipe get off telling me I can't chose for myself?)
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To: Dem Guard

Maybe a more accurate statement than “not dumb enough” is that they haven’t thought themselves wise and become fools.


14 posted on 08/05/2010 2:09:46 PM PDT by MrB (The difference between a (de)humanist and a Satanist is that the latter knows who he's working for.)
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To: lasereye

...each according to their kind...


15 posted on 08/05/2010 2:11:50 PM PDT by April Lexington (Study the constitution so you know what they are taking away!)
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To: lasereye

I think they need to re-study the link between chimps and demonRAT voters and bloggers...

...and maybe Al Franken and Keith Olbermann...


16 posted on 08/05/2010 2:12:52 PM PDT by 13Sisters76 ("It is amazing how many people mistake a certain hip snideness for sophistication. " Thos. Sowell)
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To: isthisnickcool
If man evolved from chimpanzees why are there still chimpanzees?

Or... why are there still men?

17 posted on 08/05/2010 2:13:11 PM PDT by April Lexington (Study the constitution so you know what they are taking away!)
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To: isthisnickcool
If man evolved from chimpanzees why are there still chimpanzees?

I can only assume at this point that when someone posts this on an Internet forum that they must be joking. Right?
18 posted on 08/05/2010 2:13:36 PM PDT by whattajoke (Let's keep Conservatism real.)
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To: lasereye

The findings may have shocked or surprised the researchers but not those of us who have known the chimp to chump to champ notion was the pipe dream of Darwinists.


19 posted on 08/05/2010 2:18:27 PM PDT by count-your-change (You don't have be brilliant, not being stupid is enough.)
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To: MrB
Yes indeed.

When I was much younger I temporarily entertained Evolution, Atheism and it all happened by chance. That's what “enlightened people come to realize”, I was taught.

After regaining my Christian Faith, I actually find the “evolution story” quite laughable. So much ‘evidence’ has been cooked.

It is a deliberate scheme to deny the existence of God, so that their are no inalienable rights, and the State is all powerful over all life from conception to disposal.

20 posted on 08/05/2010 2:18:37 PM PDT by J Edgar
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To: MrB

Yeah good point. Watching this process of trying to find out what evolved from what never seems to work out very well for those that pursue it.


21 posted on 08/05/2010 2:19:46 PM PDT by Dem Guard (The + IRS = Theirs)
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To: whattajoke
I can only assume at this point that when someone posts this on an Internet forum that they must be joking. Right?

My bad. I mistyped. I meant to ask "what came first, the chicken or the egg?"

22 posted on 08/05/2010 2:20:14 PM PDT by isthisnickcool (NOVEMBER-2-2010!)
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To: J Edgar

If you want an eye-opener in the realm of law,

do some research on Harvard changing from Blackstone’s commentary on the law to the “case law” approach.

The former is the “natural law”, or the God-given law approach,

and the latter is the human wisdom based, evolutionary view of the law.

As one communist put it - “the fixity of the law is our greatest obstacle”.


23 posted on 08/05/2010 2:23:33 PM PDT by MrB (The difference between a (de)humanist and a Satanist is that the latter knows who he's working for.)
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To: whattajoke
they must be joking

Humor us. Why don't you answer instead of belittling.

ML/NJ

24 posted on 08/05/2010 2:27:52 PM PDT by ml/nj
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To: lasereye

Where is the missing link?

Or for that matter, where are any of the missing links for any of the other species that have “evolved”?


25 posted on 08/05/2010 2:28:48 PM PDT by NoLibZone (If we could remove bad representatives through voting, voting would have been made illegal by now.)
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To: J Edgar

ICR has been wrong so many times. They have done much more harm to faith than all atheists combined.

Many good real Conservatives have left FR and joined Darwin Central. A schism like this seems hurtful to our causes.

But God is in control. His will is being done. Doubters might ask, “Whose Will/Control is being done?”


26 posted on 08/05/2010 2:29:20 PM PDT by saltus (God's Will be done)
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To: lasereye

Kind of makes all of those liberals that referred to President Bush as "Chimpy McBushitler" look even that much more ridiculous.

27 posted on 08/05/2010 2:30:59 PM PDT by dfwgator
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To: lasereye

Now they’re going to have to remake Inherit the wind and call it Inherit the gas.


28 posted on 08/05/2010 2:45:15 PM PDT by Beowulf9
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To: Dem Guard

ROTFLMAO!


29 posted on 08/05/2010 2:47:43 PM PDT by FrdmLvr ( VIVA la SB 1070!)
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To: J Edgar

There was no prevalent “flat earth theory”. It was a smear invented to discredit Catholicism. The claim that there was such a prevalent theory is well established as completely false. If we need an example of a hoax, use the assertion that socialism ss a workable economic theory.


30 posted on 08/05/2010 2:59:29 PM PDT by achilles2000 ("I'll agree to save the whales as long as we can deport the liberals")
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To: whattajoke

He meant: “Why are there still Democrats?”


31 posted on 08/05/2010 3:00:45 PM PDT by achilles2000 ("I'll agree to save the whales as long as we can deport the liberals")
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To: saltus
ICR has been wrong so many times. They have done much more harm to faith than all atheists combined.

I wonder how many of those making disparaging remarks about evolution read anything beyond the title.

32 posted on 08/05/2010 3:01:50 PM PDT by Moonman62 (Politicians exist to break windows so they may spend other people's money to fix them.)
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To: lasereye

Darwin’s theory of evolution was never intended to make the case for human evolution. It started with low level organism’s like sea sponges then moved up the ladder to birds and lizards. His findings proved that there was suffient evidence of small cellular and physical mutations caused by need for enviromental adapation. He never found or proved MAJOR MUTATIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS that would cause one species to transform in a completly different other species.


33 posted on 08/05/2010 3:03:31 PM PDT by rwoodward ("now is the time for every good man to come to the aid of their country")
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To: saltus

The only appeal that Darwinism has for “good conservatives” is that they get to claim they are “conservatives” and then go out nail every woman (or man - for the “Log Cabin” conservatives) in sight with a more or less clear conscience.

Evolution is obviously false just from a consideration of the weakness of the underlying mechanism. Epigenetics also undermines Darwinism in a different way. The difficulty is in combining Young Earth Creationism with criticism of Darwin.


34 posted on 08/05/2010 3:05:56 PM PDT by achilles2000 ("I'll agree to save the whales as long as we can deport the liberals")
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To: lasereye

Sometimes the need to “KNOW WHY” outweighs the need to “KNOW HOW”.


35 posted on 08/05/2010 3:08:30 PM PDT by rwoodward ("now is the time for every good man to come to the aid of their country")
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To: rwoodward

Comic book ‘science.’
.


36 posted on 08/05/2010 3:08:30 PM PDT by editor-surveyor (Obamacare is America's kristallnacht !!)
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To: lasereye

Jesus said “But from the beginning of creation God made them male and female”(Mark 10:6). The Christian realizes that science and Christianity are compatible, because science gives us information about God’s universe, but that science is not infallible and is limited in its application.


37 posted on 08/05/2010 3:09:11 PM PDT by mjp ((pro-{God, reality, reason, egoism, individualism, natural rights, limited government, capitalism}))
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To: lasereye

The job market is really tough out there. Please, teach your kids creationism to the exclusion of evolution. It’ll give my kids a better shot at the good jobs.


38 posted on 08/05/2010 3:12:57 PM PDT by Born to Conserve
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To: J Edgar

“Evolution is the biggest Hoax of modern times, rivaling ‘Flat Earth’ theory in previous times. IMHO”

.
Actually, Flat Earth theory was born about at the same time as Darwinism, and from much the same people.

All the written evidence from every culture on Earth shows that the ancients were well aware of the spherical Earth, and had even calculated its radius. Don’t forget that the “Celtic Cross” was found inside the Great Pyramid!
.


39 posted on 08/05/2010 3:14:28 PM PDT by editor-surveyor (Obamacare is America's kristallnacht !!)
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To: J Edgar

Hasn’t changed much either. College level Bio 101 (loved the molecular stuff) still explains the big picture with “chance.” They use the word so much that it comes to mean the opposite in the student’s mind if they are not watching for it. Like the weather man saying there is a 20% chance of rain, 95% of the year. Well, is it going to rain? Probably not.


40 posted on 08/05/2010 3:14:53 PM PDT by huldah1776
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To: Born to Conserve

You are the best evidence I’ve seen yet to support the Chimp connection!
.


41 posted on 08/05/2010 3:16:04 PM PDT by editor-surveyor (Obamacare is America's kristallnacht !!)
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To: lasereye

Whatever the so-called scientific evidence may indicate, anyone who maintains the position that there is no relationship between humans and chimps has never once taken a serious look at the United States Congress.


42 posted on 08/05/2010 3:34:30 PM PDT by Jack Hammer
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To: lasereye

It's my understanding some humans are more closely related to orangutans than chimps

43 posted on 08/05/2010 3:34:38 PM PDT by Zakeet (The Big Wee Wee -- rapidly moving America from WTF to SNAFU to FUBAR)
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To: lasereye

LOL...this is a NO Shoot Sherlock article. However I’ve seen some pretty bowlegged and hairy people and wondered, but thankfully this article has dispelled that thought.


44 posted on 08/05/2010 3:37:25 PM PDT by tillacum (It's the military, not the press, not the politicians, who keep this country free.)
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To: J Edgar

Yes, I agree and would like to add:
1.) Evolution =separated man from God.
2.) Marxism = man can fix man.
3.) Global Warming = man can fix earth.
All are lies, hoaxes!

Without Jesus Christ man is just a brute beast.
Without God, there is no Hope.


45 posted on 08/05/2010 3:44:45 PM PDT by Doulos1 (Bitter Clinger Forever)
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To: FrdmLvr
Thanks!
46 posted on 08/05/2010 4:03:16 PM PDT by Dem Guard (The + IRS = Theirs)
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To: lasereye

I try to explain to brain dead liberals that believing chimps are 98 % similar to Humans is like taking apart a Chevy and Ford and mixing all the parts up and trying to make a running vehicle putting parts together at random.


47 posted on 08/05/2010 4:04:19 PM PDT by Popman
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To: rwoodward
He never found or proved MAJOR MUTATIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS that would cause one species to transform in a completly different other species.

So what was with that title, Origin of Species, then?

ML/NJ

48 posted on 08/05/2010 4:12:54 PM PDT by ml/nj
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To: Born to Conserve
It’ll give my kids a better shot at the good jobs.

Only because braindead a$$hole$ populate HR departments these days. (I mean, has anyone ever met an HR person who had ANY understanding of ANYTHING. Only "teachers" seem more self righteously important.)

(Sometime, let me know the level of your scientific education, and how you have pursued this topic since; and then we can talk.)

ML/NJ

49 posted on 08/05/2010 4:19:09 PM PDT by ml/nj
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To: editor-surveyor

I didn’t know that. Thanks for the information.


50 posted on 08/05/2010 5:32:02 PM PDT by J Edgar
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