Skip to comments.The Siege of Byzantium
Posted on 08/15/2013 7:15:02 AM PDT by reaganaut1
Today, August 15, marks the anniversary of Constantinoples victory over Muslim invaders in what historians commonly call the Second Siege of Byzantium, 71718. Prior to this massive onslaught, the Muslims had been hacking away at the domains of the Byzantine empire for nearly a century. The Muslims ultimate goal was the conquest of Constantinople for both political and religious reasons.
Politically, Islam had no rival but the hated Christians of Byzantium, known by various appellations including al-Rum (the Romans), al-Nassara (the Nazarenes), and, most notoriously, al-Kilab (the dogs). The eastern Sasanian Empire had already been vanquished, and Persia subsumed into the caliphate. Only the worshippers of the cross as they were, and still are, disparagingly known were left as contenders over the eastern Mediterranean basin.
More important, Constantinople from a theological perspective simply had to fall. From the start, Islam and jihad were inextricably linked. The jihad, or holy war, which took over Arabia and Persia, followed by Syria, Egypt, and all of North Africa all formerly Byzantine territory was considered a religious obligation, or, as later codified in sharia law, a fard kifaya: a communal obligation on the body of believers, to be adhered to and fulfilled no less than the Five Pillars of Islam. As the famous 14th-century Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun put it: In the Muslim community, the jihad is a religious duty, because of the universalism of the Muslim mission and the obligation to convert everybody to Islam either by persuasion or by force. . . . Islam is under obligation to gain power over other nations.
This concept of jihad as institutionalized holy war was first articulated and codified into Islams worldview by warrior-theologians (mujahidin-fuqaha)
(Excerpt) Read more at nationalreview.com ...
Thanks for the article. I found it encouraging.
Usually I take Maalox for a fard kifaya.
This is a great article.
They weren’t just attacking something called ‘Byzantium’. They were going for Rome, believing the Roman Empire should fall to them. When Constantinople finally did fall to them, they continued on, looking to take the city of Rome, sailing to Italy, but were repelled. And it didn’t stop there, you can ponder as you drink coffee and eat a croissant.