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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The Cold War (A Synopsis) - Part II - Sep 21st, 2004
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Posted on 09/20/2004 8:10:50 PM PDT by SAMWolf



Lord,

Keep our Troops forever in Your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.
.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.


...................................................................................... ...........................................

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

Where Duty, Honor and Country
are acknowledged, affirmed and commemorated.

Our Mission:

The FReeper Foxhole is dedicated to Veterans of our Nation's military forces and to others who are affected in their relationships with Veterans.

In the FReeper Foxhole, Veterans or their family members should feel free to address their specific circumstances or whatever issues concern them in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, brotherhood and support.

The FReeper Foxhole hopes to share with it's readers an open forum where we can learn about and discuss military history, military news and other topics of concern or interest to our readers be they Veteran's, Current Duty or anyone interested in what we have to offer.

If the Foxhole makes someone appreciate, even a little, what others have sacrificed for us, then it has accomplished one of it's missions.

We hope the Foxhole in some small way helps us to remember and honor those who came before us.

To read previous Foxhole threads or
to add the Foxhole to your sidebar,
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Berlin: 1948-1949


DIVIDED GERMANY

Following World War II, Germany is divided into four zones of occupation -- Soviet, British, French and American. Germany, and Berlin in particular, are the only places where communist and capitalist forces come into direct contact.



Three and a half million Berliners live deep inside Soviet lines. The Nazis' once-proud capital, reduced to a pile of rubble by Allied anger, is down to its bare essentials.

CURRENCY REFORM

In June 1948, an announcement by the Western Allies brings a crisis to Berlin. They establish a currency reform meant to wipe out the German black market and further tie the vulnerable German economy to the West. The Soviets are not told and are infuriated by the action. Moscow says Berlin is located in the Soviet zone and therefore "economically forms part of it."


Sir Brian Robertson (Great Britian), Pierre Koenig (france), Lucius D. Clay (USA).


Sir Brian Robertson, the British military governor in Berlin, along with his U.S. counterpart, Gen. Lucius Clay, respond by introducing a special version of a new German currency, the deutschmark, stamped with a "B" for Berlin.

AIRLIFT

On Thursday, June 24, 1948, West Berlin wakes to find itself under a Soviet blockade -- and in the midst of the first major confrontation of the Cold War. The Western Allies impose a counter-blockade on the Soviet zone. The Soviets hope to starve the West out of Berlin.



The West had been through a similar short-term Soviet blockade of Berlin two months earlier -- and had responded with an airlift using air corridors set up in a 1945 agreement with the Soviets. Now, new plans are drawn up -- for long-term replenishment of West Berlin from the air.

NEW ALLIES

The Berlin airlift brings a new mindset to the Western Allies, who start thinking of West Germany as an ally, rather than an occupied territory. In West Berlin, the airlift brings people sustenance and hope. In one memorable instance, the airlift -- in the form of American pilot Gail Halvorsen -- rains candy on West Berlin's desperate children.


In 1948, Halvorsen’s bunk was a factory for miniature parachutes weighted with chocolate bars. He became known as the 'Candy Bomber,' 'Uncle Wobbly-Wings' and 'Der Schokoladen Flieger' ('Chocolate Pilot'). (U.S. Air Force photo)


As it becomes evident that the Soviets are not going to back down from their blockade, the Western Allies consider how to expand their airlift operations. Larger cargo planes are brought in, as well as bombers with cargo capacity.

WEST-EAST



Berliners are still free to move around their city, despite the Soviet blockade. While West Berlin is suffering through shortages of electricity and other essentials, the eastern sector offers a relatively normal lifestyle. Politically, however, the city is on edge.



Soviet troops harass West Berliners who go to the eastern zone. And in September, a communist attempt to take over the city council sparks mass protests -- which end in violence.

BLOCKADE ENDS

The Soviet Union ends its blockade of Berlin on May 12, 1949. A month earlier, at the airlift's peak, Western cargo planes were landing at one of Berlin's three airports at a rate of one every 62 seconds. By the time the airlift ended, more than 275,000 flights had carried 2.3 million tons of supplies to Berlin -- an effort that went down in history as an aviation and logistical feat.



At least 79 people, including 31 Americans, 39 British and nine Germans, had lost their lives, mostly in plane crashes. But the confrontation proved to be only the opening act in the decades-long Cold War.



TOPICS: VetsCoR
KEYWORDS: algerhiss; berlinairlift; coldwar; communism; freeperfoxhole; hollywoodten; joemccarthy; koreanwar; rosenbergs; sovietunion; stalin; veterans
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Korea: 1949-1953

INVASION

The surrender of Japan at the end of World War II also meant an end to 35 years of Japanese occupation in Korea. As they had in Germany, Soviet and U.S. troops liberated Korea -- and agreed to divide the nation along the 38th parallel as a temporary measure.



But as both sides withdrew their troops, they also set up rival governments, creating the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the North, and the Republic of Korea in the South.

WAR

Both North Korean leader Kim Il Sung and his South Korean counterpart, Syngman Rhee, dreamed of reunifying the peninsula under their respective governments. But Kim acted first. He pleaded with Stalin, who -- after first rejecting the idea -- helped North Korean forces plan for the invasion of the South.



Stalin also was heartened by the communist victory in China in 1949 and believed it was time to open an Asian front against capitalism. On June 25, 1950, the North Korean army rolled south in a surprise assault.

U.N. ACTS

The United States took advantage of a Soviet boycott of the United Nations to have the U.N. Security Council condemn North Korean aggression -- and create a U.N. military force that would defend South Korea.



That U.N. force included soldiers from 16 nations, with the largest contingent coming from the United States --- all under the command of U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur. At first, the U.N. troops were helpless against the North Korean assault -- and for a while appeared on the verge of being driven from the peninsula. But a daring attack behind North Korean lines at the port of Inchon rolls back the North Korean advance.

CHINA

North Korea's neighbor, the People's Republic of China, watched with alarm as U.N. forces drove the North Koreans out of the South. MacArthur assured U.S. President Truman there was no possibility of China entering the war. But unknown to Western leaders, 500,000 Chinese -- called the People's Volunteers -- were preparing to enter Korea.



In November 1950, after repeated warnings through diplomatic channels, China attacked -- sending the surprised U.N. forces reeling southward.

STALEMATE

U.N. troops stopped the advance by North Korean and Chinese forces near the 38th parallel -- and the war developed into a painful stalemate. MacArthur, who had called for the bombing of Chinese cities and pursuit of the war into China, was dismissed by Truman.


American members of the United Nations Delegation to the Panmunjom Military Armistice Conference attend a daily meeting at the Musanni United Nations Base Camp. Left to right: Colonel Andrew J. Kinney, USAF; Rear Admiral Ruthven E. Libby, USN; Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy, USN, Chief Delegate; Colonel Don O. Darrow, USAF; Lieutenant Colonel Lawrence G. Hill; Major General Howard M. Turner, USAF; and Major General Jai Heung Yu, Republic of Korea Army.


By the summer of 1951 armistice talks began. It wasn't until July 1953, after months of pointless fighting and the death of Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, that a cease-fire was finally agreed to. Despite the armistice, the Korean peninsula remains divided to this day -- and a potential global flashpoint
1 posted on 09/20/2004 8:10:51 PM PDT by SAMWolf
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To: snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage; Victoria Delsoul; The Mayor; Darksheare; Valin; ...
Reds: 1947-1953

FEAR

In the 1940s and '50s, the Cold War was fought through fear and persecution on both sides of the globe. In the United States, anti-communism became strident. Those who refused to completely renounce communism and its supporters were considered suspect. This was underscored by the actions of the FBI, under its leader J. Edgar Hoover.



In the Soviet Union, fences were raised against the outside world. The Gulag -- the secret government system of labor camps -- housed millions of prisoners.

HOLLYWOOD

At home, Americans feared communist subversion. Congress revived the House Committee on Un-American Activities. In 1947, the committee investigated America's film industry. Some of Hollywood's best-known actors, producers and writers were called to testify.


The "Hollywood Ten"


But 10 witnesses, who became known as the Hollywood Ten, defied the committee's line of questioning. The 10 were imprisoned. Hundreds more in Hollywood, suspected of communist sympathies, were blacklisted -- and unable to find work.

WITCH HUNTS

Several U.S. politicians used the Red Scare to their advantage. A State Department official, Alger Hiss, was accused by a former communist of passing secrets to the Soviet Union. Leading the prosecution against Hiss -- who was later jailed for perjury -- was a young California congressman named Richard Nixon.


Sen. Joseph McCarthy


Fear of communism also brought Republican Sen. Joseph McCarthy into the limelight. During Senate hearings, McCarthy claimed to have lists of communists in the U.S. military, State Department and other government agencies. For months, McCarthy was able to attack people's reputations at will. He eventually fell out of public favor and power -- after he denounced leading Republicans and senior Army officials as communists.

ROSENBERGS

The fate of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg came to symbolize the excesses of the U.S. Red Scare. The couple were convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union and sentenced to death.


Julius and Ethel Rosenberg


Despite protests that the death sentence against the Rosenbergs -- who had young children -- was unconstitutional, they became the first U.S. civilians to be executed in peacetime for espionage.

CONFORMITY

In the Soviet bloc, Joseph Stalin was eliminating all traces of outside influences -- and any dissent against his form of communism. Following his split with Yugoslav leader Marshal Tito, Stalin had Czechoslovakia's Communist Party secretary, Rudolf Slansky, arrested and charged with Titoism, spying and sabotage. Slansky and 10 others were executed in 1952.


The Czech Jewish party leader Rudolf Slansky (seen here with his family) was found guilty of "Trotskyite-Titoist-Zionist activities in the service of American imperialism" at a trial in Prague in November 1952.


In the Soviet Union, those who discussed change, even in private, risked punishment. At age 17, Susanna Pechuro was arrested and charged with treason and terrorism as a member of a secret discussion group. Three of her friends were executed. Over the years, millions shared their fate -- many vanishing without a trace.

STALIN

In 1952, an old but still-unchallenged Stalin presided over the 19th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party. Before a hall packed with international dignitaries, Stalin declared that capitalists were losing the global class struggle.

But at home, Stalin saw treachery everywhere. Most of all, he suspected so-called cosmopolitans, mostly Jewish intellectuals and professionals. In January 1953, nine Kremlin doctors -- five of whom were Jewish -- were accused of plotting with Western intelligence to kill Soviet leaders. The affair inflamed Russian anti-Semitism.



Weeks later, Stalin collapsed of a brain hemorrhage. No one dared treat him as he lay half-conscious on the floor. Stalin died on March 5, 1953. Even those in the Soviet bloc who hated him could not imagine a future without him.

Additional Sources:

www.cnn.com
people.zeelandnet.nl
www.bayern.de
www.germanembassy-india.org
www.salvator.net
www.military.com
cti.itc.virginia.edu
www.msu.edu
www.berlinairlift.com
airwar.hihome.com
cgi.cnn.com
members.tripod.com/ bonniewmon
korea50.army.mil
www.phyton.dk
www.usc.edu
www.evesmag.com
www.learnhistory.org.uk
www.friends-partners.org
www.celebritymorgue.com

2 posted on 09/20/2004 8:12:11 PM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: All
Three years after the end of World War II, the Nazis' former capital, Berlin, would once again find itself the target of an allied air fleet. This time, the air armada was working to save, rather than destroy, the city.

It was one of the few times the Cold War went hot. The conflict on the Korean peninsula claimed millions of lives, and set the stage for the way both sides would view each other for years to come.

As the Cold War intensifes, so do fears in the Soviet Union and the United States of outside influences -- prompting massive campaigns to purge the "enemy within."


3 posted on 09/20/2004 8:12:55 PM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: All


Veterans for Constitution Restoration is a non-profit, non-partisan educational and grassroots activist organization. The primary area of concern to all VetsCoR members is that our national and local educational systems fall short in teaching students and all American citizens the history and underlying principles on which our Constitutional republic-based system of self-government was founded. VetsCoR members are also very concerned that the Federal government long ago over-stepped its limited authority as clearly specified in the United States Constitution, as well as the Founding Fathers' supporting letters, essays, and other public documents.





Actively seeking volunteers to provide this valuable service to Veterans and their families.


UPDATED THROUGH APRIL 2004




The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul

Click on Hagar for
"The FReeper Foxhole Compiled List of Daily Threads"

4 posted on 09/20/2004 8:13:51 PM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; Matthew Paul; PhilDragoo; radu; Darksheare; Colonel_Flagg; The Mayor; ...

Good morning everyone!

5 posted on 09/20/2004 8:19:47 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; All


6 posted on 09/20/2004 8:23:05 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: bentfeather

Pretty cardinals feather. We saw a female today. First one Sam has seen in years!


7 posted on 09/20/2004 8:27:42 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: A Jovial Cad; Diva Betsy Ross; Americanwolf; CarolinaScout; Tax-chick; Don W; Poundstone; ...



"FALL IN" to the FReeper Foxhole!



Good Tuesday Morning Everyone.
Reminder: The Treadhead Tuesday threads will be back in two weeks.



If you would like to be added to our ping list, let us know.

If you'd like to drop us a note you can write to:


The Foxhole
19093 S. Beavercreek Rd. #188
Oregon City, OR 97045

8 posted on 09/20/2004 8:29:57 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it

Oh, I saw a female, too. I saw one eating grapes. Lovely.


9 posted on 09/20/2004 8:31:01 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: SAMWolf

Present!


10 posted on 09/20/2004 8:32:44 PM PDT by manna
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To: bentfeather

We waited a few minutes, hoping to hear their song but they weren't singing. :-(

Tomorrow is another long day away from the Foxhole. Friday we get to quit a little early and Saturday is our flight back.

We miss everyone but we are having fun!


11 posted on 09/20/2004 8:33:48 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it

Well, my dear have fun!!! We get to go around once in life!

The Foxhole goes on. :-)


12 posted on 09/20/2004 8:38:52 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: bentfeather

Hi Feather.


13 posted on 09/20/2004 8:39:53 PM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: SAMWolf

WOO HOO!! Hi Sam!!!!


14 posted on 09/20/2004 8:42:18 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: manna
Hi Manna


15 posted on 09/20/2004 8:43:04 PM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: bentfeather

It was nice to see a Cardinal again. :-)


16 posted on 09/20/2004 8:44:33 PM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: SAMWolf; Matthew Paul

Oh Sam, I am sending FOXHOLE links to my brother in Mo. He loves Matthew's posts.Downloaded all the tunes Matt posted yesterday.


17 posted on 09/20/2004 8:44:52 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: SAMWolf

Oh sure, but we do not have Hummers year round as do you.


:-(

Hey, you and snippy gonna start a bird thread?? LOL


18 posted on 09/20/2004 8:46:46 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: SAMWolf

Teaser

1966 Jimmy Hendrix changes spelling of his name to Jimi

Goodnight.


19 posted on 09/20/2004 9:56:47 PM PDT by Valin (I'll try being nicer if you'll try being smarter.)
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To: SAMWolf
"A State Department official, Alger Hiss, was accused by a former communist of passing secrets to the Soviet Union. Leading the prosecution against Hiss -- who was later jailed for perjury -- was a young California congressman named Richard Nixon."

No mention of the fact that KGB files confirm what Whittaker Chambers said about Hiss. Hiss was one hundred percent guilty.

Another confirmed spy from that era was Robert Oppenheimer, the scientific head of the Manhattan Project. The Left screamed bloody murder when his security clearance was revoked. The Russian in charge of the atomic weapons technology grab, guy named Sudoplatov, says that Oppenheimer was one of his agents.
20 posted on 09/21/2004 2:07:26 AM PDT by Iris7 (Never forget. Never forgive.)
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To: bentfeather; SAMWolf; snippy_about_it

Nippy Foxhole Hole Bump for Treadhead Tuesday withdrawl symptons.

Hiya bentfeather, from one of the guys on the Civil War pictures newsgroups...

"The purpose of life is not to go to the grave in a well preserved state, but to skid in sideways yelling what a ride"

Y'all have a fine day, ya hear now

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


21 posted on 09/21/2004 2:44:20 AM PDT by alfa6
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To: snippy_about_it

Good morning, Snippy and everyone at the Freeper Foxhole.


22 posted on 09/21/2004 2:58:36 AM PDT by E.G.C.
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To: bentfeather; Matthew Paul
Oh Sam, I am sending FOXHOLE links to my brother in Mo. He loves Matthew's posts

Hey Matt, looks like you have another fan here Stateside. :-)

23 posted on 09/21/2004 3:35:59 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: bentfeather
Hey, you and snippy gonna start a bird thread??

Sure. In our copious free time. ;-)

24 posted on 09/21/2004 3:37:10 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: Valin

What a tease!! ;-)


25 posted on 09/21/2004 3:37:36 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: Iris7
No mention of the fact that KGB files confirm what Whittaker Chambers said about Hiss. Hiss was one hundred percent guilty.

Not sure if this article came out before that revelation or not, seeing how the main source was CNN, it could have just been conveniently "overlooked".

26 posted on 09/21/2004 3:40:01 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: alfa6
Morning alfa6

Nippy Foxhole Hole Bump for Treadhead Tuesday withdrawl symptons

Here's a temporary patch to tide you over till next month.


27 posted on 09/21/2004 3:42:58 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: E.G.C.

Morning E.G.C.

Looks like it's gonna be another beautiful Virginia day


28 posted on 09/21/2004 3:44:05 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it
Morning, SAM, Snippy.

The weather here in Oklahoma is pretty nice too.We've been running in the 90's the last few days. We're looking at a cold front moving in tommorow with a slight chance of rain.

29 posted on 09/21/2004 3:50:24 AM PDT by E.G.C.
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To: E.G.C.

It's been in the 80's and I haven't noticed any of the humidity, I've heard so much about. Looks like we lucked out with that.


30 posted on 09/21/2004 3:52:11 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Life is a riddle; unfortunately the answer's not written on the back of anything)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; All

September 21, 2004

Sent Down

Read: Philippians 2:5-11

Humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you in due time. —1 Peter 5:6

Bible In One Year: Ecclesiastes 7-9; 2 Corinthians 13


A sportswriter described former major league baseball player and manager Don Baylor as a person who always remembered how it felt to be "sent down" to the minor leagues. When one of his players had to be demoted, he would always meet with him to explain the decision. A team owner said of Baylor, "He has been through a lot of life lessons he can share with the players." It makes a big difference when the manager knows how a player feels.

It's always humbling to be reduced in rank, privilege, or responsibility. But these things may come as part of God's training in our lives. The apostle Peter wrote, "'God resists the proud but gives grace to the humble.' Therefore humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you in due time" (1 Peter 5:5-6).

The apostle Paul described Jesus as our example of humble submission to God. He was sent down from heaven to become a man—a "bondservant" who was obedient to the point of dying on the cross for our sins (Philippians 2:6-8).

Humility and submission to God are not signs of weakness but evidence of Christlike power and character. We can receive courage and strength from Jesus Himself, who knows how it feels to be "sent down." —David McCasland

Teach me to do the humble task
The very best I can,
And not to look for greater calls,
Which may oppose Thy plan. —Bernheisel

The mighty Architect of the universe became the humble Carpenter of Nazareth.

31 posted on 09/21/2004 4:20:03 AM PDT by The Mayor (The mighty Architect of the universe became the humble Carpenter of Nazareth)
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To: SAMWolf

Would you be interested in some FR Treadhead stickers,eh?

Inquiring minds are curious, hehehe

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


32 posted on 09/21/2004 4:39:59 AM PDT by alfa6
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To: snippy_about_it

Good morning, I'm going to have to go and find some coffee graphics..when I find time.


33 posted on 09/21/2004 5:18:53 AM PDT by GailA ( hanoi john, I'm for the death penalty for terrorist, before I impose a moratorium on it.)
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Comment #34 Removed by Moderator

To: snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Samwise
Good morning ladies. Flag-o-gram.


35 posted on 09/21/2004 6:30:31 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Professional Engineer

Good morning, PE!

Love today's Flag-o-gram. Thank you.


36 posted on 09/21/2004 6:34:34 AM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: Matthew Paul

LOL!!!

Good morning, Matthew! My brother is just learning to use the computer so I help him by finding things on the web I know will interest him.

He was a Sailor in the 50s on an aircraft carrier.


37 posted on 09/21/2004 6:38:35 AM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: SAMWolf

On This Day In History


Birthdates which occurred on September 21:
1415 Frederick III Innsbruck Austria, German Emperor (1440-1493)
1452 Girolamo Savonarola Florentine monk/preacher/"reformer"
1756 John Loudon McAdam created macadam road surface (asphalt)
1788 Margaret Smith Taylor 1st lady
1817 Carter Littlepage Stevenson Major General (Confederate Army)
1824 Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn Brig General (Union volunteers)
1827 Michael Corcoran Brig General (Union volunteers), died in 1863
1866 H(erbert) G(eorge) Wells Bromley, England (War of the Worlds)
1886 Teiichi Igarashi Japan, climbed Mt Fuji at age 99
1902 Limari Salminen Finland, 10K run (Olympic-gold-1936)
1909 Kwame Nkrumah President of Ghana (1958-66)
1912 Chuck Jones animator (Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck)
1918 Rand Brooks LA Calif, actor (Cpl Boone-Rin Tin Tin)
1931 Larry Hagman Fort Worth Tx, actor (I Dream of Jeannie, JR-Dallas)
1934 Leonard Cohen Montreal, singer/songwriter (Bird on a wire)
1935 Henry Gibson Germantown Pa, comedian (Nashville, Laugh-In's poet)
1940 Bill Kurtis Pensacola Fla, newscaster (The American Parade)
1944 Fannie Flagg Birmingham Ala, actress/comediene (Candid Camera)
1944 Hamilton Jordan political advisor (Crisis, Last Year of Carter Pres)
1947 Stephen King suspense writer (Shining, Kujo)
1948 Michael Finneran diver (1st perfect 10 on 10m platform)
1950 Bill Murray Evanston Ill, comedian (SNL, What About Bob, Stripes)
1955 Richard J Hieb Jamestown ND, astronaut (STS 39, Sk:STS 49)
1962 Grant Fuhr Edmonton Alberta, NHL goalie (Oilers)
1968 Ricki Lake actress(?) (Hairspray)



Deaths which occurred on September 21:
0490 BC Callimachus General (Athens army of Marathon), dies
0019 BC Publius Vergilius/Virgilius Maro Roman poet (Aenes), dies at 50
1327 Edward II king of England (1307-1327), dies at 43
1558 Charles V, King of Spain (Carlos I)/Holy Roman Emperor, dies at 58
1576 Girolamo Cardano Italian mathematician, dies at 74
1776 Nathan Hale spied on British for American rebels, hanged
1904 Chief Joseph, US Indian chief (Nez Perc), dies
1915 Anthony Comstock anti-vice crusader, dies at 71 in NYC
1956 Anastasio Somoza García Nicaraguan dictator, assassinated by Roliberto Lopez
1961 Earle Dickson inventor (band-aid), dies at 68
1974 Jacqueline Susann author (Valley of the Dolls), dies at 53 of cancer
1974 Walter Brennan actor, dies at 80


Reported: MISSING in ACTION

1966 AMMON GLENDON L. MUNCIE IN.
[REMAINS RETURNED 08/29/78]
1966 BAUDER JAMES R. LA CANADA CA.
1966 MILLS JAMES B. BAKERSFIELD CA.
1967 KIEN NGUYEN THAI VIETNAM
[RELEASED 09/24/84, ALIVE AND WELL 98]
1967 JUDGE MARK W TORRANCE CA.
[NOT ON ANY OFFICIAL LIST. REMAINS RECOVERED]
1967 PLUMADORE KENNETH L. SYRACUSE NY.
1967 VESCELIUS MILTON J. MILFORD MI.
[REMAINS RECOVERED 08/14/85]
1969 CECIL ALAN B. HOLDENVILLE OK.
1969 JACKSON JAMES W. JR. ATLANTA GA.
1971 CARROLL ROGER W. JR. KANSAS CITY MO.
[REMAINS RETURNED 06/94 IDENTIFIED 10/95]
1972 COOK DWIGHT W. CENTER POINT IA.
[REMAINS RETURNED 06/94 IDENTIFIED 06/95]

POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.




On this day...
0490 BC Battle of Marathon: Athens vs Persia; about 6,600 die
0454 In Italy, Aetius, the supreme army commander, is murdered in Ravenna by Valentinian III, the emperor of the West.
1066 Battle at Fulford: Norway king Harald III Hardrada beats British militia
1192 English King Richard I the Lion Hearted, captured
1348 Jews in Zurich Switzerland are accused of poisoning wells
1451 Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa orders Jews of Holland to wear a badge
1520 Suleiman (the Magnificent), son of Selim, becomes Ottoman sultan in Constantinople.
1621 King James of England gives Canada to Sir Alexander Sterling
1648 Battle at Pilawce: Bohdan Chmielricki's beats John Casimir
1745 A Scottish Jacobite army commanded by Lord George Murray routs the Royalist army of General Sir John Cope at Prestonpans.
1776 Great fire in NY
1780 Benedict Arnold gives British Major Andr‚ plans to West Point
1784 1st daily newspaper in America (Penns Packet & General Advertiser)
1792 1st French Republic declared
1823 Moroni 1st appears to Joseph Smith, according to Smith
1863 Union forces retreat to Chattanooga after defeat at Chickamauga
1872 John Henry Conyers of SC becomes 1st black student at Annapolis
1893 Frank Duryea drives 1st US made gas propelled vehicle (car)
1895 1st auto manufacturer opens-Duryea Motor Wagon Company
1913 1st aerobatic maneuver, sustained inverted flight, performed in France
1915 Stones at Stonehenge, England, sold at auction for œ6,600
1921 Pope Benedictus XV donates 1 million lire to feed Russians
1922 Pres Warren G Harding signs a joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine
1928 "My Weekly Reader" magazine made its debut
1930 Johann Ostermeyer patents the flashbulb
1931 Britain goes off the gold standard
1934 Typhoon strikes Honshu Island Japan, kills 4,000
1937 The women's airspeed record is set at 292 mph by American pilot Jacqueline Cochran.
1937 J.R.R. Tolkien, publishes "The Hobbit"
1938 Hurricane (winds 183 MPH) in New England kills 700
1942 116 hostages executed by Nazis in Paris
1944 Last British paratroopers at bridge of Arnhem surrenders
1948 "Texaco Star Theater" with Milton Berle premieres on NBC-TV
1949 Federal Republic of [West] Germany created under 3-power occupation
1949 People's Republic of China proclaimed
1951 Emil Zatopek runs 15,000 m. in record 44 min, 54.6 sec
1953 Allied forces form West Germany
1954 Nuclear submarine "Nautilus" is commissioned
1956 Yanks set dubious record, stranding 20 men on base Mantle hits a 500' plus homer but Red Sox win 13-9 in Fenway
1957 "Perry Mason" with Raymond Burr premiers on CBS-TV
1961 Antonio Abertondo swims the English Channel round trip (44 miles)
1964 Constellation (US) beats Sovereign (England) in 20th America's Cup
1964 Malta gains independence from Britain
1964 Reds Chico Ruiz steals home, beats Phillies 1-0. Phillies start a 10 game losing streak that gives the Cards the pennant
1965 O Kommissarova (USSR) sets women's longest paracute jump (46,250')
1965 Ted Erikson of Chicago, Illinois, became the first American swimmer to complete a round-trip crossing of the English Channel.
1966 Jimmy Hendrix changes spelling of his name to Jimi
1966 5" of rain falls on NYC
1969 NY Jet Steve O'Neal punts 98 yards against Denver Broncos
1970 "Monday Night Football" on ABC premiers (Browns beat Jets 31-21)
1970 Luna 16 leaves the Moon
1971 AL OKs Washington Senator move to Arlington (Texas Rangers)
1971 John Lennon & Yoko Ono are Dick Cavett's only guest
1972 Marcos declares martial law in the Philippines
1973 Nate Archibald signs 7 yr contract with NBA KC Kings for $450,000
1974 US Mariner 10 makes 2nd fly-by of Mercury
1976 Wings performs in Zagreb Yugoslavia
1980 Richard Todd of the Jets completes 42 passes in a game (NFL record)
1981 Belize gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1981 Sandra Day O'Connor becomes 1st female Supreme Court Justice
1981 Steve Carlton strikes out NL record 3,118th (Andre Dawson)
1982 2,251 turn out to see the Expos play the NY Mets at Shea Stadium
1982 Devils beat Rangers 3-2 in exhibition; 1st hockey in Meadowlands (NJ)
1983 The mutilated body of 13-year-old paperboy Danny Joe Eberle is found in his hometown of Bellevue, Nebraska.
1984 NASA launches Galaxy-C
1985 Michael Spinks becomes 1st light heavyweight to defeat the reigning heavyweight champion, he defeats Larry Holmes
1986 Miami Dan Marino passes for 6 touchdowns vs NY Jets (51-45)
1986 New Orleans Saints Mel Gray returns kickoff 101 yards for a touchdown
1986 NY Jets beat Miami Dolphins 51-45 in OT; record 884 passing yards
1989 Poland's Sejm (National Assembly) approves prime minister Mazowiecki
1990 Oakland A's Bob Welch becomes the 1st 25 game winner in 10 years
1990 Pirate Bobby Bond is 2nd to hit 30 HRs & steal 50 bases in a season
1990 Faye Vincent turns down White Sox bid to reinstate Minnie Minoso, 68, (so he can play in 6 decades) because it is a publicity stunt
1991 Armenia votes on whether to remain in the Soviet Union
1991 An 18-hour hostage drama ended in Sandy, Utah, as Richard L. Worthington, who had killed a nurse and seized control of a hospital maternity ward, finally freed his nine captives, including a baby who was born during the siege. (Worthington committed suicide in prison in 1994.)
1991 Armenia became the 12th Soviet republic to declare independence.
1998 President Clinton's videotaped grand jury testimony, during which he admitted to an inappropriate relationship with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky, was shown on television.
2000 An Iranian appeals court reduced the prison terms for 10 Jews convicted of "cooperating" with Israel, in a case that had drawn international criticism.



Holidays
Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Watticism Day
Malta : Independence Day (1964)
Philipines : Thanksgiving
US : Press Sunday (Sunday)
UN observance : Intl Day of Peace
National Rehabilitation Week Begins
National Singles Week Begins
Latino Heritage Month


Religious Observances
Ang, RC, Luth : Feast of St Matthew, apostle, evangelist
Baha'is : World Peace Day
Orth : Nativity of the Birth-Giver of God (ie, Mary) (9/8 OS)
Wiccan : Alban Elfed-sabbat


Religious History
1452 Birth of Girolamo Savonarola, Italian reformer. A Dominican from 1474, he was famous for his religious zeal. For 14 years he led in the reformation of Florence, before attacks on Alexander VI led to his excommunication. In 1498, he was convicted of heresy, hanged and burned.
1522 Martin Luther, 36, first published his German translation of the New Testament. (Luther's translation of the entire Bible was completed in 1534 -- perhaps the greatest literary achievement of the great Reformer.)
1814 Francis Scott Key's patriotic verses, entitled "The Star Spangled Banner," were first published in "The Baltimore American." (The poem became the American National Anthem in 1931.)
1848 The Arkansas Baptist State Convention was organized in Tulip, Arkansas, by 72 delegates from several area-wide Baptist churches and organizations. It was the first statewide Baptist organization in the history of Arkansas.
1933 In Germany during Hitler's rise to power, Martin Niemoeller began organizing the Pastors' Emergency League. Over 7,000 churches joined, although some 2,500 later withdrew under Nazi pressure. (The League itself gave birth to the more famous Barmen Synod, formed in May 1934.)

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.


Thought for the day :
"Man has always sacrificed truth to his vanity, comfort and advantage. He lives... by make-believe."


Things You Wouldn't Hear a Southerner Say...
Give me the small bag of pork rinds


How Many Dogs Does it Take to Change Light Bulb?
Australian Shepherd: First, I'll put all the light bulbs in a little circle...


The Ultimate Scientific Dictionary...
Chemical:
A substance that: 1) An organic chemist turns into a foul odor;
2) an analytical chemist turns into a procedure;
3) a physical chemist turns into a straight line;
4) a biochemist turns into a helix;
5) a chemical engineer turns into a profit.


What's Your Business Astrological Sign?...
GOVERNMENT WORKER
Paid to take days off. Government workers are genius inventors, like the invention of new holidays. They usually suffer from deep depression or anxiety and usually commit serious crimes while on the job...Thus the term "GO POSTAL"


38 posted on 09/21/2004 6:41:37 AM PDT by Valin (I'll try being nicer if you'll try being smarter.)
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To: SAMWolf
On Thursday, June 24, 1948,

One of the sources of dispute during negotiations was when the travel restrictions began. At one point the Soviets suggested a start date of March 30, while the Americans held to an earlier date.

The first Soviet travel restrictions went into effect March 31 on rail travel, although some trains got through after that date. The road blockage came later. The road bridge was closed on June 16, although a small ferry on a secondary route was made available, and barge traffic restrictions later still. In any event, all traffic was halted on June 18, not the 24th. The confusion may have come because June 24 was when the airlift started.

The Soviet Union ends its blockade of Berlin on May 12, 1949.

They continued restrictions after that date. (Some of which were simply ignored by the west). Heavy restrictions on road travel only ended in mid - July after the Americans announced that they were planning to send through armed convoys once a week to supply the garrison.

The airlift itself continued through September, going on a 5 day week Aug 12, and finally ending Sept. 31.

Berliners are still free to move around their city,

Not entirely correct. On February 15 the Russians began to block streets between the two sectors (Illing one man who tried to get through) and by the end of April 53 (about half) of the streets crossing the zonal boundry had been blocked.) Passengers on the S-Bahn and U-Bahn were also subject to being stopped and searched and having parcels seized. Workers were allowed to travel to and from jobs, but goods shipments were blocked.

Fianlly, the role of the French must be noted. They favored an early surrender to the Russians in Berlin, but they did contribute by blowing up the Radio Berlin transmission towers.

Primary source: The Berlin Airlift
Ann & John Tusa, Atheneum, 1988.

39 posted on 09/21/2004 9:17:44 AM PDT by PAR35
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To: SAMWolf
The fate of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg came to symbolize the excesses of the U.S. Red Scare. The couple were convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union and sentenced to death. Despite protests that the death sentence against the Rosenbergs -- who had young children -- was unconstitutional, they became the first U.S. civilians to be executed in peacetime for espionage.

I'm trying to avoid ranting, but what ***** excesses. They were guilty. They were punished pursuant to law, after trial and appeals.

40 posted on 09/21/2004 9:25:10 AM PDT by PAR35
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf

Filthy rich capitalists bump!


41 posted on 09/21/2004 9:48:44 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: bentfeather

Hi miss Feather


42 posted on 09/21/2004 9:52:00 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: bentfeather
He was a Sailor in the 50s on an aircraft carrier.

Cool beans! My uncle was on the Yorktown in the early 60's

43 posted on 09/21/2004 9:53:12 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Valin
1954 Nuclear submarine "Nautilus" is commissioned

A great uncle of mine worked for Westinghouse, and was somehow involved in the development of the Nautilus.

44 posted on 09/21/2004 10:02:14 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Professional Engineer

45 posted on 09/21/2004 10:50:23 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it
I remember the CNN series on the Cold War, and the subtle spin they inserted. As far as I'm concerned Venona put the lie to the liberal version of the Cold War and vindicated Tailgunner Joe.

I also remember reading about Ronald Reagan's role in stopping a communist takeover of the Screen Actors Guild, after they'd already pulled off coups in some of the trade unions. As I recall Reagan, Bill Holden and other anti-communists had some hairy moments facing the commies down.

Of course, the left conveniently forgets that McCarthy and the government did absolutely nothing about the commies other than hold hearings, and prosecute a few spies. The "blacklist" was done by the studios because they rightly judged the public wouldn't want to watch commie propaganda movies, something modern Hollywood has forgotten. The strongest measure Congress passed against the communists was a registration law that never went into effect because it bounced around in the courts so long.

46 posted on 09/21/2004 12:34:53 PM PDT by colorado tanker ("medals, ribbons, we threw away the symbols of what our country gave us and I'm proud of that")
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To: SAMWolf

Today's classic warship, USS Incredible (AM-249)

Admirable class minesweeper

Displacement. 530 t.
Lenght. 184'6"
Beam. 33'
Draft. 9'9"
Speed. 15 k.
Complement. 104
Armament. 1 3"; 4 40mm; 6 20mm; 2 .50 cal.; 1 Hedgehog; 4 Y-gun depth charge projectors; 2 depth charge tracks.

USS Incredible (AM-249) was launched 21 November 1943 by Savannah Machine & Foundry Co., Savannah, Ga.; sponsored by Mrs. Herbert Hezlep; and commissioned 17 April 1944, Lt. R. N. Ekland, USNR, in command.

After shakedown along the East Coast and in the Caribbean, Incredible departed Norfolk 24 July, escorting a convoy to North Africa for the invasion of southern France, the Allies landing 15 August. She carried out her sweeping duties very effectively, sometimes without destroyer cover. On 10 September Incredible and her group gallantly repelled an attack of 12 human torpedoes, 2 of which she destroyed. She continued her minesweeping duties off southern France until 18 January 1945 when she sailed for a special mission to Russia and the Black Sea. Incredible performed sweeping duties out of Sevastopol, Russia, then served as air-sea rescue patrol ship in the Black Sea until resuming to Palermo, Sicily, 20 February.

Incredible returned to Norfolk 5 May; and, after overhaul, departed 23 July for duty in the Pacific. She arrived Pearl Harbor 8 days after the fighting stopped via the Canal Zone and San Diego. The minesweeper sailed from Pearl Harbor 31 August for Operation "Skagway", clearing the minefields in the East China Sea-Ryukyus area. This important duty lasted until 17 February 1946 when she returned to San Pedro, Calif. She remained there until she decommissioned at Puget Sound 6 November, joining the Reserve Fleet. From 28 November 1947 to 28 September 1949 Incredible was "In Service, out of commission", based at Yokosuka, Japan.

In June 1950 when the Communists again tested the will of the free world by attacking South Korea, President Truman readily accepted the challenge and immediately ordered American forces into the area to drive the enemy back and establish peace in Korea. Incredible recommissioned 14 August 1950 at Yokosuka and departed 18 September for minesweeping and patrol duties in the Pusan area. While on patrol in mine-infested waters, on 12 October she rescued 27 survivors from USS Pirate (AM-275) which had struck a mine. Delivering her passengers to safety, she continued her operations in the battle zone, sweeping harbors and serving on patrol and escort duty. Returning to Yokosuka, Incredible sailed for Long Beach, arriving 4 August 1951.

The minesweeper operated along the West Coast and out of Pearl Harbor until 6 August 1953 when she sailed for the Far East. For the remainder of the year she operated out of Japan and on patrol along the coast of Korea. Incredible returned to Long Beach 11 March 1954 and decommissioned there 21 September, again joining the Reserve Fleet. Reclassified MSF-249, 7 February 1955, Incredible remained in the Long Beach Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet until she was struck from the Navy List 1 December 1959. She was sold for scrap 8 August 1960 to National Metal and Steel Corp.

Incredible received two battle stars for World War II service and four for Korean service.

47 posted on 09/21/2004 1:22:34 PM PDT by aomagrat (Where arms are not to be carried, it is well to carry arms.")
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To: colorado tanker

So much of our history has been written with spin, mostly leftist spin. It's sad how many Americans know so little about the truth.


48 posted on 09/21/2004 2:04:45 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Snippy, I feel like we're making some history now. Kerry seems to be in freefall and determined to make himself into McGovern II.
49 posted on 09/21/2004 2:10:13 PM PDT by colorado tanker ("medals, ribbons, we threw away the symbols of what our country gave us and I'm proud of that")
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To: Professional Engineer
Filthy rich capitalists bump!

In our dreams!

50 posted on 09/21/2004 2:36:48 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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