Keyword: calcium

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  • Cinnamon Cools Your Stomach, New Study Says

    11/20/2016 2:25:51 PM PST · by CutePuppy · 46 replies
    Sci-news ^ | 2016 September 26 | Sci-news
    According to a new study published in the journal Scientific Reports, adding cinnamon to your diet can cool your stomach by up to two degrees. "The results of the study, which used pigs, seemed to show that cinnamon maintained the integrity of the stomach wall," said study co-lead author Prof. Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh, from RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. "When pigs feed at room temperature, carbon dioxide gas increases in their stomach." "Cinnamon in their food reduces this gas by decreasing the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin from the stomach walls, which in turn cools the pigs' stomachs during digestion,"...
  • Calcium Supplements Linked To Dementia Risk In Older Women

    09/18/2016 5:04:13 PM PDT · by blam · 42 replies
    Health Day News ^ | 9-18-2016
    WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Taking calcium supplements with the hope of keeping osteoporosis at bay may raise an older woman's risk of dementia, a new study suggests. And that seems particularly true if a woman has already sustained an event causing poor blood flow to the brain (cerebrovascular disease), such as from a stroke, researchers said. The study can't prove cause-and-effect. However, dementia risk was seven times higher in female stroke survivors who took calcium supplements, compared to women with a history of stroke who didn't use the supplements, the findings showed. The risk of dementia also...
  • To improve today’s concrete, do as the Romans did

    06/05/2013 9:16:34 AM PDT · by Renfield · 45 replies
    Berkeley (Univ) News ^ | 6-4-2013 | Sarah Yang
    In a quest to make concrete more durable and sustainable, an international team of geologists and engineers has found inspiration in the ancient Romans, whose massive concrete structures have withstood the elements for more than 2,000 years.Sample of ancient Roman maritime concrete from Pozzuoli Bay near Naples, Italy. Its diameter is 9 centimeters, and it is composed of mortar formulated from lime, volcanic ash and chunks of volcanic tuff. (Carol Hagen photo) Using the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), a research team from the University of California, Berkeley, examined the fine-scale structure of Roman concrete....
  • Explosive volcanoes ended Earth's time as a snowball: Huge eruptions broke our planet's deep freeze

    01/18/2016 9:00:01 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 33 replies
    MailOnline ^ | 01/18/2016 | Ryan O'Hare for
    In our planet's early history, 720 to 640 million years ago, thick sheets of ice covered the majority of the surface, as the Earth was locked in a deep freeze. But explosive underwater volcanoes changed the chemistry of the Earth's oceans and were key to breaking the planet from its icy state, according to a new study. Researchers at the University of Southampton believe underwater volcanoes helped to thaw out "Snowball Earth", and even led to runaway chemical chain reactions, which created the conditions for an explosion of life on Earth. While much of the driving forces behind glaciation during...
  • Understanding How Graphene can become Superconducting

    03/21/2014 6:56:04 PM PDT · by Ernest_at_the_Beach · 11 replies
    Overclockersclub ^ | March 21, 2014 09:50AM | Guest_Jim_*
    The atom-thick sheet of carbon, graphene already has a number of amazing properties to it, including strength and electrical conductivity. As impressive its conductivity is though, superconductivity is still greater and has been observed with graphene, but not explained. Researchers at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have now found how graphene and calcium become a superconductor.Called calcium intercalated graphite, or CaC6 is produced by interweaving calcium and graphite, which is a means of isolating sheets of graphene. About ten years ago it was discovered that this material could become superconducting, but neither the exact means nor...
  • What is Mars Made Of?

    02/25/2015 3:19:43 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 79 replies ^ | February 25, 2015 | Matt Williams on
    Like Earth, the interior of Mars has undergone a process known as differentiation. This is where a planet, due to its physical or chemical compositions, forms into layers, with denser materials concentrated at the center and less dense materials closer to the surface. In Mars’ case, this translates to a core that is between 1700 and 1850 km (1050 – 1150 mi) in radius and composed primarily of iron, nickel and sulfur. This core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that clearly experienced tectonic and volcanic activity in the past, but which now appears to be dormant. Besides silicon and...
  • Want Something Creepy? Step Inside Europe’s “Bone Churches”

    10/28/2014 8:34:22 AM PDT · by millegan · 29 replies
    ChurchPOP ^ | 2014 | ChurchPOP
    The Sedlec Ossuary in the Czech Republic looks very normal on the outside... (see pics at the link)
  • Will Ebola kill you? It depends on your genes

    10/31/2014 7:52:21 AM PDT · by afraidfortherepublic · 41 replies
    The Dailly Mail ^ | 10-30-14 | Lizzie Parry
    Genetics will determine whether a person infected with Ebola dies, scientists claimed today. A new study has found DNA could be the key to tracking the deadly effects of the virus which has ravaged West Africa. The World Health Organisation revealed nearly 5,000 people have died from the disease, which has devastated Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. A team of scientists at Washington University believe their study has identified genetic factors behind the mild-to-deadly range of reactions to the virus.
  • Signs of a Stranger, Deeper Side to Nature’s Building Blocks

    07/09/2013 6:13:17 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 20 replies
    Simon Foundation ^ | July 1, 2013 | Natalie Wolchover
    If each energy field pervading space is thought of as the surface of a pond, and waves and particles are the turbulence on that surface, then the new evidence strengthens the argument that a vibrant, hidden world lies beneath. For decades, the surface-level description of the subatomic world has been sufficient to make accurate calculations about most physical phenomena. But recently, a strange class of matter that defies description by known quantum mechanical methods has drawn physicists into the depths below... Of all the strange forms of matter, cuprates -- copper-containing metals that exhibit a property called high-temperature superconductivity...
  • Pakistani fertilizer firm to expand in U.S., but balks on controlling bomb materials

    01/27/2013 6:44:20 PM PST · by Cindy · 10 replies - The Washington Times ^ | January 27, 2013 | By Rowan Scarborough
    "Pakistani fertilizer firm to expand in U.S., but balks on controlling bomb materials" SNIPPET: "The Pakistani corporation that has refused the Pentagon’s urgent appeals to control the flow of explosive materials to bomb-makers who kill U.S. troops is expanding its fertilizer manufacturing into the United States. And it is being done with the help of U.S. taxpayers through the municipal bond market."
  • The Milk Wars: Should Milk Be Taken Off the School-Lunch Menu?

    07/24/2012 6:40:50 AM PDT · by Tolerance Sucks Rocks · 62 replies ^ | July 20, 2012 | Alexandra Sifferlin
    (Updated) The war on milk has shifted fronts. First it was sugar-laden chocolate milk, which parents and school administrators battled in recent years to remove from school-lunch menus. Now, it’s plain old moo that’s under fire. On Thursday, a national doctors group petitioned the U.S. government to remove milk as a required food group from the National School Lunch Program, the federally assisted program that has provided lunch to millions of public school kids since 1946. The doctors’ reasoning: milk doesn’t help protect kids’ bones. The promotion of milk to help build strong bones in kids is, “in effect, the...
  • Maalox RECALL (Has any one noticed the absence of Maalox from store shelves?)

    07/04/2012 4:40:14 AM PDT · by GailA · 52 replies ^ | January 9, 2012 | Tracy Staton
    I searched FR and found no notice of the recall, and sure have not seen it on the news. I know I've been hit and miss due to a lot of health issues this past year, but we do watch the nightly news. And anything this big would have caught my attention because I keep Maalox in the house for occasional mild stomach upset/reflux when I eat something that disagrees with my stomach. Went to buy a bottle of Maalox and tried several different stores and types, finally one of the gals at a local Kroger's said Maalox had been...
  • Vitamin D, A Double Edged Sword for Osteoporosis

    05/04/2012 8:17:02 PM PDT · by Pining_4_TX · 25 replies ^ | 04/27/12 | Ivanhoe Newswire
    Vitamin D is known for helping create strong bones and is a key regulator of serum calcium levels. Recent studies, however, have not offered much proof that Vitamin D supplements prevents bone fractures.
  • Taking Calcium Without Magnesium Can Cause Hardening of The Arteries

    12/16/2011 2:34:40 PM PST · by Libertynotfree · 9 replies
    Natural Remedies Matter ^ | Dec 15, 2011 | newsnotcover
    ( Summary) Magnesium balances calcium and its functions within the human body. It is believed that the adult human body contains approximately 1200 grams of calcium, with approximately 99% of it in the skeleton, and approximately 1% (about 12 grams) in extracellular fluids, intracellular structures, and cell membranes. This approximately 1% plays an essential role, in conjunction with magnesium, in the functions of nerve conduction, muscle contraction, blood clotting, and membrane permeability. It is believed that serum calcium concentration is maintained by several hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. It is known that dietary protein enhances calcium absorption, and dietary phosphorus...
  • Vitamin D levels tied to colon cancer risk

    09/02/2011 6:19:15 AM PDT · by decimon · 21 replies
    Reuters ^ | September 1, 2011 | Unknown
    NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A new analysis of earlier research finds that both higher vitamin D intake and higher blood levels of the vitamin's active form are linked to lower risk of colon and rectal cancers. In 18 studies that included more than 10,000 people, colon cancer risk was as much as 33 percent lower in subjects with the highest blood levels of vitamin D compared to those with the lowest levels, researchers report in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Those with the highest intake of vitamin D through supplements and food had 12 percent lower risk than those...
  • The Periodic Table Expands Once Again

    06/08/2011 11:23:26 PM PDT · by Cronos · 23 replies · 1+ views
    The New York Times ^ | 8 Jun 2011 | Associated Press
    two new elements have been added to the periodic table...The elements were recognized by an international committee of chemists and physicists. For now, they are called Elements 114 and 116 — permanent names and symbols will be chosen later.People are not likely to run into either of them. Scientists make them in labs by smashing atoms of other elements together to create the new ones...the new ones are short-lived. Atoms of 114 disintegrate within a few seconds, while 116 disappears in a fraction of a second, ..Both elements were discovered by a collaboration of scientists from Livermore and Russia. They...
  • IOM Report...New Dietary...Levels...Calcium...Vitamin D...Maintain Health...Avoid Risks...

    11/30/2010 6:57:33 AM PST · by decimon · 9 replies
    INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE ^ | November 30, 2010 | Unknown
    Most Americans and Canadians up to age 70 need no more than 600 international units (IUs) of vitamin D per day to maintain health, and those 71 and older may need as much as 800 IUs, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine. The amount of calcium needed ranges, based on age, from 700 to 1,300 milligrams per day... > A large amount of evidence, which formed the basis of the new intake values, confirms the roles of calcium and vitamin D in promoting skeletal growth and maintenance and the amounts needed to avoid poor bone health. >...
  • Calcium supplements may raise risk of heart attack

    07/30/2010 4:24:36 AM PDT · by FBD · 33 replies · 1+ views
    Reuters ^ | Thu Jul 29, 2010 7:20pm EDT | By Tan Ee Lyn
    Calcium supplements, which many people consume hoping to ward off osteoporosis, may increase the risk of heart attack by as much as 30 percent, researchers reported Friday...(snip) ...While experts are not certain about the biological mechanism by which calcium supplements may damage the body, studies in the past have linked high levels of blood calcium to more heart attacks and damage to blood vessels, Reid said. "When you take calcium supplements, your blood calcium level goes up over the following four to six hours and goes up to the top end of the normal range," he said. "That doesn't happen...
  • Excessive calcium can cause harm

    06/02/2010 1:31:02 PM PDT · by James C. Bennett · 9 replies · 656+ views
    The Times of India ^ | June 2, 2010 | IANS
    Excessive intake of calcium supplements may have adverse effect on health, notes a study.  Postmenopausal and pregnant women, transplant recipients, patients with bulimia (an eating disorder) and individuals on dialysis face the highest risk of developing the calcium-alkali syndrome.  The incidence of the calcium-alkali or the milk-alkali syndrome is growing in large parts, because of widespread use of over-the-counter calcium and vitamin D supplements.  Study authors Stanley Goldfarb and Ami Patel from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (UPSM) recommend changing milk-alkali syndrome's name to calcium-alkali syndrome because it is now associated with a large calcium intake, not just...
  • Calcium may help you live longer: study

    03/12/2010 2:50:45 PM PST · by decimon · 7 replies · 431+ views
    Reuters ^ | Mar 12, 2010 | Unknown
    NEW YORK (Reuters Health) – Getting a bit more calcium in your diet could help you live longer, new research suggests. Swedish researchers found that men who consumed the most calcium in food were 25 percent less likely to die over the next decade than their peers who took in the least calcium from food. None of the men took calcium supplements. The findings are in line with previous research linking higher calcium intake with lower mortality in both men and women, the researchers point out in a report in the American Journal of Epidemiology. While many researchers have looked...
  • Skepticism Mounts on Need for Vitamin D Supplementation

    03/08/2010 5:33:34 PM PST · by neverdem · 58 replies · 413+ views
    Family Practice News ^ | 15 February 2010 | BRUCE JANCIN
    SNOWMASS, COLO. — Serious questions exist about the safety and efficacy of the popular practice of high-dose vitamin D supplementation across a broad swath of the population. One of these concerns is that not all of the extra calcium absorption promoted by boosting vitamin D is going into bone to prevent fractures. Some of it may actually be taken up by atherosclerotic plaque, increasing the risk of cardiovascular events, Dr. Lenore M. Buckley cautioned at a symposium sponsored by the American College of Rheumatology. This is of particular concern in patients with known coronary disease and for those at high...
  • UC Davis research confirms benefits of calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures

    01/14/2010 10:34:31 AM PST · by decimon · 13 replies · 348+ views
    University of California ^ | January 14, 2010 | Unknown
    (SACRAMENTO, Calif.) — Taking both calcium and vitamin D supplements on a daily basis reduces the risk of bone fractures, regardless of whether a person is young or old, male or female, or has had fractures in the past, a large study of nearly 70,000 patients from throughout the United States and Europe has found. The study included data published in 2006 from clinical trials conducted at UC Davis in Sacramento as part of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). It appears online in this week’s edition of the British Medical Journal. “What is important about this very large study is...
  • Local tissue irritating effects and adjuvant activities of calcium phosphate...

    09/03/2009 11:07:20 PM PDT · by Maelstorm · 7 replies · 791+ views ^ | 1997 |
    a Department of Safety Research on Biologics, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208, Japan b Department of Bacteriology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka 589, Japan c Animal Production and Grassland Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan Received 5 December 1996; Revised 20 January 1997; accepted 21 January 1997. Available online 12 December 1997. Abstract Effects of calcium phosphate and aluminium hydroxide adjuvants with different physical properties were examined in guinea pigs for local histopathological reactions, electron-microscopical changes of macrophages and adjuvanticity on total IgG antibody response to subcutaneously administered...
  • New model suggests role of low vitamin D in cancer development

    05/22/2009 3:00:48 AM PDT · by decimon · 10 replies · 1,010+ views
    In studying the preventive effects of vitamin D, researchers at the Moores Cancer Center at the University of California, San Diego, have proposed a new model of cancer development that hinges on a loss of cancer cells' ability to stick together. The model, dubbed DINOMIT, differs substantially from the current model of cancer development, which suggests genetic mutations as the earliest driving forces behind cancer. "The first event in cancer is loss of communication among cells due to, among other things, low vitamin D and calcium levels," said epidemiologist Cedric Garland, DrPH, professor of family and preventive medicine at the...
  • Vitamin D And Calcium Influence Cell Death In The Colon, Researchers Find

    04/14/2008 5:29:09 PM PDT · by blam · 21 replies · 174+ views
    Science Daily ^ | 4-14-2008 | Emory University
    Vitamin D And Calcium Influence Cell Death In The Colon, Researchers Find ScienceDaily (Apr. 14, 2008) — Researchers at Emory University are learning how vitamins and minerals in the diet can stimulate or prevent the appearance of colon cancer. Emory investigators will present their findings on biological markers that could influence colon cancer risk in three abstracts at the American Association for Cancer Research meeting in San Diego. In a clinical study of 92 patients, supplementing diet with calcium and vitamin D appeared to increase the levels of a protein called Bax that controls programmed cell death in the colon....
  • Calcium Tablets 'Raise Risk Of Heart Attacks'

    01/16/2008 8:21:21 AM PST · by blam · 43 replies · 63+ views
    The Telegraph (UK) ^ | 1-16-2008 | Nic Fleming
    Calcium tablets 'raise risk of heart attacks' By Nic Fleming, Medical Correspondent Last Updated: 2:28am GMT 16/01/2008 Calcium supplements taken by about a million women could increase their risk of suffering heart attacks and strokes, scientists said yesterday. Researchers found that women aged 55 and over who took the tablets to combat osteoporosis were almost 50 per cent more likely to have a heart attack than those given placebos. Their chances of having a stroke during the five years of the study were elevated by more than a third. Three million people in Britain suffer from osteoporosis, with one in...
  • Bone Density Tests Do Predict Women's Fracture Risk

    12/26/2007 8:55:51 PM PST · by neverdem · 58 replies · 270+ views
    HealthDay News ^ | Dec. 18, 2007 | Amanda Gardner
    Largest, longest study ever supports screening and prevention of osteoporosis.One bone mineral density test can accurately predict a woman's chance of spinal fractures 15 years down the line, new research shows. And, according to the largest and longest prospective study of osteoporosis ever, women who had a spinal fracture at the beginning of the study had four times the risk of sustaining another fracture later on. The bottom line: "Women need to talk to their doctors about the risk of osteoporosis," according to Jane Cauley, lead author of the study and professor of epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate...
  • Calcium Linked To Dementia

    05/13/2007 9:48:07 PM PDT · by blam · 56 replies · 1,949+ views
    Calcium linked to dementia Last Updated: 1:27am BST 14/05/2007 Calcium and vitamin D in dairy products may help to cause brain damage and dementia in older people, new research suggests. Scientists believe too much calcium can narrow blood vessels in the brain, leading to neural damage. The effect may be compounded by vitamin D, which regulates calcium retention and activity. Researchers made the discovery after scanning the brains of 79 men and 153 women aged up to 86. All had at least a number of brain lesions - areas of tissue damage. But those consuming the most calcium and vitamin...
  • Powerful Antacids Boost Chances of Hip Fracture

    12/26/2006 8:10:16 PM PST · by freespirited · 25 replies · 2,418+ views
    Channel 14 News ^ | 12/26/06 | Steven Reinberg
    People taking powerful antacid drugs called proton pump inhibitors face an increased risk of hip fracture, University of Pennsylvania researchers report. Common proton pump inhibitors include Aciphex, Nexium, Prevacid, Prilosec and Protonix; they are often prescribed for stomach conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The report is published in the Dec. 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. "If you take acid-suppression medications on a chronic basis and you are 50 or older, your hip fracture risk is even higher than usual," said study author Dr.Yu-Xiao Yang, an assistant professor of medicine and epidemiology. "In addition,...
  • Study Shows Limited Benefits From Calcium

    02/15/2006 6:52:24 PM PST · by Pharmboy · 82 replies · 1,834+ views
    Associated Press ^ | 2-15-06 | JEFF DONN
    The biggest study ever of calcium and vitamin D supplements for older women showed they offered only limited protection against broken bones, raising questions over what has been an article of faith among doctors and nutritionists. The supplements seemed to reduce the risk of broken hips in women over 60 and also helped those who took the supplements most regularly. But as to preventing bone fractures overall, vitamin D and calcium flunked in these healthy women. One of the researchers, Dr. Norman Lasser at New Jersey Medical School, said the study is "not as ringing an endorsement of calcium as...
  • Shedding Light on Vitamin D

    01/22/2006 8:32:06 PM PST · by neverdem · 12 replies · 432+ views
    ScienceNOW Daily News ^ | 19 January 2006 | Susan Brown
    Anyone concerned about their bones is likely to make sure they have plenty of vitamin D, either by getting enough sunshine, eating fish, or taking supplements. Yet scientists know surprisingly little about how the compound works. A new study has finally shed some light on this process, showing how the vitamin takes part in a delicate balancing act between cells that tear down our bones and cells that rebuild them. Vitamin D is a familiar player in bone health. Without sufficient amounts of this hormone, our frames become frail with disorders such as osteoporosis or rickets. But vitamin D has...
  • Building a Better Chemical Trap

    12/24/2005 4:31:03 PM PST · by neverdem · 1 replies · 378+ views
    ScienceNOW Daily News ^ | Michael Schirber | 23 December 2005
    You might expect that a stronger cage is always better. But the power of a new chemical cage announced this week lies in its weakness: It's about 100 times more efficient at releasing its prisoner than its widely used counterparts. The flimsy molecular pen may help map the brain's chemical circuitry and decipher the signals that control the beating heart. One way to study how cells function is to control the availability of a particular biomolecule by encapsulating it in a chemical box until a flash of light sets it free. Researchers have used this strategy to probe how cells...
  • Vitamin D May Ward Off Prostate Cancer

    02/18/2005 12:09:05 AM PST · by neverdem · 50 replies · 2,153+ views
    NY Times ^ | February 17, 2005 | NA
    By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS ORLANDO, Fla. (AP) -- Getting a little sunshine may be one way for men to cut their risk of prostate cancer. A large study presented at a cancer conference Thursday found that men with higher levels vitamin D in their blood were half as likely to develop aggressive forms of the disease than those with lower amounts. Doctors are not ready to recommend the ``sunshine vitamin'' without more study, but many see little harm in getting the 15 minutes a day that the body needs to make enough of this nutrient. ``When you were little and...
  • Antibiotic May Trigger Cardiac Deaths

    09/09/2004 1:14:55 AM PDT · by Aracelis · 22 replies · 1,291+ views
    ABC News ^ | Sept. 9, 2004 | AP
    A widely used antibiotic long considered safe dramatically increases the risk of cardiac arrest, particularly when taken with some popular drugs for infections and high blood pressure, a huge study found.The drug is erythromycin, which has been on the market for 50 years and is prescribed for everything from strep throat to syphilis. The new study shows the need for continuing research on the safety of older medicines, including how they interact with newer drugs, said researcher Wayne A. Ray, a professor of preventive medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in Nashville.In patients taking erythromycin along with other drugs...
  • Odds on Bush shortening (huge movement)

    09/02/2004 6:59:40 AM PDT · by Finalapproach29er · 65 replies · 4,093+ views
    oddschecker ^ | 3 Sept 04 | FinalApproach29er
    Huge moves recently. It was 5/6 Bush or .88/1,now its 4/6 and .69/1 Blue and pink shading show recent movements (Probably the past day).
  • Preserving a Delicate Balance of Potassium

    06/27/2004 4:45:54 PM PDT · by neverdem · 23 replies · 2,162+ views
    NY Times ^ | June 22, 2004 | JANE E. BRODY
    PERSONAL HEALTH Evolution is an excellent teacher when it comes to figuring out what and how much people should eat. For example, primates (including those with two legs and big brains) evolved on foods rich in potassium and very low in sodium. Early humans evolved to conserve sodium, which was hard to obtain, and to excrete excess potassium, abundant in many fruits and vegetables. But Western-style diets these days are the reverse of what those early humans consumed, rich in processed foods, loaded with sodium and relatively poor in potassium. Consequently, according to a report released this year by the...
  • Coral Calcium Infomercials: Fraud or Free Speech (my title)

    06/14/2003 8:00:38 AM PDT · by jethropalerobber · 52 replies · 809+ views
    AP ^ | June 13, 2003
    (my emphasis added) FTC Stops Infomercial Claiming Cures The Associated Press CHICAGO June 13 — A federal judge Friday ordered a marketing company to stop airing an infomercial that claims a calcium supplement can cure diseases including heart disease and cancer, an attorney for the Federal Trade Commission said. The FTC is also seeking restitution for customers. Shop America was ordered to stop airing infomercials promoting a supplement made from dead marine coral. The order also bars Kevin Trudeau, ShopAmerica's owner, from access to the company's funds until a trial determines potential restitution, said Heather Hippsley, assistant director of...