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Keyword: enzyme

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  • Scientists accidentally create mutant enzyme that eats plastic bottles

    04/17/2018 6:50:28 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 77 replies
    The new research was spurred by the discovery in 2016 of the first bacterium that had naturally evolved to eat plastic, at a waste dump in Japan. Scientists have now revealed the detailed structure of the crucial enzyme produced by the bug. The international team then tweaked the enzyme to see how it had evolved, but tests showed they had inadvertently made the molecule even better at breaking down the PET (polyethylene terephthalate) plastic used for soft drink bottles. “What actually turned out was we improved the enzyme, which was a bit of a shock,” said Prof John McGeehan, at...
  • Dr Nicholas Gonzalez, RIP

    07/23/2015 12:28:28 AM PDT · by blackpacific · 9 replies
    email from Dr. Nicholas Gonzalez staff | 22July2015 | n/a
    Sad news for our patients and friends Dear Patients, Family, Friends, and Colleagues: It is with great sadness that the office of Nicholas J. Gonzalez, M.D. relays news of his untimely death on Tuesday, July 21, 2015. The cause of death was cardiac related, it appears, as he suddenly collapsed and was unable to be revived. Dr. Gonzalez was in excellent health otherwise so his passing is quite unexpected. Currently, his family is taking care of funeral arrangements and Dr. Linda Isaacs and his office staff are tending to patients. In the interim, please know Dr. Gonzalez’ office will keep...
  • Scientists discover an enzyme that can change a person's blood type

    05/03/2015 11:01:11 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 13 replies
    ScienceAlert ^ | Friday, May 1, 2015 | Bec Crew
    Scientists have discovered that a particular type of enzyme can cut away antigens in blood types A and B, to make them more like Type O -- considered the 'universal' blood type, because it's the only type that can be donated to anyone without the risk of provoking a life-threatening immune response. The team, from the University of British Columbia of Canada, worked with a family of enzymes called 98 glycoside hydrolase, extracted from a strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Over many generations, they were able to engineer a super high-powered enzyme strain that can very effectively snip away blood antigens...
  • Human Ancestors Were Consuming Alcohol 10 Million Years Ago

    12/25/2014 4:40:58 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 83 replies
    Discover 'blogs ^ | December 1, 2014 | Carl Engelking
    Using the tools of paleogenetics, scientists have recently traced the evolutionary history of an enzyme that helps us metabolize ethanol, the principal type of alcohol found in adult beverages. Scientists believe early human ancestors evolved their ethanol-digesting ability about 10 million years ago to fortify their diet as they shifted from a tree-based lifestyle to a more ground-based lifestyle... To help narrow that range, researchers studied the genetic evolution of alcohol-metabolizing enzyme ADH4, which has been present in primates, in one form or another, for at least 70 million years. Using genetic sequences from 28 different mammals, including 17 primates,...
  • Powerful antibody-based strategy suggests a new therapeutic approach to diabetes and obesity

    09/29/2011 1:08:23 PM PDT · by decimon · 6 replies
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory ^ | September 29, 2011 | Unknown
    Cold Spring Harbor, NY – The work of a team of scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) led by Professor Nicholas Tonks FRS, suggests a way to overcome one of the major technical obstacles preventing a leading therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity from being addressed successfully by novel drugs. The target is an enzyme called PTP1B, discovered by Tonks in 1988 and long known to be an important player in the signaling pathway within cells that regulates the response to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates carbohydrate and fat metabolism by spurring cells, particularly in the liver...
  • New 'Superbug' found in UK hospitals....

    08/10/2010 9:29:59 PM PDT · by TaraP · 67 replies
    BBC ^ | August 10th, 2010
    A new superbug that is resistant to even the most powerful antibiotics has entered UK hospitals, experts warn. They say bacteria which make an enzyme called NDM-1 travelled back with NHS patients who had gone abroad to countries like India and Pakistan for treatments such as cosmetic surgery. Although there have only been about 50 cases identified in the UK so far, scientists fear it will go global. Tight surveillance and new drugs are needed says Lancet Infectious Diseases. NDM-1 can exist inside different bacteria, like E.coli, and it makes them resistant to one of the most powerful groups of...
  • Longevity Tied to Genes That Preserve Tips of Chromosomes

    11/11/2009 4:03:13 PM PST · by decimon · 35 replies · 1,016+ views
    (BRONX, NY) — A team led by researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University has found a clear link between living to 100 and inheriting a hyperactive version of an enzyme that rebuilds telomeres — the tip ends of chromosomes. The findings appear in the latest issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Telomeres play crucial roles in aging, cancer and other biological processes. Their importance was recognized last month, when three scientists were awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for determining the structure of telomeres and discovering how they protect...
  • Japan scientists identify enzyme that may suppress (breast) cancer

    02/09/2009 1:25:53 PM PST · by NormsRevenge · 1 replies · 311+ views
    Reuters on Yahoo ^ | 2/9/09 | Reuters
    HONG KONG (Reuters) – Scientists in Japan have identified an enzyme which appears to suppress breast cancer and they hope the finding will spur new therapies to control the second most common cancer in the world. At issue is the enzyme CHIP, which experts say can stunt cancer growth by degrading a number of cancer-causing proteins. The enzyme occurs naturally in human breast tissue. In an article published in Nature Cell Biology, the scientists said they injected two kinds of human breast cancer cells into mice. One set carried the CHIP enzyme and the other was without the chemical. Tumors...
  • Without enzyme, biological reaction essential to life takes 2.3 billion years

    11/16/2008 8:19:06 PM PST · by Maelstorm · 13 replies · 693+ views ^ | November 11, 2008 | University of North Carolina School of Medicine
    All biological reactions within human cells depend on enzymes. Their power as catalysts enables biological reactions to occur usually in milliseconds. But how slowly would these reactions proceed spontaneously, in the absence of enzymes – minutes, hours, days? And why even pose the question? One scientist who studies these issues is Richard Wolfenden, Ph.D., Alumni Distinguished Professor Biochemistry and Biophysics and Chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Wolfenden holds posts in both the School of Medicine and in the College of Arts and Sciences and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1995,...
  • Scientists Marvel at Enzyme Efficiency (what should take billions of years, done in miliseconds)

    11/13/2008 3:19:22 PM PST · by GodGunsGuts · 32 replies · 1,111+ views
    CEH ^ | November 11, 2008
    Many chemical reactions occur from simple collisions. One atom may have spare electrons, another may need them. Attracted by each other’s valences, the atoms collide and bonds form. Not so with biological enzymes: these molecular machines owe their efficiency to their three-dimensional shapes. Made up of hundreds of amino acids, enzymes have “active sites” where precise interactions occur. Some even have moving parts that guide the molecules into the active site (e.g., 07/31/2004). The substrate leaves the enzyme unchanged, ready for its next customer. Scientists are finding that the precision of these machines is finely tuned. Here are some astonishing...
  • Enzyme behind cancer identified

    03/16/2008 5:54:39 AM PDT · by CarrotAndStick · 34 replies · 1,568+ views
    The Times of India ^ | 16 Mar 2008, 1026 hrs IST | The Press Trust of India (PTI)
    LONDON: Scientists have discovered a key part of the mechanism that makes cancer cells so dangerous, a breakthrough which they claim could enable them to stop tumour growth in its tracks. The scientists, led by researchers from the Harvard Medical School, have identified an enzyme which enables cancer cells to consume the huge quantities of glucose they need to fuel uncontrolled growth. Though the key enzyme, known as pyruvate kinase, comes in two forms, the researchers found that only one -- the PKM2 form -- enables cancer cells to consume glucose at an accelerated rate. "Because PKM2 is found in...
  • Mutant enzyme linked to deadliest cancers

    02/14/2008 6:37:05 PM PST · by BGHater · 23 replies · 580+ views
    Reuters ^ | 13 Feb 2008 | Maggie Fox
    WASHINGTON — Scientists have captured an image of an enzyme key to the progression of the deadliest cancers and said on Wednesday their findings may lead to new therapies against not only cancer, but HIV and diabetes too. They caught in the act a mutant version of an enzyme called p300/CBP, which is involved in pancreatic, colon, and lung cancers, thyroid cancer and some leukemias. The image of this structure might provide a way to design a drug that blocks it, and perhaps stop some tumour-causing mutations. The same structure is involved in infection with the AIDS virus and diabetes,...
  • A Plastic Wrapper Today Could Be Fuel Tomorrow[Bioplastic]

    04/10/2007 2:37:14 AM PDT · by Dacb · 7 replies · 517+ views
    The New York Times ^ | 08 April 2007 | MATTHEW L. WALD
    Scientists worldwide are struggling to make motor fuel from waste, but Richard Gross has taken an unusual approach: making a “fuel-latent plastic,” designed for conversion. It can be used like ordinary plastic, for packaging or other purposes, but when it is waste, can easily be turned into a substitute diesel fuel. The process does not yet work well enough to be commercial, but the Pentagon was impressed enough to give $2.34 million for more research. The technique could reduce the amount of material that the military has to ship to soldiers at remote bases, because the plastic would do double...
  • Scientists Convert Modern Enzyme Into Its Hypothesized Ancestor

    11/03/2006 5:59:16 PM PST · by blam · 1 replies · 363+ views
    Science Daily ^ | 10-31-2006 | Brookhaven National Lab
    Source: Brookhaven National Laboratory Date: October 31, 2006 Scientists Convert Modern Enzyme Into Its Hypothesized Ancestor By making a single substitution in the amino acid sequence of a modern enzyme, scientists have changed its function into that of a theoretical distant ancestor, providing the first experimental evidence for the common origin of the two distinct enzyme types. The research, conducted by a team that includes scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, will be published online the week of October 30, 2006, by the Proceedings of the National Academy of...
  • Study Identifies Potential Drug Target For Huntington's Disease

    07/31/2006 5:14:32 PM PDT · by annie laurie · 1 replies · 198+ views
    ScienceDaily ^ | July 30, 2006 | Massachusetts General Hospital
    An enzyme known to be critical for the repair of damaged cells and the maintenance of cellular energy may be a useful target for new strategies to treat Huntington's disease (HD) and other disorders characterized by low cellular energy levels. In the August issue of Chemistry & Biology, a research team from the MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease (MIND) describes their discovery of a novel inhibitor of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP1) and their findings that PARP1 inhibitors can protect HD-affected cells from damage in laboratory assays. "While PARP1 is essential for the repair of damaged DNA, we also know that,...
  • Protein Portal: Enzyme acts as door for the SARS virus

    11/30/2003 3:11:48 PM PST · by CathyRyan · 3 replies · 239+ views
    Science News ^ | Nov. 29, 2003 | John Travis
    A year ago, a mystery virus began to kill people in China. Causing an illness dubbed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the virus quickly spread beyond Asia and for a few months stirred fears of a worldwide epidemic. With stunning speed, scientists identified the virus and decoded its genetic sequence (SN: 4/26/03, p. 262: Now, a research team has claimed victory in the race to identify the cellular receptor—the protein to which the virus attaches when it infects cells—for the SARS virus. Since the protein turned out to be a well-known one that had previously been implicated in heart...
  • Bio-battery runs on shots of vodka

    03/24/2003 9:34:13 PM PST · by FairOpinion · 21 replies · 297+ views
    New Scientist ^ | March 24, 2003 | Celeste Biever
    An enzyme-catalysed battery has been created that could one day run cell phones and laptop computers on shots of vodka. The key to the device is a new polymer that protects the fragile enzymes used to break down the ethanol fuel, scientists told the American Chemical Society's annual meeting in New Orleans on Monday. Enzyme-based batteries have the potential to be cheaper than fuel cells that rely on expensive platinum or ruthenium catalysts. "It sounds great," says Bob Hockaday, founder of the company Energy Related Devices and designer of a methanol-powered battery. "Enzymes are inexpensive and catalytically very active." Fuel...
  • Vostok: The Lake of Shadows

    06/25/2002 5:46:51 PM PDT · by vannrox · 13 replies · 4,118+ views
    FATE Magazine ^ | Cover Story FATE Magazine 2002-06-01 00:00:00 | by Scott Corrales
    Vostok: The Lake of ShadowsCover Story FATE Magazine 2002-06-01 00:00:00 by Scott Corrales “Doubt of the real facts, as I must reveal them, is inevitable; yet if I suppressed what will seem extravagant and incredible there would be nothing left.” —H. P. Lovecraft, “At the Mountains of Madness” The inspiration for this article began in the summer of 1996, when a series of email messages began to appear suggesting the possibility that “someone” or “something” was surreptitiously removing all recent maps of Antarctica. The notion was so outrageous that even die-hard conspiracy theorists found themselves having to clarify the...