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Big Chunk Of The Universe Is Missing -- Again
www.sciencedaily.com ^ | 11/05/2007 | University Of Alabama In Huntsville

Posted on 11/05/2007 11:18:05 AM PST by Red Badger

Not only has a large chunk of the universe thought to have been found in 2002 apparently gone missing again but it is taking some friends with it, according to new research at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). The new calculations might leave the mass of the universe as much as ten to 20 percent lighter than previously calculated.

The same UAH group that found what was theorized to be a significant fraction of the "missing mass" that binds together the universe has discovered that some x-rays thought to come from intergalactic clouds of "warm" gas are instead probably caused by lightweight electrons.

If the source of so much x-ray energy is tiny electrons instead of hefty atoms, it is as if billions of lights thought to come from billions of aircraft carriers were found instead to come from billions of extremely bright fireflies.

"This means the mass of these x-ray emitting clouds is much less than we initially thought it was," said Dr. Max Bonamente, an assistant professor inUAH's Physics Department. "A significant portion of what we thought was missing mass turns out to be these 'relativistic' electrons."Traveling at almost the speed of light (and therefore "relativistic"), these feather weight electrons collide with photons from the cosmic microwave background. Energy from the collisions converts the photons from low-energy microwaves to high-energy x-rays.

"The discovery was made while trying to analyze the makeup of warm, x-ray emitting gas at the center of galaxy clusters - the largest cosmological structures in the universe. In 2002 the UAH team reported finding large amounts of extra "soft" (relatively low-energy) x-rays coming from the vast space in the middle of galaxy clusters. This was in addition to previously-discovered "hot" gas in that space, which emits higher energy"hard" x-rays.

Although the soft x-ray-emitting atoms were thought to be spread thinly through space (less than one atom per cubit meter), they would have filled billions of billions of cubic light years. Their cumulative mass was though tto account for as much as ten percent of the mass and gravity needed to hold together galaxies, galaxy clusters and perhaps the universe itself.

When Bonamente and his associates looked at data gathered by several satellite instruments, including the Chandra X-ray Observatory, from a galaxy cluster in the southern sky, however, they found that energy from those additional soft x-rays doesn't look like it should."We have never been able to detect spectral emission lines associated with those detections," he explained. "If this 'bump' in the data were due to cooler gas, it would have emission lines.

"The best, most logical explanation seems to be that a large fraction of the energy comes from electrons smashing into photons instead of from warm atoms and ions, which would have recognizable spectral emission lines.Finding these electrons, however, is like finding "the tip of the iceberg,"said Bonamente, because they would not be limited to emitting only the soft x-ray signal. The signal from these electrons would also make up part of the previously observed harder X-rays, which would reduce the amount of mass thought to make up the hot gas at the center of galaxy clusters.

To further complicate the issue, the energy from these electrons might also"puff up" the cluster. Previously, astrophysicists used the energy coming from inside these clusters to calculate how much mass is needed to reach the equilibrium seen there; too much mass and the cloud would collapse; too little and the hot gas cloud would expand.Since the energy coming from these hot clouds can be accurately measured, it was thought the mass could be calculated with reasonable confidence - for astrophysics.Instead, says Bonamente, if a significant portion of the total x-ray energy comes from fast electrons, "that could trick us into thinking there is more gas than is actually there.""It means we need to revise how we calculate both the gas mass and the total mass," he said. "We have to follow the evidence and, if that leads us to confusion, well that's OK."If part of the hard x-ray energy comes from electrons and photons, it might also shift what we think is the mix of elements in the universe.

Outside of the excess soft x-rays, the x-ray energy coming from galaxy clusters has emission lines which are especially prominent around iron and other metals.Non-thermal x-rays from electrons colliding with photons might mask those emission lines, like thick snow can mask the height of fence posts."This is also telling us there is fractionally more iron and other metals than we previously thought," said Bonamente. "Less mass but more metals."

Results of this research by Bonamente, Jukka Nevalainen of Finland'sHelsinki Observatory and UAH's Dr. Richard Lieu were published Oct. 20 in the "Astrophysical Journal.

Adapted from materials provided by University Of Alabama In Huntsville.


TOPICS: Astronomy; Science
KEYWORDS: blackhole; stringtheory
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Michael Moore probably ate it............
1 posted on 11/05/2007 11:18:07 AM PST by Red Badger
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To: Red Badger; Owl_Eagle; Sam's Army; Lazamataz; Darksheare; pissant; najida; r-q-tek86; blackie; ...

It may be with my keys.....


2 posted on 11/05/2007 11:19:16 AM PST by Jersey Republican Biker Chick (RIP Eric Medlen. You will be missed.../ Get well Soon John Force!!!)
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To: Red Badger

It is Bush’s fault.


3 posted on 11/05/2007 11:19:59 AM PST by bmwcyle (BOMB, BOMB, BOMB,.......BOMB, BOMB IRAN)
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To: Red Badger

Check with Jenny Craig...


4 posted on 11/05/2007 11:20:14 AM PST by Tallguy (Climate is what you plan for, weather is what you get.)
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To: Red Badger

I have it, and I’ll NOT return it until someone pays for it... I want at least $83,748,787.35 put in my secret offshore account by noon thursday (eastern) or: The Universe has had it.


5 posted on 11/05/2007 11:21:56 AM PST by theDentist (Qwerty ergo typo : I type, therefore I misspelll. <br> "What happens if neutrinos have mass?")
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To: bmwcyle

Maybe it’s global warming.


6 posted on 11/05/2007 11:23:09 AM PST by PeterFinn (Free Tibet from Communist China!)
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To: Jersey Republican Biker Chick

Somebody should have been watching it more closely..........


7 posted on 11/05/2007 11:23:16 AM PST by Red Badger ( We don't have science, but we do have consensus.......)
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To: Jersey Republican Biker Chick; theDentist

Dentist took it. Whew, i was sure they were gonna blame me. (sweating)


8 posted on 11/05/2007 11:24:48 AM PST by Shimmer (J'essaierai de faire mieux la prochaine fois.)
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To: Red Badger
It's in my basement. I didn't think it was a big deal.

Is somebody looking for it or something?

9 posted on 11/05/2007 11:24:55 AM PST by Allegra (Greetings from a kinder, gentler Iraq. God bless US and Coalition Forces.)
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To: Red Badger

Can’t we just phone home to locate it?


10 posted on 11/05/2007 11:25:26 AM PST by b4its2late (GITMO is way too nice of a place to house low life terrorists.)
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To: PeterFinn

Or UFOs doing magic acts just to fool us.


11 posted on 11/05/2007 11:26:16 AM PST by bmwcyle (BOMB, BOMB, BOMB,.......BOMB, BOMB IRAN)
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To: Jersey Republican Biker Chick
It may be with my keys.....

And all my unmatched socks

12 posted on 11/05/2007 11:26:26 AM PST by The_Victor (If all I want is a warm feeling, I should just wet my pants.)
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To: Red Badger
I had a piece in my fridge, I was harvesting some of the solar dust for the fishtank.

I'll put it back later tonight.

13 posted on 11/05/2007 11:26:32 AM PST by Pistolshot ("All you anti-Freds remind me of Wile E. Coyote trying to fool the sheepdog." - Josh Painter)
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To: Red Badger

Has anyone seen Sandy Berger lately?


14 posted on 11/05/2007 11:27:29 AM PST by thackney (life is fragile, handle with prayer)
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To: Allegra

Just keep the doors and windows open and it will leave of its own accord when it gets good and ready..............


15 posted on 11/05/2007 11:30:08 AM PST by Red Badger ( We don't have science, but we do have consensus.......)
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To: thackney

Yes, he’s “working” for the H! campaign, now.............


16 posted on 11/05/2007 11:30:38 AM PST by Red Badger ( We don't have science, but we do have consensus.......)
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To: The_Victor; Allegra
"And all my unmatched socks"

Allegra....you stealin' socks again?

17 posted on 11/05/2007 11:33:03 AM PST by Jersey Republican Biker Chick (RIP Eric Medlen. You will be missed.../ Get well Soon John Force!!!)
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To: theDentist

Can you spot me a little loan when they pay??


18 posted on 11/05/2007 11:33:58 AM PST by Jersey Republican Biker Chick (RIP Eric Medlen. You will be missed.../ Get well Soon John Force!!!)
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To: Red Badger
if the universe is a donut then we should be checking to see if homer has been eating it again.
19 posted on 11/05/2007 11:34:18 AM PST by absolootezer0 (Only two products have come out of Berkeley: LSD and UNIX. Coincidence? i think not.)
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To: Red Badger

"I didn't do it, nobody saw me do it, you can't prove anything."

20 posted on 11/05/2007 11:34:28 AM PST by dfwgator (War Damn Eagle!)
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To: Jersey Republican Biker Chick

But of course NJBC. Enough to buy you a new Harley, if that’s your wish.


21 posted on 11/05/2007 11:35:22 AM PST by theDentist (Qwerty ergo typo : I type, therefore I misspelll. <br> "What happens if neutrinos have mass?")
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To: dfwgator

Well, if you saw the Simpson’s movie, then I KNOW he didn’t take it!...............


22 posted on 11/05/2007 11:35:32 AM PST by Red Badger ( We don't have science, but we do have consensus.......)
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To: Red Badger

ALRIGHT

SHRILLERY AND DILLDO KLINTOON

GIVE IT BACK!

INCLUDE THE WHITE HOUSE SILVERWARE.


23 posted on 11/05/2007 11:36:42 AM PST by Quix (GOD ALONE IS GOD; WORTHY; PAID THE PRICE; IS COMING AGAIN; KNOWS ALL; IS LOVING; IS ALTOGETHER GOOD)
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To: Red Badger
God probably got a little bored and decided to play some tricks on astronomers and physicists.
24 posted on 11/05/2007 11:38:19 AM PST by mainerforglobalwarming
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To: Red Badger

Blackwater did it.


25 posted on 11/05/2007 11:38:24 AM PST by dfwgator (War Damn Eagle!)
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To: mainerforglobalwarming

Every time we think we have a handle on the way the universe is put together, God pulls out a new phenomena that makes us start all over again from scratch.............


26 posted on 11/05/2007 11:46:01 AM PST by Red Badger ( We don't have science, but we do have consensus.......)
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To: Quix

I don’t know if I’d want to have that silverware back. You don’t know where it’s been!..............


27 posted on 11/05/2007 11:47:02 AM PST by Red Badger ( We don't have science, but we do have consensus.......)
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To: Red Badger

Sometimes I think the almighty made the universe for his amusement.


28 posted on 11/05/2007 11:50:22 AM PST by mainerforglobalwarming
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To: theDentist

Cool, thanks....I really need a car though.


29 posted on 11/05/2007 11:54:57 AM PST by Jersey Republican Biker Chick (RIP Eric Medlen. You will be missed.../ Get well Soon John Force!!!)
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To: Red Badger

EEEEWEWWWWW

I didn’t think about that.

. . . and all those lesbo orgies at Camp David.


30 posted on 11/05/2007 11:58:41 AM PST by Quix (GOD ALONE IS GOD; WORTHY; PAID THE PRICE; IS COMING AGAIN; KNOWS ALL; IS LOVING; IS ALTOGETHER GOOD)
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To: Red Badger
Big Chunk Of The Universe Is Missing -- Again

31 posted on 11/05/2007 12:00:58 PM PST by oh8eleven (RVN '67-'68)
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To: Jersey Republican Biker Chick; The_Victor
Allegra....you stealin' socks again?

Used socks? Oh, no....only new socks have any appeal for me.

Are there any new socks in that missing chunk of universe?

Lemme go check the basement...

32 posted on 11/05/2007 12:06:12 PM PST by Allegra (Greetings from a kinder, gentler Iraq. God bless US and Coalition Forces.)
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To: Red Badger

Dick Chenney has been playing with the Death Star again...


33 posted on 11/05/2007 12:19:44 PM PST by Ancient Drive
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To: Allegra
Could be....you know how the dryer likes to send socks to the outer reaches of the universe.

I am sure there are times when you open a pack of sock and put them in the washer and not all come out.

34 posted on 11/05/2007 12:20:33 PM PST by Jersey Republican Biker Chick (RIP Eric Medlen. You will be missed.../ Get well Soon John Force!!!)
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To: Jersey Republican Biker Chick
Could be....you know how the dryer likes to send socks to the outer reaches of the universe.

Dang...I always thought my cat was stealing them.

35 posted on 11/05/2007 12:23:34 PM PST by Allegra (Greetings from a kinder, gentler Iraq. God bless US and Coalition Forces.)
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To: Red Badger

Scientists wrong again — Glad it wasn’t about something important.


36 posted on 11/05/2007 12:27:26 PM PST by Tarpon
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To: Tarpon

And yet, we have consensus on the climate in a century from now.....................


37 posted on 11/05/2007 12:28:27 PM PST by Red Badger ( We don't have science, but we do have consensus.......)
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To: thackney

Did Sandy Berger stuff it down his socks?


38 posted on 11/05/2007 12:40:33 PM PST by my_pointy_head_is_sharp (Deport 'em all.)
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To: mainerforglobalwarming
There is a theory which states that if ever anyone discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.There is another theory which states that this has already happened. -Douglas Adams

8^)

39 posted on 11/05/2007 12:41:04 PM PST by The SISU kid (Imagination saved us from extinction)
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To: my_pointy_head_is_sharp

I think he borrowed Michael Moore’s pants to make room for this big of a chunk of the universe.


40 posted on 11/05/2007 12:44:04 PM PST by thackney (life is fragile, handle with prayer)
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To: mainerforglobalwarming

Yeah, we still have yet to find where He threw those dice...


41 posted on 11/05/2007 12:51:42 PM PST by mikrofon ("Insanity is voting for the same Democrats and expecting different results..." ~Joe Einstein)
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To: mikrofon
God made the universe what it is. We’ll never be able to comprehend how it truly works. Although the quest for knowledge can lead to many positive things.
42 posted on 11/05/2007 12:56:15 PM PST by mainerforglobalwarming
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To: Red Badger

It’s AWOL? Did anyone check Canada?


43 posted on 11/05/2007 1:23:02 PM PST by DejaJude
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To: mainerforglobalwarming

We don’t even know how Pakistan works.


44 posted on 11/05/2007 1:25:24 PM PST by RightWhale (anti-razors are pro-life)
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To: Jersey Republican Biker Chick

I didn’t take it — honest!


45 posted on 11/05/2007 1:34:50 PM PST by Chanticleer (I want God, I want Poetry, I want real danger, I want freedom, I want goodness, I want sin.)
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To: Chanticleer
"Round up the usual suspects."
46 posted on 11/05/2007 1:42:50 PM PST by rightwingcrazy
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To: Red Badger
DON'T PANIC.


47 posted on 11/05/2007 1:51:34 PM PST by Daffynition (The quieter you become, the more you are able to hear.)
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To: Alamo-Girl; betty boop; SunkenCiv; Slings and Arrows

pinging my favorite cosmologists, and even noting that the humor in this thread is worth reading


48 posted on 11/05/2007 3:13:52 PM PST by Kevmo (We should withdraw from Iraq via Tehran. And Duncan Hunter is just the man to get that job done.)
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To: Red Badger

(Sigh!) Check ebay.


49 posted on 11/05/2007 3:21:08 PM PST by Billthedrill
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To: Billthedrill
Damn it! I know I had it yesterday...I’ll bet the kids were playing with it and didn’t put it away.
50 posted on 11/05/2007 3:45:46 PM PST by starlifter
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