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How We Loved The Romans (Scotland Celts)
Sunday Herald ^ | 10-28-2002 | Juliette Garside

Posted on 10/27/2002 4:36:00 PM PST by blam

How we really loved the Romans

New research explodes myth that Scots were untameable barbarians
By Juliette Garside

The enduring myth that the Romans left the 'barbarians' of Scotland untouched during their conquest of the rest of the British Isles has been shattered by a new archaeological find. Not only did they settle in Scotland for around 15 years in the first century AD ... they even got our ancestors to swap their beer and lard for wine and olive oil. For hundreds of years, historians who based their theories on the classical writer Tacitus have always assumed the first major Roman push into Scotland was a brief and bloody affair. The then governor of Britain, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, was supposed to have marched his legions as far north as the Moray Firth and fought a decisive battle there in 84AD, before being immediately recalled to Rome by a jealous emperor Domitian.

History tells that his troops stayed on for a brief 18 months before a quarter of the British legions had to return home to fight at the Danube , in late 86 or early 87AD, and the frontier retreated to northern England, where Hadrian's Wall now stands.

The belief had always been that Agricola's stay in Scotland was too short to have had any significant cultural impact on the local population, a Celtic race whom Tacitus referred to as Caledonians.

While the English were learning to build villas with underfloor heating and baths with latrines, the northernmost inhabitants of the British Isles fought off the invaders and remained 'barbarians', untouched by Roman civilisation.

Tacitus's history of Agricola's career, made up and put into the mouth of one of the Caledonian chiefs, characterised the invaders as bringing nothing but destruction: 'To robbery, butchery and rapine, they give the lying name of 'government'; they create desolation and call it peace.'

Now the findings of a husband-and-wife team of archaeologists from Manchester University, to be revealed in the BBC documentary series Time Flyers next month, show the Romans were in Scotland for a stay as long as 15 years before their eventual withdrawal in late 86AD.

The archaeologists, David Woolliscroft and his wife Birgitta Hoffmann, have excavated along the line of the Gask frontier, a series of Roman forts and watch towers stretching from Perth to Dunblane which marked the line reached by Agricola.

They have found that the strong oak forts were rebuilt, in some cases not once but twice, suggesting the Romans stayed much longer than 18 months. The evidence of rebuilding and coins found on the sites have led the team to put the date of the first Roman conquest at around 70AD -- a decade earlier than was previously thought.

This means it would not have been Agricola, who happened to be the historian Tacitus's father-in-law, doing the conquering, but one of his predecessors, Petilius Cerealis or Sextus Julius Frontinus.

If the occupation did indeed last 15 years, a generation of ancient Caledonians grew up alongside the Roman barracks in the first century AD. Far from spending their time at war with the enemy, there is evidence the locals enjoyed an economic boom, with the production of meat and grain increasing in order to feed the foreign army, and luxury goods such as wine, olive oil, pottery and silverware finding their way into homes.

'The famous quote is the Romans make a desert and call it peace -- our research is showing probably the opposite,' said Woolliscroft, speaking in advance of the BBC show.

'The picture was the Romans arrived, they broke heads and they left again. We now have evidence that the Romans came and stayed longer than we thought and in certain areas their arrival may have been a benefit and stimulated the local economy.'

Excavations this August at a typical Celtic roundhouse near Doune uncovered fragments of glass bottles. These would have been of a square design, and used to hold olive oil or wine.

From the recovered pollen, the archaeologists found one well-off family were cattle owners rather than grain growers. And during the period of the Roman occupation, there are signs the number of animals on the surrounding land increased. There were even less trees than there are today, and the type of weeds that don't survive intensive grazing seem to have been killed off for a while.

'We are seeing signs that while the Romans are here agricultural activity really intensifies, either because of taxation or because the locals are supplying the army,' said Woolliscroft.

On other Celtic sites, luxury goods such as tableware and trays, amphorae, coins and glass have been found.

'A whole generation grew up alongside the Romans.' said Hoffmann. Far from fearing the invaders, local children would probably have hung about the nearest fort in the hope of getting little treats from the soldiers. 'They would have known that if you went to the fort you could get the equivalent of chocolate. Roman soldiers would have been like the GIs in the second world war.'


TOPICS: News/Current Events; United Kingdom
KEYWORDS: archaeology; celts; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; history; how; ironage; loved; romanempire; romans; scotland; scotlandyet; we

1 posted on 10/27/2002 4:36:00 PM PST by blam
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To: LostTribe
FYI.
2 posted on 10/27/2002 4:37:09 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
CORRECTION - CORRECTION - There were NO ENGLISH in ENGLAND at that time (67AD). The Britons were still in their own homeland rather than in Brittony and Spain.

The English were just then learning how to pick lice out of their hair back in Denmark, Saxony and other as of then un-named or un-known barbarian heartlands!

3 posted on 10/27/2002 4:42:18 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: blam
Also, very important regarding the relationships between the Legionaires and the locals, if they were Ossitians, they spoke a Celtic language which was not very different from several of the Celtic languages still spoken in Alba in that day (the Scots not yet having arrived from Scota - the island just to the West).
4 posted on 10/27/2002 4:48:30 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: muawiyah
The English were just then learning how to pick lice out of their hair back in Denmark, Saxony and other as of then un-named or un-known barbarian heartlands!

I'll have you know that my English ancestors didn't learn to pick lice out of their hair until centuries later. And my Scottish ancestors (when they weren't running around naked, painting themselves blue, and conking each other on the head) no doubt served as the best pimps and call girls the Roman soldiers ever had the pleasure of knowing.

5 posted on 10/27/2002 5:02:53 PM PST by DallasMike
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To: DallasMike
The Origins of the Picts

The Pictish Pages

Who were the Picts? Well, if you were looking for an area that is full of controversy this is it! This is in no way a comprehensive picture but an outline of one or two theories of the origins of the Picts. I will however be going into more detail of the Picts and the various areas mentioned here in future articles.

There is no doubt that the whole subject of their origins is misted in Fables, Legend, Fabrication and a severe lack of historical and archaeological information. Were they Celtic, Iberian, Scandinavian etc? I think to try and make sense of it all we must first go back to go forward, to a time not long after the ice age and Scotlands hunter-gatherer Mesolithic past (8000 –4000 BC).

These Iberian hunter –gatherers moved through France and lower Britain to enter Scotland around 7000BC. Remains of their campsites are rare, Morton in Fife and another on the River Lussa being two examples. At Lussa the camp contained stone rings approximately 1.5m in diameter and may be the oldest stone structures in Scotland. The West of Scotland Islands give a further reinforcement to the movement of these Mesolithic people by the finds of large shell mounds and various tools such as fish hooks and harpoons but as I said Artefacts of the period are scarce.

A slow transition took place for these Mesolithic people and by (4000 – 2500 BC) they moved into a Neolithic farming life. Many other things must be taken into consideration at this time too like the introduction of new flint and stone tools, pottery, permanent settlements, new religious beliefs and Tombs and ‘Temples’. These structured Tombs were round barrows called Cairns in the East, like Calva Cairn while in the West and North the Chambered tomb such as Maes How in Orkney was preferred and these Tombs are probably the best supplier of artefacts of this time. There is very Little evidence of the settlements but probably the best known is that of Skara Brae in Orkney which remained virtually intact due to being covered for many centuries. Other Neolithic monuments in Scotland include henges and stone circles. Henges are widely spread across the country including two in Orkney - the Ring of Brogar and the Stones of Stenness. A henge is a banked and ditched enclosure, there is a central platform enclosed by a deep ditch, the ditch material is then thrown onto the outer edge to form a bank around the whole.

(2500 – 700 BC) sees the entrance of the Beaker People from Northern and Central Europe and the start of Scotland’s Bronze Age. The beaker people are known by this name for the cremated remains of their dead being cremated and buried in pots and interred in single graves, unlike the Neolithic people who buried their dead in groups. It is also recognised that the beaker people were the ones to introduce metalwork to Scotland. There is no record of any conflicts between the two peoples in Scotland although their lifestyles were in many ways so different and it is the bonding of these two peoples into various tribes (who for unknown reasons seemed to be forever pushed northwards). That leads to the theory that the Picts were an aboriginal race and non-Celtic. The difference in language must also be taken into consideration with this theory, as it is believed that the Picts did not speak with a Celtic tongue.

The second theory of the Picts is that their origins were Celtic. Believers in this describe the two branches as Q-Celts and P-Celts. Both origins were that of Indo-European qu being Q-Celtic and the other transforming the qu into p became P-Celtic. Examples given of this are Q-Celtic were Goedelic languages such as Irish, Scottish, Gaelic and Manx and the P-Celtic were Gaulish and Brittonic that of British, Welsh, Cornish and Breton.

It is suggested that the Q-Celts reached Ireland by the 6th Century BC and the P-Celtic entered Scotland in the 4th Century BC at the start of the Bronze Age. There is no doubt that the Q-Celts entered the South of Scotland in Argyle from Ireland but there is week evidence apart from possible similarity of language and the written ‘Ogham’ (the Brandsbut Stone at Inverurie being an example) that the Picts were of Celtic origin.

My Own Thoughts!

My own thoughts are that the Picti (painted people) named by the Roman Eumenius in 297 AD for these fierce warrior tribes, ‘certainly north of the Antonine wall’ were indeed non Celtic in their origin. Apart from the movement of peoples as briefly laid out above, there is other evidence to support this theory. Again I will try to keep this brief, as I would like to cover these areas in a more detailed manor in future topics on ‘Pictish Pages’.

The first part to tackle I feel is the controversial area of language. You would think that if Picts spoke a form of Celtic, that at least some of the spoken word would be the same. This does not seem to be the case, as St Columbus biographer states, that the Irish saint needed an interpreter when he preached to the Pictish King Brudei in 565 AD on the banks of Loch Ness. The ‘Ogham’ the written language of the Picts found carved on some of the standing stones in Pictland is also shrouded in doubt, as although the markings are similar to that of the Celts, the script is not in Celtic context and is barely, if at all, decipherable.

The Irish name for the Picts was ‘Cruithne’, likewise thought to mean ‘Painted People’ and was a name also used by the Irish, to describe a group of aboriginal people in Ireland prior to the coming of the Celtic Gael. These people were at one time one of the most predominant tribe in the North of Ireland around Ulster. Munster, another part in Ireland was also predominately ‘Cruthne’ and is also the place to have similar inscription stones to that of the Pictish ‘Ogham’.

Accompanied by the uniqueness of the carved standing stones found in Pictland their art and their lineage, which was taken from the mother and not the father. Leaves no doubt in my mind that the people of Pictland were Non Celtic. There are also other areas in this synopsis which I have not covered like ‘What do the Palaeontologists have to say’ but I will cover this in future articles.

6 posted on 10/27/2002 5:13:18 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
It's very easy to imagine some of the genetic lineage of the Picts. First off, they had to have had twice as much genetic coding for "red", the normal amount for "green", and possibly missed completely the coding for "blue".

Note here that the "blue gene" is NOT sex-linked! Men and women can be "blue blind".

Give me a good heavy fog, a dreary winter's day that starts at 10:30 AM and is gone by 1:30 PM, and anybody painted blue is invisible! About the only thing I can see is the red veins in the whites of their eyes!

Tells me the Picts had to wear eyecovers as well to avoid that extra pick-up on the "red".

The Romans just had to love these guys!

7 posted on 10/27/2002 5:41:24 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: blam
Scottish read later bump
8 posted on 10/27/2002 6:03:02 PM PST by LiteKeeper
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To: muawiyah
What do you think of my suspicion that the Picts may have been related to the proto-Xiongnu (...and proto-Hans, proto-Scytians and proto-Huns) people.
9 posted on 10/27/2002 6:15:22 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
I know the Saxons were Vikings. Who were the the Angles? I know they were pushed aside into the various Anglias, while the Saxons created the Danelaw in the eastern part. Were they just earlier Viking people?

By the way, if Icelandic historic culture exemplifies the Saxon, many of America's most cherished legal and government institutions, as well as our concept of freedom and tort may have originated with these people you speak of with such denegration.
10 posted on 10/27/2002 6:30:37 PM PST by marsh2
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To: marsh2
"By the way, if Icelandic historic culture exemplifies the Saxon, many of America's most cherished legal and government institutions, as well as our concept of freedom and tort may have originated with these people you speak of with such denegration.

Denegration? Where?

11 posted on 10/27/2002 6:46:57 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
Why would the Romans trade wine and olive oil for beer and lard? It must not have been their best. On the other hand, maybe they were trading for Scotch whiskey! I'd sure trade mediocre wine and olive oil for Lagavulin or something like that!
12 posted on 10/27/2002 7:00:57 PM PST by Savage Beast
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To: Savage Beast
bttt....
13 posted on 10/27/2002 7:08:38 PM PST by I Luv Bush
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To: blam
Frankly, I think the Picts had been there all along, probably from the 8th or 9th century BC. The Scota of Three Brothers fame left Bulgaria at about that time, so the Picts probably left there then as well.

They would have been speaking the same language, BTW.

The Romans smartly brought folks in from Ossitia who spoke the same language.

The Scythians, or proto-Scythians you are referring to are probably the linguistic fellows of the folks who ran Troy, or Illium, or, in their own language, Allium!

Recall that big find at Ebla? Most eyes were on the mention of David and Soloman. My eyes were on the letters from the King of Troy! They were in a written Celtic language. The Greek tradition was that in that time the Celts were totally illiterate (which is still the English tradition).

With Troy at one end of the Silk Road, it's not hard to imagine that the folks around Troy as well as the hard working traders on the Road all the way to China all wore kilts.

Something happened in that period to cause the Picts, Scota and others to flee to the far West.

14 posted on 10/27/2002 7:10:01 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: marsh2
The Saxons and the Angles were NOT VIKINGS!

Their lifestyles and manner of dress probably remind us of Vikings, but most properly the Vikings lived in Scanderhoovia and beyond.

15 posted on 10/27/2002 7:11:54 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: marsh2
I know the Saxons were Vikings.

Nope. Saxons were Germans from Northwest Germany. Ever hear of Saxony? Vikings were Scandinavian seafaring warriors from, er, Scandinavia.

Who were the the Angles?

Another Germanic tribe that settled in Britain.

By the way, if Icelandic historic culture exemplifies the Saxon...

Sigh! It doesn't. Iceland was settled by Vikings and a few Irish slaves that they captured.

16 posted on 10/27/2002 7:15:47 PM PST by PJ-Comix
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Comment #17 Removed by Moderator

To: marsh2
The Saxons weren't Vikings. They were Germans. The Angles and Jutes came from what is now Denmark but would still be better classified as Germanic rather than Norse.

The Danelaw was not extablished by the Saxons who invaded Briton with the Angles and Jutes in the 6th Century but by the Danes -- real Vikings -- who invaded in the 9th Century.

(A caveat on some of these dates. I'm doing this solely from memory.)

18 posted on 10/27/2002 7:24:28 PM PST by Tribune7
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To: muawiyah
"Something happened in that period to cause the Picts, Scota and others to flee to the far West."

Thanks for the reply. I knew you would add something interesting.

I think it was a massive drought.
The Hakka (Chinese), who I think are the Asian equivalent of the (European) Picts, migrated all the way from the Tarim Basin region to Southern China. To this day, they are known as 'the guests' in China.
I think the people from that region were of mixed Caucasian/Chinese race and the mainly Chinese mix (Hakka) fled into China and the mainly Caucasian mix (Picts) fled west.

The Hans later conquered the whole region to the Caspain Sea and even made contact with the early Roman empire.

19 posted on 10/27/2002 7:28:11 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
bump for later reference
20 posted on 10/27/2002 7:47:25 PM PST by RedWhiteBlue
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To: marsh2
>I know the Saxons were Vikings. Who were the the Angles?

Virtually all the European peoples mentioned in this thread were just different tribes of Celts. The word Saxon comes from "Isaacs Sons", or "Saca Suni" and other permuatations.

The dominant majority of the Celts came from the region of the Caucasus Mountains (thus Caucasians) from 610 BC and later. That's when the 5 MILLION people from the Northern Kingdom of Israel (known as The Lost Tribes of Israel, having joined with the Medes and Persians to defeat their Assyrian captors, bailed out northward through the Caucasus and south around the Black Sea to begin their great trek westward to conquer and totally dominate Europe.

See BRIEF CELTIC HISTORY for much more on the European tribes.

21 posted on 10/27/2002 8:03:37 PM PST by LostTribe
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To: Tribune7
I know the Vikings (Ivar the Boneless, Ubbi, Halfdan) took York, Northumbria, Deira and East Anglia in the late 860s in retaliation for the death of Ragnar. In the 870s, Halfdan warred on the Picts, took Mercia and Guthrum took East Anglia.

The Norweignas had been in Wessex as early as 786. They stayed in Ireland and Northwest England.

Alfred's treaty recognizing the Danelaw was in 870, but it was not until 1013 that Svein, the king of Denmark became king of England. He was followed by his son Canute the Great. Canute was the first on record to establish hunting preserves or "forest" an area.

I admit that what I know of this is sort of peripheral. I was researching the roots of American property rights and getting information through implication and interpretation of sagas and stuff.

Am really interested in learning more from ya'll. Fascinating...
22 posted on 10/28/2002 12:09:07 AM PST by marsh2
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To: Tribune7
>The Saxons weren't Vikings. They were Germans. The Angles and Jutes came from what is now Denmark but would still be better classified as Germanic rather than Norse.

The definition of "German" is a fluid one, depending on time. The original Celtic tribe called "The Germani" is the source of the name of the approximate territory which is currently called Germany. But that Celtic tribe was driven out to the West and North by later invading Slavic tribes. Unlike most of its neighbors to the north, west, and SW, Germany today is not primarily Celtic in origin.

>...would still be better classified as Germanic rather than Norse.

Scandinavian languages are classified as "Germanic" in origin, as are others. Roman History makes many references to "barbarian Germanic Tribes". These were simply large Celtic tribes which occupied the territory, and who were related to the many other large Celtic tribes throughout Europe.

Historians typically make far too much of the differences between European peoples, ignoring their common roots. It's like concentrating on the trees while ignoring the forest. Trees are easier to study. {ggg}.

23 posted on 10/28/2002 8:33:24 AM PST by LostTribe
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To: muawiyah
The English were just then learning how to pick lice out of their hair back in Denmark, Saxony and other as of then un-named or un-known barbarian heartlands!

Well, maybe not quite so primitive, but you are correct, the ones in the south were Britons, many of whom moved into Cornwall or Wales or Britanny or Galicia.

interesting bit about hte Sctos -- they were an Irish people hwo moved in only after the Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britain. This was in opposition to the Hibernians who had invaded Ireland centuries earlier. Until the 6th century, Scotia was really Ireland. Scot means an adventurer or something similar in Irish (someone help me out here), not really a tribe. So, until the 7th century, Alba or modern day Scotland was Scotia Minor as opposed to Scotia Major (modern day IReland)
24 posted on 02/16/2004 8:16:58 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: blam
you know, I never could get around that the Iberians were nor Celtic peoples.
25 posted on 02/16/2004 8:17:46 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: blam
Could it be that the Picts or painted people were non-Caucasians? And that the coloring with wode was some way similar to some African tribes that paint their bodies? Pure conjecture here on my part.
26 posted on 02/16/2004 8:20:55 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: marsh2
I know the Saxons were Vikings. Who were the the Angles?

cOmpletely confused. Saxons were not Vikings. vikings were not a people or a distinct Race. They were Germanic-Nordics very similar to the Danish and other Scandanavian tribes who formed the Vikings. Hence there wasn't so much trouble between the Saxons and ht Danes as between the Saxons and the Britons (Welsh) -- the Saxons and Danes spoke roughly similar languages and when the Danes became christians and stopped looting, they could all live happily together (well mostly ;-P)

Saxons, Angles, Frisians etc were all Germanic people from the Western parts of modern day Germany into Holland.

Icelandic culture is Scandanavian in origin and the Scandanavians were the last of the peoples in Europe to be civilised by Rome.
27 posted on 02/16/2004 8:25:04 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: Savage Beast
Why would the Romans trade wine and olive oil for beer and lard? It must not have been their best. On the other hand, maybe they were trading for Scotch whiskey! I'd

Scotch whiskey was first distilled by Monks in the middle ages, quite a long time in the future.... Beer on the other hand is Egyptian in origin (surprising but true!) and wine seems to have it's origins in IRaq-Iran!
28 posted on 02/16/2004 8:26:11 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: LostTribe
The original Celtic tribe called "The Germani"

never heard of any Celtic tribe called so. The word german is derived form the Latin Germanus which means genuine or authentic and probably refers to the Roman distinction between the Celts and Germans -- viz. the GErmans were 'authentic' Celts, more Celtic than the Celts -- more blonder and hairier. confusing, well, yeah, the Romans didn't really care too much, both were barbarisn to be assimilated or slaughtered, not civilised peoples like the ones aroudn the Mediterranean.
29 posted on 02/16/2004 8:29:43 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: LostTribe
Historians typically make far too much of the differences between European peoples, ignoring their common roots. It's like concentrating on the trees while ignoring the forest. Trees are easier to study.

The 'European' peples roots lie further east in Persia-India, with the Germanic-Nordic-Greek relgions being similar variants to hinduism and the pre-Zoroastrian Irani religions. Their languages are also similar as are the physical characteristics.
30 posted on 02/16/2004 8:31:30 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: Cronos
Scota and Mil ~ The Great Goddess and Mankind! And where do these two creatures get together? Why, Scotia!

Mil was in the habit of building "watch towers. The Milesian "tower" at Brigantia (in Carvajal on the NW Coast of Spain) is rather famous. It pre-dates the arrival of the Phoenicians, and was so ancient that when the Romans arrived they had to rebuild it.

Today's Scotland was created by a mix of Milesian Irishmen and Scandinavian Vikings. This mix is reflected quite well in "MacBeth". The King was a Scot, but his wife was the daughter of a Viking King.

31 posted on 02/16/2004 8:46:10 AM PST by muawiyah
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To: muawiyah
Qutie correct, But what happened to the Picts?
32 posted on 02/16/2004 9:27:43 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: muawiyah
What do you think about the Lost Tribes of Israel (Semitic) people and the Celts (Aryanic people)?
33 posted on 02/16/2004 9:28:35 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: Cronos
I knew that the Egyptians drank beer and the Persians drank wine, but I thought the production of whiskey in Scotland and Ireland began in prehistoric times. No?
34 posted on 02/16/2004 11:53:58 AM PST by Savage Beast (Whom will the terrorists vote for? Not George W. Bush--that's for sure! ~Happy2BMe)
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To: Cronos
I knew that the Egyptians drank beer and the Persians drank wine, but I thought the production of whiskey in Scotland and Ireland began in prehistoric times. No?
35 posted on 02/16/2004 11:54:52 AM PST by Savage Beast (Whom will the terrorists vote for? Not George W. Bush--that's for sure! ~Happy2BMe)
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To: Savage Beast
I have one case of this stuff left to me by my grandfather.
Is it anygood?


36 posted on 02/16/2004 12:11:50 PM PST by ASA Vet ("A fear of weapons is a sign of retarded sexual and emotional maturity", Sigmund Freud)
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To: ASA Vet
A WW I American of these mixed bloods doughboy, my great-uncle told me that a man's scotch should be older than his woman.

He died very old and very happy.

Prehistory discussions deserve old scotch, an oak fire, and a fair lass.

I vote for an independent Scotland before islamists capture a northern beachhead.
37 posted on 02/16/2004 1:00:09 PM PST by SevenDaysInMay (Federal judges and justices serve for periods of good behavior, not life. Article III sec. 1)
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To: Cronos
Obviously the Picts did not have blue receptor cones in their eyes. So, when they painted themselves blue they were harder to see (among their other Pictish enemies).

Betcha' that trait is still quite widespread among the modern Scottish populations. That would mean the Picts were absorbed!

38 posted on 02/16/2004 2:19:13 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: Cronos
I think the Aryans were a shade darker than the Semitic people ~ as they are today!

There were pre-Indo-European populations in Europe. They are still there. All they did is change their languages, but not their spots, or the absence thereof!

39 posted on 02/16/2004 2:21:20 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: muawiyah
England = Angleterre = home of the Angles
40 posted on 02/16/2004 3:58:18 PM PST by NotJustAnotherPrettyFace (Michael <a href = "http://www.michaelmoore.com/" title="Miserable Failure">"Miserable Failure"</a>)
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To: NotJustAnotherPrettyFace
Actually, England is only a small part of it. The Danelaw was certainly important.

In any case, all the territories occupied by the Angles and Saxons had previously been held by the Britons for many, many centuries.

41 posted on 02/16/2004 4:22:21 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: Savage Beast
I knew that the Egyptians drank beer and the Persians drank wine, but I thought the production of whiskey in Scotland and Ireland began in prehistoric times. No?

I can't find a site, but you can read it in books on origins of liquors etc that Scotch was first brewed by monks, I'm not sure but I think it was first in Ireland, then brought across to Scotland, but it was first brewed by monks. The Irish invented whiskey when Irish monks first distilled their "Uisce Beatha" or "Water of Life" in the 6th century AD. The word "whiskey" is in fact from the Irish "Uisce" (pronounced "Iish-kee").The date is roughly the 6th century as legend has it that in the 6th Century a group of Irish monks journeyed to the Middle East and observed how the local people distilled perfume. On returning to Ireland, it is said, they created the 'Pot Still' based on their design.
42 posted on 02/17/2004 12:04:09 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: muawiyah
I think the Aryans were a shade darker than the Semitic people ~ as they are today!

Germans and Persians and most Europeans darker than Israelies and Arabs??
43 posted on 02/17/2004 12:05:56 AM PST by Cronos (W2K4!)
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To: ASA Vet
I don't know, but I'd certainly like to give it the taste test!
44 posted on 02/17/2004 2:19:33 PM PST by Savage Beast (Whom will the terrorists vote for? Not George W. Bush--that's for sure! ~Happy2BMe)
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To: blam
Thanks Blam. Just adding this to the GGG homepage, not sending a general distribution.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on, off, or alter the "Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list --
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45 posted on 12/01/2004 10:03:01 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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To: SunkenCiv

Interesting thread...bump.


46 posted on 12/02/2004 6:54:37 AM PST by blam
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Just updating the GGG information, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
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47 posted on 11/05/2005 4:32:02 PM PST by SunkenCiv (Down with Dhimmicrats! I last updated my FR profile on Wednesday, November 2, 2005.)
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48 posted on 11/14/2010 7:18:05 PM PST by SunkenCiv (The 2nd Amendment follows right behind the 1st because some people are hard of hearing.)
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