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Ancient DNA Traces The Wooly Mammoth's Disappearance
Psysorg ^ | 6-7-2007

Posted on 06/11/2007 10:35:44 AM PDT by blam

Ancient DNA traces the woolly mammoth's disappearance

Some ancient-DNA evidence has offered new clues to a very cold case: the disappearance of the last woolly mammoths, one of the most iconic of all Ice Age giants, according to a June 7th report published online in Current Biology.

DNA lifted from the bones, teeth, and tusks of the extinct mammoths revealed a “genetic signature” of a range expansion after the last interglacial period. After the mammoths’ migration, the population apparently leveled off, and one of two lineages died out.

“In combination with the results on other species, a picture is emerging of extinction not as a sudden event at the end of the last ice age, but as a piecemeal process over tens of thousands of years involving progressive loss of genetic diversity,” said Dr. Ian Barnes, of Royal Holloway, University of London. “For the mammoth, this seems much more likely to have been driven by environmental rather than human causes, even if humans might have been responsible for killing off the small, terminal populations that were left.”

Barnes, along with Dr. Adrian Lister of the University College London and the Natural History Museum in London and others, had earlier found evidence that bison, bears, and lions underwent major population shifts twenty-five to fifty thousand years ago. Those results came as a surprise, the researchers said, because scientists tended to think that the major environmental changes happened about fifteen to twenty-five thousand years ago, when the glaciers reached their fullest extent. The findings also offered early human hunters a potential alibi; they didn’t come on the scene in large numbers until even later.

Woolly mammoth

In search of a general pattern in the new study, Barnes and Lister’s team looked to the extinct woolly mammoth. What they found, however, was an “interesting pattern, not like those of the other species.”

Their genetic data indicate that Siberian mammoths expanded from a small base some time before sixty thousand years ago. Moreover, they found two distinct genetic groups, implying that mammoths had diverged in isolation for some time before merging back into a single population. The DNA further suggests that no later than forty thousand years ago, one of the groups died out, leaving only the second alive at the time of the mammoth’s last gasp.

“At a time when we should be very concerned about the potential extinction of many existing large mammals, studying those that occurred in the geologically recent past can provide many insights,” Lister said. “Our work, together with that of others, shows that the conditions for extinction can be set up long before the actual extinction event.”

Source: Cell Press


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: crevo; disappearance; dna; godsgravesglyphs; hunted2extinction; mammoth; wooly

1 posted on 06/11/2007 10:35:47 AM PDT by blam
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To: SunkenCiv; Renfield
GGG Ping.

Ice Age Ends Smashingly: Did A Comet Blow Up Over Eastern Canada? (More) (Carolina Bays)

2 posted on 06/11/2007 10:37:55 AM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Sorta sounds like a possible immune deficiency problem in 1 population after the (re)merging.


3 posted on 06/11/2007 10:39:52 AM PDT by Tallguy (Climate is what you plan for, weather is what you get.)
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To: blam

Amazing what geneticists can do!


4 posted on 06/11/2007 10:40:29 AM PDT by ahayes ("Impenetrability! That's what I say!")
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To: ahayes

Pretty cool stuff.


5 posted on 06/11/2007 10:42:53 AM PDT by miliantnutcase
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To: Tallguy
Sorta sounds like a possible immune deficiency problem in 1 population after the (re)merging.

AIDS from Gay Wooly Mammoths?........

6 posted on 06/11/2007 10:44:13 AM PDT by Red Badger (Bite your tongue. It tastes a lot better than crow................)
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To: Tallguy

no second hand smoke killed em.


7 posted on 06/11/2007 10:44:50 AM PDT by old gringo
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To: Red Badger

no the Masturbatordon never reproduced for some reason.


8 posted on 06/11/2007 10:48:45 AM PDT by Vaquero (" an armed society is a polite society" Heinlein "MOLON LABE!" Leonidas of Sparta)
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To: blam

bump


9 posted on 06/11/2007 10:52:34 AM PDT by facedown (Armed in the Heartland)
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To: blam

In light of this, perhaps humans should be added to the endangered list. Extinction looms.


10 posted on 06/11/2007 10:52:38 AM PDT by Brilliant
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To: blam

Victims of global warming when the glaciers melted.


11 posted on 06/11/2007 10:53:43 AM PDT by The Great RJ ("Mir we bleiwen wat mir sin" or "We want to remain what we are." ..Luxembourg motto)
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To: Vaquero

Perhaps it was Onan, The Barbarian...........


12 posted on 06/11/2007 10:55:44 AM PDT by Red Badger (Bite your tongue. It tastes a lot better than crow................)
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To: Red Badger

Our work, together with that of others, shows that the conditions for extinction can be set up long before the actual extinction event.”

Gee, just like the Democratic party....

As for the wooly mammoth, maybe they made for a nice BBQ once you scraped off the wooly part. How tough could it be to kill one of these slow moving animals for a bunch of guys with spears?


13 posted on 06/11/2007 10:59:06 AM PDT by seamusnh
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To: Red Badger
AIDS from Gay Wooly Mammoths?........

It actually could have been a form of VD that left the unadapted population sterile. It wouldn't have had to kill them. How many years would it take for a disease like that to effectively cap 1 branch of the family?

14 posted on 06/11/2007 11:01:12 AM PDT by Tallguy (Climate is what you plan for, weather is what you get.)
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To: seamusnh

Someone postulated that maybe only a few were actually killed by man. They’d kill one and talk about for the next 20 years..........


15 posted on 06/11/2007 11:01:42 AM PDT by Red Badger (Bite your tongue. It tastes a lot better than crow................)
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To: blam
“At a time when we should be very concerned about the potential extinction of many existing large mammals, studying those that occurred in the geologically recent past can provide many insights,” Lister said. “Our work, together with that of others, shows that the conditions for extinction can be set up long before the actual extinction event.”


If they could read,they might get it...


They can't, so allow a full demonstration....



16 posted on 06/11/2007 11:01:58 AM PDT by Issaquahking (Illegals kill more than al Quaida, thanks to the president,congress, and senate for ruining the USA!)
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To: Tallguy

Where would a wooly mammoth get VD? Off a toilet seat?..........


17 posted on 06/11/2007 11:02:55 AM PDT by Red Badger (Bite your tongue. It tastes a lot better than crow................)
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To: blam
said Dr. Ian Barnes, of Royal Holloway, University of London. “For the mammoth, this seems much more likely to have been driven by environmental rather than human causes

Oh, oh. Dr. Barnes is gonna be in big trouble with Big al[gore]. Doesn't he know that it's always the humans' fault? I mean, how the heck are you going to enact cumbersome regulations stifling the liberty of human beings if animals insist on going extinct all by themselves?

18 posted on 06/11/2007 11:03:30 AM PDT by Stultis (I don't worry about the war turning into "Vietnam" in Iraq; I worry about it doing so in Congress.)
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Supernova Storm Wiped Out Mammoths?
Discovery News | 09/28/05 | Jennifer Viegas
Posted on 10/05/2005 2:47:27 AM EDT by planetesimal
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1496844/posts

Supernova Storm Wiped Out Mammoths?
Discovery News | Sept. 28, 2005 | Jennifer Viegas
Posted on 10/17/2005 11:57:32 AM EDT by Fzob
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1503957/posts

Supernova debris found on Earth
NEWS@NATURE.COM | 02 November 2004 | Mark Peplow
Posted on 11/24/2004 4:22:08 PM EST by Phsstpok
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1287848/posts

Did comet start deadly cold snap?
Canada.com | Monday, May 14, 2007 | Margaret Munro
Posted on 05/16/2007 6:00:33 PM EDT by Mike Darancette
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1834769/posts

Diamonds tell tale of comet that killed off the cavemen
Guardian | 5-20-07 | Robin McKie
Posted on 05/20/2007 7:50:33 PM EDT by Renfield
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1836898/posts

Catastrophic Comet Chilled and Killed Ice Age Beasts (and Clovis people)
Live Science | 05/21/07 | Jeanna Bryner
Posted on 05/22/2007 1:16:48 AM EDT by TigerLikesRooster
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1837610/posts

Oregon Researchers Involved In New Clovis-Age Impact Theory (More)
Eureka Alert
Posted on 05/23/2007 5:30:19 PM EDT by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1838660/posts

Comet May Have Doomed Mammoths
Red Orbit | 5-26-07 | Betsy Mason
Posted on 05/26/2007 9:12:53 AM EDT by Renfield
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1840136/posts


19 posted on 06/11/2007 11:06:21 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated June 8, 2007.)
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To: blam

the latest such topic:

Climate alarmists lose another piece of evidence
enterstageright | 6/11/2007 | Dennis T. Avery
Posted on 06/11/2007 1:11:38 PM EDT by Neville72
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1848385/posts


20 posted on 06/11/2007 11:08:05 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated June 8, 2007.)
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To: blam

Manfred alias Manny the Mammoth (see “Ice Age”) has a history.


21 posted on 06/11/2007 11:08:34 AM PDT by lilylangtree (Veni, Vidi, Vici)
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To: 75thOVI; AFPhys; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aristotleman; Avoiding_Sulla; BenLurkin; Berosus; ...
 
Catastrophism
 
· join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post new topic ·

22 posted on 06/11/2007 11:08:39 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated June 8, 2007.)
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To: blam; FairOpinion; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 49th; ...
Thanks Blam (and Renfield).

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
-- Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

23 posted on 06/11/2007 11:09:18 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated June 8, 2007.)
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To: Red Badger
Where would a wooly mammoth get VD? Off a toilet seat?..........

I realize that you're having fun with this, but for the benefit of others there are diseases like this among dogs. The bitch can be infected relatively harmlessly. If she passes it to the stud dog, he can become infected and eventually sterile, potentially ending his genetic line.

There are also diseases like anthrax among cattle. I could see something like that spreading like wildfire, too.

24 posted on 06/11/2007 11:11:13 AM PDT by Tallguy (Climate is what you plan for, weather is what you get.)
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To: blam

This seems to be “Wooly Mammoth Week”


25 posted on 06/11/2007 11:15:05 AM PDT by wildbill
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To: Tallguy

My theory is they all starved to death..........


26 posted on 06/11/2007 11:16:20 AM PDT by Red Badger (Bite your tongue. It tastes a lot better than crow................)
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To: wildbill
"This seems to be “Wooly Mammoth Week”"

Nah, it's an AC week for me...the heat index is 105 here.

27 posted on 06/11/2007 11:17:50 AM PDT by blam
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To: blam; SunkenCiv

This is just tremendously cool. I love this stuff.


28 posted on 06/11/2007 11:27:33 AM PDT by marron
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To: wildbill; blam

Mammoth told me there’d be weeks like this.

[rimshot!]


29 posted on 06/11/2007 11:34:28 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated June 8, 2007.)
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To: SunkenCiv

There are reports of sitings of Woolly Mammoth in Alaska
as late as the 1800s. We find their bones all over the
place up here.


30 posted on 06/11/2007 11:41:01 AM PDT by Cowgirl
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To: blam
GLOBAL WARMING ...conditions for extinction can be set up long before the actual extinction event.
31 posted on 06/11/2007 11:51:22 AM PDT by ricks_place
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To: Tallguy

Too bad Hillary hasn’t passed anything along to hubby.


32 posted on 06/11/2007 11:54:39 AM PDT by Bruinator
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To: blam

They got a sample from the scene that matches David Copperfield?


33 posted on 06/11/2007 12:08:47 PM PDT by Hegemony Cricket (Don't mistake timid driving for defensive driving.)
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To: Vaquero

groan...

You punsters always have a handy pun.


34 posted on 06/11/2007 6:14:06 PM PDT by Pelham (deport and impeach)
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To: seamusnh
I have a small collection of spear points. No way any number of guys could take them and kill a Mammoth, Mastadon or Columbian.

The trick was to get them to jump off a cliff or fall in a hole.

Most of these points were gathered in a small area where large mammals gathered to eat grass, represent three cultures, and clearly indicate that the users were far more interested in cutting up meat or leather than killing large critters.

35 posted on 06/11/2007 6:28:55 PM PDT by muawiyah
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To: SunkenCiv

Tusk,Tusk, that’s a really bad one.


36 posted on 06/11/2007 6:31:01 PM PDT by wildbill
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To: wildbill

I was trunk when I posted that.


37 posted on 06/11/2007 8:52:02 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated June 8, 2007.)
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To: SunkenCiv

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1848766/posts

Even more evidence that the subject of ‘Mammoths’ is bubbling up into our conscienceness this week. There is something supernatural working here.

Something mammoth this way comes.


38 posted on 06/12/2007 8:47:08 AM PDT by wildbill
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To: wildbill

I woolly think you’re onto something.


39 posted on 06/12/2007 9:14:23 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated June 8, 2007.)
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To: blam

that “forests caused extinction” mammoth guy:

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1848403/posts

“Their genetic data indicate that Siberian mammoths expanded from a small base some time before sixty thousand years ago. Moreover, they found two distinct genetic groups, implying that mammoths had diverged in isolation for some time before merging back into a single population. The DNA further suggests that no later than forty thousand years ago, one of the groups died out, leaving only the second alive at the time of the mammoth’s last gasp.”


40 posted on 12/17/2007 8:05:09 PM PST by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Monday, December 10, 2007____________________https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: blam

Aren’t the Russians trying to clone a mammoth from frozen DNA ?


41 posted on 12/17/2007 8:13:49 PM PST by Martins kid
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To: SunkenCiv
(I'll put it here)

Monday 17 December 2007

How forests wiped out woolly mammoths

Last Updated: 12:01am GMT 16/12/2007

Woolly mammoths were among the biggest mammals to have walked the earth, but it appears they were driven into extinction by nothing more dangerous than trees.

A leading expert on the ice age will claim this week that, rather than being wiped out by human hunters, the giant creatures were doomed by the spread of forests around the world at the end of the last ice age 10,000 years ago.

Professor Adrian Lister, a palaeobiologist at University College London, has found that the extensive areas of frozen grassland on which mammoths thrived were gradually replaced by forests, leaving the animals nothing to eat.

Analysis on the DNA extracted from hundreds of fossils has revealed that the genetic differences between individual mammoths were so slight that the animals were unable to adapt to the changes in their environment.

It contrasts with previous theories that humans hunted the woolly beasts into extinction or that rising temperatures left them unable to cope. Prof Lister will present his findings at the annual meeting of the Palaeontological Association in Sweden on Monday.

He will reveal a detailed picture of how mammoths first evolved about seven million years ago in tropical Africa, migrated north and adapted to the cold that allowed them to thrive in the ice age before dying out.

“In the middle of the last ice age, around 30,000 years ago, there were millions of mammoths roaming over a huge area,” said Prof Lister. “Around 20,000 years later there were hardly any left.

“As the forests moved in, the mammoths were pushed out of their normal habitat. These animals are mostly governed by vegetation rather than climate and so they were squeezed into very small populations as the forests took over the cold grasslands.

“I don’t think that people played a major role in wiping them out, although they may have pushed those final populations over the edge. The major impact factor was the change in the vegetation from grassland to trees.”

Prof Lister, with colleagues at the Natural History Museum and the Royal Holloway in London, analysed hundreds of mammoth fossils, extracting and comparing DNA sequences.

He said: “The DNA we have been able to extract from mammoth bones is like a clock and allows us to trace the evolutionary story in great detail now.”

American research revealed last week that mammoths and other great beasts from the last ice age were blasted by meteorites. Tusks from Alaska, 35,000 years old, were found to have been peppered with fragments.

Richard Firestone, of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, believes that this impact, along with another 13,000 years ago, caused big mammals such as the mammoth to disappear.

He said: “These large animals were particularly exposed to the shockwave produced by a large impact and had few places of refuge where they might have survived.

“There are probably strong parallels to the demise of the dinosaurs.”

Woolly giants: grazers of the frozen grassland

Weighed eight tons and reached 11ft tall.

Tusks of up to 11ft long were used to clear snow.

Ate more than 300lb of grass a day.

Four inches of fat, and hair up to 3ft long insulated them from the cold.

Closest living relative is the Asian elephant.

Perfectly preserved baby mammoth was found in Siberia last year.

© Copyright of Telegraph Media Group Limited 2007

42 posted on 12/17/2007 8:25:39 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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Thanks Blam.

The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes: Flood, Fire, and Famine in the History of Civilization The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes:
Flood, Fire, and Famine
in the History of Civilization

by Richard Firestone,
Allen West, and
Simon Warwick-Smith


43 posted on 12/17/2007 8:41:17 PM PST by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Monday, December 10, 2007____________________https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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