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Mammoths to Return? DNA Advances Spur Resurrection Debate
National Geographic News ^ | June 25, 2007 | Mason Inman

Posted on 06/27/2007 7:10:20 AM PDT by presidio9

Today the only place to see woolly mammoths and people side-by-side is on The Flintstones or in the movies.

But researchers are on the verge of piecing together complete genomes of long-dead species such as Neandertals and mammoths. (See a brief overview of human genetics.)

So now the big question is, Will we soon be able to bring such extinct species back to life?

Researchers are divided over how they might try to do this and whether it's even feasible. (Related: "Woolly Mammoth Resurrection, 'Jurassic Park' Planned [April 8, 2005].)

At the core of this issue is DNA, which encodes the thousands of genes that tell cells how to build themselves and keep running.

Researchers already have deciphered the complete gene sequences—or genomes—for many living species, including humans, dogs, and mice. (Related: "Dog Genome Mapped, Shows Similarities to Humans" [December 7, 2005].)

The DNA of long-extinct species can also be preserved—in bones or bodies found in dry caves or inside ice, for example.

"Retrieval of DNA from ancient specimens is relatively easy now," said Alan Cooper, of the University of Adelaide in Australia.

Even though such DNA has degraded into thousands of small pieces, researchers can still read these fragments and piece together much of the original genetic instructions.

Dead to Return?

So many researchers think that assembling the genome of Neandertals (often spelled "Neanderthals") or mammoths is just around the corner.

A team led by Stephan Schuster and Webb Miller at Pennsylvania State University and Tom Gilbert at the University of Copenhagen is working on the genome of woolly mammoths preserved in the Siberian permafrost.

"I think it's definitely feasible" to assemble these genomes, said Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen in Denmark. But "it's going to be extremely hard work."

Svante Paabo, at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany, and his colleagues are aiming to assemble a Neandertal genome from bones preserved in arid caves. (Related: "Neandertal DNA Partially Mapped, Studies Show" [November 15, 2006].)

In a paper appearing this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Paabo says that only certain types of errors appear in such ancient DNA, paving the way for scientists to more easily anticipate and correct gaps in their knowledge.

But ideas of resurrecting these animals "is for the most part science fiction," Paabo argued.

Cooper, of the University of Adelaide, agrees. "As far as I can see, it is not going to be practical," he said.

That's because researchers are reading little fragments of preserved DNA and guessing at what the original genetic instructions were, Cooper said.

"You're not actually physically putting the DNA together, and I can't see any way of doing that feasibly," Cooper said.

In large part, the problem is that living animals package their DNA with proteins that help it wind up into chromosomes. This packaging is crucial to making the DNA work properly, Cooper argues.

Willerslev, of the University of Copenhagen, said the only way he could see of bringing back an extinct species like a mammoth would be to find an extremely well-preserved cell.

That's extremely unlikely to happen, he added, because all parts of a cell break down over time, even in mammoths that have been encased in ice since they died.

But, he said, researchers working on cloning have contacted him, wanting to get a hold of mammoth tissue so they could try to clone a mammoth.

"I was surprised," Willerslev said. "I thought it was completely ridiculous."

These cloning researchers are "pros," he added. "But I don't think they will find anything they can use" in the frozen tissue.

Japanese researchers, meanwhile, have been searching for years for a preserved mammoth with intact sperm, which they say could be used to create a new mammoth.

But researchers who work on ancient DNA think this is also unlikely.

"This is not the way to do it," said Hendrick Poinar, of McMaster University in Canada.

Recipe for Resurrection

Miller, of Pennsylvania State University, however argues that we should never say never.

"Do they also say that synthesizing a virus will never be possible?" he asked.

This was accomplished for the first time in 2005, when researchers reassembled the deadly 1918 flu from preserved tissue samples.

"What about a bacterium? A yeast? A fruit fly?" Miller added. "I'm curious where the line can be drawn."

McMaster University's Poinar has his own ideas of how researchers might revive mammoths and other species—and he thinks it's only a matter of time before it's possible.

"It's theoretically possible, and I think it's going to be done at some point," Poinar said.

He says that once you have the genome of a mammoth, you could compare it with the genome of its closest relative, the Asian elephant. (Related: "Woolly Mammoth DNA Reveals Elephant Family Tree" [December 20, 2005].)

Then you could genetically engineer the elephant DNA, point by point, so that it matches the mammoth DNA.

Then, by inserting this modified DNA into an elephant's egg cell, and implanting it in an elephant's womb, you could create a modified elephant that's nearly identical to the original mammoth, Poinar says.

Or it could become possible to make entire chromosomes from scratch.

"I wouldn't be surprised if, in ten years, you'd be able to synthesize chromosome-length DNA," Poinar said.

"Five years ago everybody was saying you'd never be able to sequence the genomes of extinct animals ... but here we are. We're not that far away now."

But Poinar isn't sure we should bring these extinct animals back.

"The more poignant question is whether this should be done," he said. "This needs to be discussed way in advance. And the time is now, because it's going move very, very quickly."

It's not clear where we'd put a herd of mammoths, for example, and the natural predators that once hunted them—other than people—are also extinct, he added.

"I can't think of a good reason to do it, other than the 'wow' value."


TOPICS: Extended News; Miscellaneous; News/Current Events; Philosophy
KEYWORDS: dinodna; godsgravesglyphs; mammoths; tusktusk
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1 posted on 06/27/2007 7:10:22 AM PDT by presidio9
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To: blam; SunkenCiv

Ping!


2 posted on 06/27/2007 7:13:07 AM PDT by Red Badger (Bite your tongue. It tastes a lot better than crow................)
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To: presidio9

I heard recently that they found T-Rex bone marrow in tact (fleshy). I wonder if they’re gonna bring that back.


3 posted on 06/27/2007 7:13:21 AM PDT by rbosque
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To: presidio9
"It's not clear where we'd put a herd of mammoths"

Put them on Isla Nubar with the velociraptors. Sheesh don't these people keep up with the news or go to movies.

4 posted on 06/27/2007 7:14:02 AM PDT by BipolarBob (Yes I backed over the vampire, but I swear I didn't see it in my rear view mirror.)
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To: presidio9

Can’t wait to toss one on the grill!


5 posted on 06/27/2007 7:16:29 AM PDT by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ("Don't touch that thing")
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To: BipolarBob
I have an island where we can put them, and any other they may wish to recreate. I call it: “Jurassic Park”. What could go wrong???
6 posted on 06/27/2007 7:17:31 AM PDT by theDentist (Qwerty ergo typo : I type, therefore I misspelll.)
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To: pcottraux

ping


7 posted on 06/27/2007 7:18:19 AM PDT by presidio9 (Islam is as Islam does.)
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To: theDentist

As long as you have the security fences and Dennis doing the programming and de-bugging of the systems, heck it can’t miss. I’ll send a lawyer and some paleontologists over to check it out before it opens to the public for a dry run.


8 posted on 06/27/2007 7:20:15 AM PDT by BipolarBob (Yes I backed over the vampire, but I swear I didn't see it in my rear view mirror.)
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To: presidio9

Read recently where they think there are still thousands of mammoths frozen in the permafrost in Siberia.

Good chance a few of them still have viable sperm and eggs.


9 posted on 06/27/2007 7:20:25 AM PDT by djf (Bush's legacy: Way more worried about Iraqs borders than our own!!! A once great nation... sad...)
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To: Red Badger; martin_fierro; blam; FairOpinion; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; ...
Thanks Red Badger.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
-- Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

10 posted on 06/27/2007 7:21:10 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated June 27, 2007.)
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To: presidio9

I’m all for “resurrecting” any of these animals. The navel gazers can bore me all they want with their so called “ethics” but in a world where zoos substitute for natural environments anyways, there is no reason not to.


11 posted on 06/27/2007 7:21:19 AM PDT by Dreagon
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To: presidio9

Why not? The voters continue to pump life into dinosaurs. Take a look a Byrd, Kennedy, etc....


12 posted on 06/27/2007 7:21:57 AM PDT by Islander7 ("Show me an honest politician and I will show you a case of mistaken identity.")
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To: Dreagon

13 posted on 06/27/2007 7:24:28 AM PDT by rocksblues (Just enforce the law!)
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To: rbosque

I heard recently that they found T-Rex bone marrow in tact (fleshy).

14 posted on 06/27/2007 7:24:29 AM PDT by presidio9 (Islam is as Islam does.)
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Comment #15 Removed by Moderator

To: presidio9

What round is good for a mammoth? I’m going to need some recipes...


16 posted on 06/27/2007 7:25:09 AM PDT by Ranxerox
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To: presidio9

That’s a big brass pair!


17 posted on 06/27/2007 7:25:24 AM PDT by rbosque
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To: presidio9

“It’s my mother. I’ll put her on speaker.”


18 posted on 06/27/2007 7:25:42 AM PDT by wideawake
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To: presidio9
Cooper, of the University of Adelaide, agrees. "As far as I can see, it is not going to be practical," he said.

Snort. Like that matters.

19 posted on 06/27/2007 7:27:03 AM PDT by mewzilla (Property must be secured or liberty cannot exist. John Adams)
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To: Dr. Bogus Pachysandra
Mmmmm! Ribs!


20 posted on 06/27/2007 7:29:19 AM PDT by KarlInOhio (A base looking for a party.)
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To: rbosque
You heard wrong.
21 posted on 06/27/2007 7:30:30 AM PDT by ASA Vet (Pray for the deliberately Ignorant.)
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To: BipolarBob

Can't miss!

22 posted on 06/27/2007 7:31:17 AM PDT by theDentist (Qwerty ergo typo : I type, therefore I misspelll.)
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To: rocksblues

Sheesh, next you will be showing clips from Al Gore movies to argue for Global Warming.

Lets leave hollywood out of this, shall we?


23 posted on 06/27/2007 7:32:14 AM PDT by Dreagon
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To: BipolarBob

Sorry to tell you that Dennis ran into a little problem on his last job. He won't be available.

24 posted on 06/27/2007 7:33:22 AM PDT by presidio9 (Islam is as Islam does.)
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To: ASA Vet

So that was a false report?


25 posted on 06/27/2007 7:34:28 AM PDT by rbosque
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To: Dreagon

Where will we put this zoo so you can see how extinct species lived?


26 posted on 06/27/2007 7:35:15 AM PDT by rocksblues (Just enforce the law!)
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To: presidio9

I hate to hear that about Dennis. It’s not easy to replace someone in whom you can have complete faith and trust like I had with him.


27 posted on 06/27/2007 7:36:25 AM PDT by BipolarBob (Yes I backed over the vampire, but I swear I didn't see it in my rear view mirror.)
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To: rbosque

The funny thing about that bull is I work about two blocks away from it. Every time I walk by it there is a female tourist getting her picture taken cupping his balls. Weird.

But my point was that your story smells like what comes out that end of a bull.


28 posted on 06/27/2007 7:37:11 AM PDT by presidio9 (Islam is as Islam does.)
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To: Dreagon
Me too. I’d love to see a pack of mammoths grazing on a plain. I’d bet they’d be basically specialized elephants. Nothing much different than we have now.
29 posted on 06/27/2007 7:37:34 AM PDT by SoCal Pubbie
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To: presidio9

I bet they’d make for some great mammoth steaks!


30 posted on 06/27/2007 7:37:54 AM PDT by airborne (COULTER: Actually, my favorite candidate is [Rep.] Duncan Hunter [R-CA], and he is magnificent.)
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To: BipolarBob

In any case, from what I know about mammoths (and I got most of it from watching the Flintstones, so it’s probably pretty accurate), I don’t think that they do all that well on tropical islands.


31 posted on 06/27/2007 7:39:28 AM PDT by presidio9 (Islam is as Islam does.)
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To: rbosque
No, it was deliberately misunderstood
32 posted on 06/27/2007 7:40:01 AM PDT by ASA Vet (Pray for the deliberately Ignorant.)
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To: rocksblues

Downtown Los Angeles works for me....especially if we can bring back veloceraptors.


33 posted on 06/27/2007 7:40:29 AM PDT by Dreagon
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To: presidio9

Someone will probably do it someday just for the sake of doing it. Like the guys who put a cork in the butt of an elephant and then trained a monkey to pull it out just to see the look on the monkeys face when it did.


34 posted on 06/27/2007 7:41:35 AM PDT by Leg Olam
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To: presidio9

Oh. Well, I did read about it on the ‘net but there was never a follow-up.


35 posted on 06/27/2007 7:42:23 AM PDT by rbosque
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To: Red Badger

that would give me a reason to buy that 458 WM winchester model 70 I saw at the gun store.


36 posted on 06/27/2007 7:44:43 AM PDT by Armedanddangerous (Master of Sinanju (emeritus))
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To: presidio9
"But researchers are on the verge of piecing together complete genomes of long-dead species such as Neandertals and mammoths...

So now the big question is, Will we soon be able to bring such extinct species back to life?"

Some researchers have compared the amount of information contained in DNA to that contained on an averave data CD, about 700 MB. Suppose that I gave you a CD containing the plans for a Boeing 747 plus a pilots flight training manual and the FAA airways system regulations. Then I asked you to print out hard copies of these materials. Next, run all theses printed pages through a cheap shredder. Finally, "piece together a complete set" of all these instructions, build the 747 and train someone to fly it.

Would you board that aircraft and ride as a passenger from Atlanta to Seattle?

"But researchers are on the verge of piecing together complete genomes of long-dead species such as Neandertals and mammoths...

So now the big question is, Will we soon be able to bring such extinct species back to life?"

Yeah, right!

37 posted on 06/27/2007 7:45:07 AM PDT by BwanaNdege (Actions have consequences. Truth ALWAYS matters.)
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To: Red Badger
I waiting for Allosaurus resurection myself.
38 posted on 06/27/2007 7:46:59 AM PDT by from occupied ga (Your most dangerous enemy is your own government, Benito Guilinni a short man in search of a balcony)
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To: rbosque

Rule #1: Verify before believing anything you read on the net.

Rule #2: That goes double for Wikipedia.


39 posted on 06/27/2007 7:47:27 AM PDT by presidio9 (Islam is as Islam does.)
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To: Armedanddangerous

You’d need an elephant gun for one of these babies!......


40 posted on 06/27/2007 7:51:34 AM PDT by Red Badger (Bite your tongue. It tastes a lot better than crow................)
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To: Dr. Bogus Pachysandra

Indeed. I wonder what they taste like?


41 posted on 06/27/2007 7:51:47 AM PDT by BenLurkin
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To: presidio9
Neandertals (often spelled "Neanderthals")

Shouldn’t that be included the first time NG misspells simplifies the spelling for who knows who? What’s wrong with maintaining the provenance of a foreign word? Where are the grammar police when they’re needed?

Next thing you know, someone will want to change the spelling of encyclopaedia.

42 posted on 06/27/2007 7:52:25 AM PDT by kitchen (Hey, Pericles. What are the three things a ruler must know?)
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To: presidio9

Well, I found it here.

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/03/0324_050324_trexsofttissue.html


43 posted on 06/27/2007 7:53:01 AM PDT by rbosque
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To: kitchen
Spelling it with the added “h” was an automatic “F” on any paper handed in to my first Anthropology Professor.
44 posted on 06/27/2007 7:58:01 AM PDT by ASA Vet (Pray for the deliberately Ignorant.)
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To: presidio9

MMMM...steaks.


45 posted on 06/27/2007 7:58:02 AM PDT by Safetgiver (So simple, even a Muslim can do it.)
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To: kitchen
Spelling it with the added “h” was an automatic “F” on any paper handed in to my first Anthropology Professor.
46 posted on 06/27/2007 7:59:02 AM PDT by ASA Vet (Pray for the deliberately Ignorant.)
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To: ASA Vet

Submitting a paper twice did not help either.


47 posted on 06/27/2007 8:00:04 AM PDT by ASA Vet (Pray for the deliberately Ignorant.)
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To: rbosque
It wasn't bone marrow.
48 posted on 06/27/2007 8:01:51 AM PDT by thulldud ("Para inglÚs, oprima el dos.")
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To: thulldud

I read from another source that it came from a femur and the femur broke revealing the tissue. But I don’t recall the source.


49 posted on 06/27/2007 8:04:57 AM PDT by rbosque
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To: rbosque; medved

Probably something nonsensical Medved posted.


50 posted on 06/27/2007 8:24:22 AM PDT by Gumlegs
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