Skip to comments."The Shroud is not a fake" (Scientists say there is no way to falsify or duplicate it)
Posted on 12/14/2011 11:10:27 AM PST by NYer
The Holy Shroud
Enea, the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, has published a report on five years of experiments conducted in the ENEA center of Frascati on the shroud-like coloring of linen fabrics by far ultraviolet radiation. Simply put: we tried to understand how the Shroud of Turin was imprinted by an image so special that it constitutes its charm, and poses a great and very radical challenge, "to identify the physical and chemical processes capable of generating a color similar to that of the image on the Shroud. "
In the following article will see how this research developed (the complete version can be found at this link: opac.bologna.enea.it/RT/2011/2011_14_ENEA.pdf ).
Scientists (Di Lazzaro, Murra, Santoni, Nichelatti and Baldacchini) start from the last (and only) comprehensive interdisciplinary exam of the sheet, completed in 1978 by a team of American scientists from Sturp (Shroud of Turin Research Project). A starting point which all too often those who write about and dissect the Shroud prefer not to take into account, in spite what is evidenced by available information verified by an accurate control on peer reviewed journals, that is, approved by other scientists in objective and independent ways. The Enea report, with a lot of fair play and almost "en passant", very clearly refutes the hypothesis that the Shroud of Turin might be the work of a medieval forger. The hypothesis was supported against many weighted arguments by the results of the disputable and probably biased - C14 measurements; a test whose credibility has been rendered very fragile not only by objective difficulties (the possibility that the fabric is contaminated is very high, especially since its historical journey is only partially known), but also from proven factual errors of calculation and the inability to obtain raw data from the laboratories for the necessary controls. In spite of repeated requests. An omission which in itself can throw a heavy shadow over the scientific accuracy of the episode.
The report notes: The double image (front and back) of a scourged and crucified man, barely visible on the linen cloth of the Shroud of Turin has many physical and chemical characteristics that are so particular that the staining which is identical in all its facets, would be impossible to obtain today in a laboratory, as discussed in numerous articles listed in the references. This inability to repeat (and therefore falsify) the image on the Shroud makes it impossible to formulate a reliable hypothesis on how the impression was made.
In fact, today Science is still not able to explain how the body image was formed on the Shroud. As a partial justification, Scientists complain that it is impossible to take direct measurements on the Shroud cloth. In fact, the latest in situ experimental analysis of the physical and chemical properties of the body image of the Shroud was carried out in 1978 by a group of 31 scientists under the aegis of the Shroud of Turin Research Project, Inc. (STURP). The scientists used modern equipment for the time, made available by several manufacturers for a market value of two and a half million dollars, and took a number of non-destructive infrared spectroscopy measurements, visible and ultraviolet, X-ray fluorescence, thermograph, pyrolysis, mass spectrometry, micro-Raman analysis, transmission photograph, microscopy, removal of fibrils and micro-chemical tests. The analysis carried out on the Shroud did not find significant amounts of pigments (dyes, paints) nor traces of designs. Based on the results of dozens of measurements, the STURP researchers concluded that the body image is not painted nor printed, nor obtained by heating. Furthermore, the color of the image resides on the outer surface of the fibrils that make up the threads of the cloth, and recent measurements of fragments of the Shroud show that the thickness of staining is extremely thin, around 200 nm = 200 billionths of a meter, or one fifth of a thousandth of a millimeter, which corresponds to the thickness of the primary cell wall of the so-called single linen fiber. We recall that a single linen thread is made up of about 200 fibrils.
Other important information derived from the results of the STURP measurements are as follows: The blood is human, and there is no image beneath the bloodstains; the gradient color contains three-dimensional information of the body; colored fibers (image) are more fragile than undyed fibers; surface staining of the fibrils of the image derive from an unknown process that caused oxidation, dehydration and conjugation in the structure of the cellulose of the linen. In other words, the color is a result of an accelerated linen aging process.
As already mentioned, until now all attempts to reproduce an image on linen with the same characteristics have failed. Some researchers have obtained images with a similar appearance to the image of the Shroud, but nobody has been able to simultaneously reproduce all microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. In this sense, the origin of the Shroud image is still unknown. This seems to be the core of the so-called mystery of the Shroud: regardless of the age the Shroud, whether it is medieval (1260 - 1390) as shown by the controversial dating by radiocarbon, or older as indicated by other investigations, and regardless of the actual importance of controversial historical documents on the existence of the Shroud in the years preceding 1260, the most important question, the question of questions remains the same: how did that body image appear on the Shroud?.
There are two possibilities, the scientists write, on how the sheet of the Shroud was placed around the corpse: placed above and below (not in full contact with the whole body stiffened by rigor mortis) or pressed on the body and tied in order to be in contact with almost the entire body surface.
The first method is supported by the fact that there is a precise relationship between the intensity (gradient) of the image and the distance between the body and the cloth. Furthermore, the image is also present in areas of the body not in contact with the cloth, such as immediately above and below the hands, and around the tip of the nose. The second method is less likely because the typical geometric deformations of a three dimension body brought into contact in two dimension sheet are missing. Moreover, there is no imprint of body hips. Consequently, we can deduce that the image was not formed by contact between linen and body.
It is this observation, coupled with the extreme superficiality of the coloring and the lack of pigments that makes it extremely unlikely that a shroud-like picture was obtained using a chemical contact method, both in a modern laboratory and even more so by a hypothetical medieval forger. There is no image beneath the blood stains. This means that the traces of blood deposited before the image was. Therefore, the image was formed after the corpse was laid down. Furthermore, all the blood stains have well-defined edges, no burrs, so it can be assumed that the corpse was not removed from the sheet. There are no signs of putrefaction near the orifices, which usually occur around 40 hours after death. Consequently, the image is not the result of putrefaction gases and the corpse was not left in the sheet for more than two days.
One of the assumptions related to the formation of the image was that regarding some form of electromagnetic energy (such as a flash of light at short wavelength), which could fit the requirements for reproducing the main features of the Shroud image, such as superficiality of color, color gradient, the image also in areas of the body not in contact with the cloth and the absence of pigment on the sheet. The first attempts made to reproduce the face on the Shroud by radiation, used a CO2 laser which produced an image on a linen fabric that is similar at a macroscopic level. However, microscopic analysis showed a coloring that is too deep and many charred linen threads, features that are incompatible with the Shroud image. Instead, the results of ENEA show that a short and intense burst of VUV directional radiation can color a linen cloth so as to reproduce many of the peculiar characteristics of the body image on the Shroud of Turin, including shades of color, the surface color of the fibrils of the outer linen fabric, and the absence of fluorescence.
However, Enea scientists warn, "it should be noted that the total power of VUV radiations required to instantly color the surface of linen that corresponds to a human of average height, body surface area equal to = 2000 MW/cm2 17000 cm2 = 34 thousand billion watts makes it impractical today to reproduce the entire Shroud image using a single laser excimer, since this power cannot be produced by any VUV light source built to date (the most powerful available on the market come to several billion watts ).
However the Shroud image has some features that we are not yet able to reproduce they admit - for example, the gradient of the image caused by a different concentration of yellow colored fibrils that alternate with unstained fibrils. And they warn: We are not at the conclusion, we are composing pieces of a fascinating and complex scientific puzzle. The enigma of the image of the Shroud of Turin is still a challenge for intelligence, as John Paul II said.
Something new to bow down to and worship...Satan is really good at his job
What you folks need is.....MORE GRANT MONEY!!!!
No one will worship this.No more than any other historic artifact.
I didn’t get it either.
You could say the same about the Bible.
WHY would grant money be needed?
BUT...I believe this was primarily a CHRISTIAN topic...and I don’t know ANY Christians who WORSHIP idols. Perhaps you are confused?
Now, there my be many who call themselves Christians and who do worship money, prestige, etc......but that’s another topic.
The Shroud is not central to my faith so it doesn’t matter to me either way. If the science says it’s not authentic, it doesn’t bother me because I still believe in Christ every bit as much but if it is somehow proven authentic, all the greater glory to God.
...Satan is really good at his job.
Appears he’s done reasonably well with you.
While I would certainly welcome the fact this object is a genuine burial shroud of Christ, the object itself should not be held up as holy or something to be venerated. Is not the root of Christianity salvation through faith alone? Not good works, not scientific proof, but the simple act of faith. As Jesus is quoted “who soever BELIEVE in me...” not “Who soever, when confronted with scientific evidence...”
Many ‘believers’ often make the mistake of venerating or even worshiping objects (Christ’s image in a piece of burnt toast, some ‘weeping’ statue, a saint’s bejeweled skeleton in a cathedral nave) when clearly God has forbidden such idolatry.
The only thing cooler than Shroud of Turin (SOT) threads are the threads about intelligent life on other planets.
Why did you bother to read the article?
The Shroud shows us the face of Jesus, his beard, nose, closed eyes, all his wounds, including the back because of the imprint on both sides of the cloth, with his hands folded over his lower belly. All his wounds.
It could be duplicated because many people then were scoured and crucified; however, NO ONE but Jesus had the Crown of Thorns...and that also shows on the Shroud. That was unique.
The Shroud has not deteriorated, as iy normally would.
The Bascilica has a short silent DVD explaining the Shroud. Amazing.
The Shroud comes out of its place for public once every 20 or 25 years.
Go back to your room. You are as blind as a bat.
I’m pretty much in agreement with you, here. I think I’d be pleased to learn it was genuine but don’t put any store in relics, so if it were not genuine my faith would not be affected one way or the other.
Now, there my be many who call themselves Christians and who do worship money, prestige, etc......but thats another topic.
One. I am not "confused." I suggest you read some on the topic. There are several "religions" or "faiths" that "call themselves" Christians that actually have their idols in their various "churches" and worship them. There are plenty out there today using the title of "Christian" and are not true Christians. Christ said there would be these types and there are.
2. Yes, worship of money, people, stuff, IS idol worship. You might not agree and that is YOUR opinion. But, it is idol worship regardless of what you think. And that is not just my opinion, it is an opinion given that I happen to completely agree with.
Yours is the only logical response.
The most interesting aspects are: not formed by contact between the body and the shroud, no sign of putrefaction, no image formed beneath blood, therefore, blood deposited first, no sign in blood stains of movement after wrapping, a 200nm thick image layer, and a total required laser energy of 34,000 billion watts to imprint an image of that size at a single time using a laser.
Then maybe Satan would do a better job of distraction by not bothering with an object related to the Resurrection of the Lord.
I wouldn’t be too concerned about other peoples faiths.
Just be concerned for your own.
Depends on how one defines ‘worship” doesn’t it.. do you kneel down to it? Does it have spiritual value “..Do you pray before it? Do you light candles in front of it? ..All honors that belong solely to God??
The Jews believed the golden calf represented God when they celebrated it ...
Golden calves are pretty common in rome today
Geez. Who’s worshipping? A little sensitive there, are we? It’s is a fascinating artifact, just as evidence that proved the existence of David and Solomon was exciting. I suppose if it were proven not to be the burial shroud, those with VERY WEAK faith might falter, but evidence is pointing to LIGHT being the source of the image, so I doubt it will ever be proven a forgery — or the burial cloth of Christ. I suppose those with VERY WEAK faith need to draw closer to Christ, and not concern themselves with artifacts.
1. Actually, its quite old.
2. Nobody worships it.
3. Satans "job" is not to persuade 21st people to seriously consider the evidence of the death and Resurrection of a certain executed 1st century Galilean Jew.
Seriously. You must have worked so hard to develop this habit of misconstruing things so quickly and so comprehensively.
What the report may prove is that the image is not a “fake”, not something manufactured to look like the image it is.
What the report cannot identify or confirm is “whose” image is represented in the shroud.
THAT will remain a mystery as big as how the image came to be.
“Depends on how one defines worship doesnt it.. do you kneel down to it? Does it have spiritual value ..Do you pray before it? Do you light candles in front of it? ..All honors that belong solely to God??”
None of the above. I enjoy reading about it, as obviously many others do. Maybe you should avoid shroud threads if they offend you religiously.
I believe the shroud is real.
Perhaps this retired army person doesn't know his Old Testament, the source of relicquery.
There was a microscopic bit of pollen from the 1st century A.D. found in the cloth of the Shroud. THAT definitively dates it to that time.
Why don't we ask the Bible... you do go by Sola Scriptura, don't you?
James 2:24 (KJV) Ye see then how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only.
If it was real, we would know that it was real...there wouldn’t be any doubt. And, if this were real, wouldn’t you think that it would be more pronounced?
If it was real, we would know that it was real...there wouldn’t be any doubt. And, if this was real, wouldn’t you think that it would be more pronounced?
Hahaha, ya got me. I haven't a CLUE as to what in the WORLD you are talking about. It sounds like DOUBLE-TALK?
Do you sell real estate? :o)
Ditto as to above.
“There are several “religions” or “faiths” that “call themselves” Christians that actually have their idols in their various “churches” and worship them.”
WOW! I’ve never seen such a Christian church. Sounds very weird....you MUST be mistaken.
No, I was speaking of the authentic Christian Church. I know of NO such Christian who worships idols.
“Yes, worship of money, people, stuff, IS idol worship. You might not agree and that is YOUR opinion.”
Oh, I agree that this is idol worship. It is always wrong to place THINGS above God.
You couldn’t be more right. And they know full well the thing isn’t worshiped, but it’s import that they bear that very false witness, wielding the shroud as a means to project their hatred on fellow Christians. Kinda sick.
I’m guessing the whole “Doubting Thomas” episode got edited from his Bible...
If I kneel down in front of my bed to pray, does this mean I am worshiping my bed?
When Jesus ascended into heaven, He did NOT yell down: "READ MY BOOK!"
Our Lord did NOT leave us a book; He left us TWELVE MEN, with Peter as the Rock, the Shepherd of the flock of Jesus' foundling Church. Thus we have the Apostolic Tradition and the Magesterium (all the bishops and the Bishop of Rome--the pope).
Peter's successors have been around in an unbroken line since then. Their names are engraved in granite in the Bascilica of St. Peter. The four names NOT there are the four popes who chose to serve out their papacy in Avignon. They were duly and correctly elected but did not serve in Rome.
Unbroken line of Peter's successors...what else to expect from what Jesus founded?
Was Transfiguration the first time 34 thousand billion watts of radiation hit Christ`s clothes and the Shroud the second time?
St. Matthew (17:1-6),
Six days later, Jesus took with him Peter and James
and his brother John and led them up a high mountain,
by themselves. 2And he was transfigured before them,
and HIS FACE SHONE LIKE THE SUN, AND HIS CLOTHES BECAME DAZZLING WHITE.
St. Mark (9:1-8),
Six days later, Jesus took with him Peter and James
and John, and led them up a high mountain apart,
by themselves. And he was transfigured before them,
and HIS CLOTHES BECAME DAZZLING WHITE SUCH AS NO ONE ON EARTH COULD BLEACH THEM.
and St. Luke (9:28-36),
Now about eight days after these sayings Jesus
* took with him Peter and John and James, and
went up on the mountain to pray. And while he was praying,
THE APPEARANCE OF HIS FACE CHANGED AND HIS CLOTHES BECAME DAZZLING WHITE.
2 Peter 1:16-18
16 For we did not follow cleverly
devised myths when we made known to
you the power and coming of our Lord
Jesus Christ, BUT WE HAD BEEN EYEWITNESSES OF HIS MAJESTY. FOR HE RECEIVED HONOUR AND GLORY FROM GOD THE FATHER when that voice was
conveyed to him by the Majestic Glory, saying,
This is my Son, my Beloved,*
with whom I am well pleased.
St. John (1:14),
AND WE HAVE SEEN and do testify that the Father has sent his Son as the Saviour of the world
What a SHAME if that were true. Thomas was US.
St. Thomas traveled all the way to India for his missionary work to "go teach all nations." When the Portuguese arrived in southern India they found Christians already there....many of the males were named "Thomas."
If one does not understand what I wrote.. it might be that they are spiritually blind
...OR...it might mean that someone else suffers from psychological projection...supreme ignorance...or self-righteousness.
May Christ, our Savior, grant us ALL ... HIS wisdom and insight.
Another good question is to ask what the BIBLE tells us is the foundation of all truth for the Christian?