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  • The Mysterious Ancient Artifacts of Sanxingdui That Have Rewritten Chinese History

    08/05/2014 7:13:08 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 20 replies
    theepochtimes.com ^ | August 3, 2014 | April Holloway
    The objects found in the sacrificial pits included animal-faced sculptures and masks with dragon ears, open mouths and grinning teeth; human-like heads with gold foil masks; decorative animals including dragons, snakes, and birds; a giant wand, a sacrificial altar, a 4-meter-tall (13-foot-tall) bronze tree; axes, tablets, rings, knives, and hundreds of other unique items. Among the collection was also the world’s largest and best preserved bronze upright human figure, measuring 2.62 meters (8 feet). However, by far the most striking findings were dozens of large bronze masks and heads represented with angular human features, exaggerated almond-shaped eyes, straight noses, square...
  • Is the universe a bubble? Let's check: Making the multiverse hypothesis testable

    07/19/2014 9:37:03 AM PDT · by onedoug · 35 replies
    Science Daily ^ | 17 JUL 2014 | Johnson, et al
    Scientists are working to bring the multiverse hypothesis, which to some sounds like a fanciful tale, firmly into the realm of testable science. Never mind the Big Bang; in the beginning was the vacuum. The vacuum simmered with energy (variously called dark energy, vacuum energy, the inflation field, or the Higgs field). Like water in a pot, this high energy began to evaporate -- bubbles formed.
  • Are there out-of-sequence fossils that are problematic for evolution?

    04/17/2014 9:15:11 AM PDT · by fishtank · 62 replies
    Creation Ministries International ^ | 4-17-2014 | by Gary Bates and Lita Cosner
    Are there out-of-sequence fossils that are problematic for evolution? by Gary Bates and Lita Cosner Published: 17 April 2014 (GMT+10) In his debate with Ken Ham, (the ‘science guy’) Bill Nye dogmatically claimed, and asked Ham, to cite any out of order fossils in the geologic record, because if there were any, it would be problematic for the evolutionary model. Due to the seeming confidence of Nye’s assertion (and that it was not answered during the debate), many have contacted us for an answer on this single question. In addition, while out on ministry our speakers have mentioned how this...
  • "Ownership Increasingly More Important Than The Job", says Reagan's economist

    04/17/2014 9:18:21 AM PDT · by se99tp · 7 replies
    ChristianConceptsDaily ^ | April 17th, 2014 | Dr. Norman Kurland
    The rich are not the problem, the greedy are not the problem, the crooked are not the problem - the problem is the system that brings them about. If the system is ours, the system means by the people, of the people, for the people, then now it is time to take it back. Now it is time to demand that it would be changed.
  • Noah’s Ark would have floated…even with 70,000 animals

    04/03/2014 7:23:19 PM PDT · by Olog-hai · 53 replies
    Daily Telegraph (UK) ^ | 7:00AM BST 03 Apr 2014 | Sarah Knapton
    Noah’s Ark would have floated even with two of every animal in the world packed inside, scientists have calculated. Although researchers are unsure if all the creatures could have squeezed into the huge boat, they are confident it would have handled the weight of 70,000 creatures without sinking. A group of master’s students from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Leicester University studied the exact dimensions of the Ark, set out in Genesis 6:13-22. According to The Bible, God instructed Noah to build a boat which was 300 cubits long 50 cubits wide and 30 cubits high—recommending gopher wood...
  • The Ark: Could Noah's Tale Be True?

    04/01/2014 5:04:11 PM PDT · by NKP_Vet · 96 replies
    http://www.livescience.com ^ | March 28, 2014 | Benjamin Radford
    The new film "Noah" stars Russell Crowe as the man chosen by God to collect pairs of Earth's animals on a massive ark to save them from a global flood. The film, which opened March 28, is sizing up to be a Biblical blockbuster, replete with star power and stunning special effects. But how realistic is it? While many people consider the story of Noah's Ark merely an instructive myth or parable about God's punishment for man's wickedness, others believe that the story is historically accurate. To them, Noah's tale describes events that really happened only a few thousand years...
  • Natural Selection Led To Different Features In Europeans As Recent As 5,000 Years Ago, Researchers

    04/06/2014 1:09:07 PM PDT · by blam · 13 replies
    Bio News - Tx ^ | 3-13-2014 | Mike Nace
    Natural Selection Led To Different Features In Europeans As Recent As 5,000 Years Ago, According To Researchers Posted by: Mike Nace March 13, 2014 An increasing volume of archaeological research and effort has come to focus particularly on the genetic evolution and development of human beings since the last Ice Age. While the last glacial period ended about 10,000 years ago, promising, new research suggests that substantial evolution of the human species can now be evidenced even in peoples from as recently as 5,000 years ago — a relative blink of an eye in geological terms — thanks to cutting-edge...
  • Where on Earth has our water come from?

    10/25/2010 6:37:55 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 38 replies
    Highlights in Chemical Science ^ | Friday October 22, 2010 | Rebecca Brodie
    Evidence that water came to Earth during its formation from cosmic dust, rather than following later in asteroids, has been shown by a group of international scientists. The origin of the abundant levels of water on Earth has long been debated with the main differences in the theories being the nature of the material that carries the water, and whether the water came during or after planet formation. Now, Nora de Leeuw at University College London, UK, and colleagues have used molecular-level calculations to prove that dissociative chemisorption of water onto the surface of olivine rich minerals, such as forsterite,...
  • An Argument for the Cometary Origin of the Biosphere

    09/06/2004 8:16:38 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 71 replies · 1,110+ views
    American Scientist ^ | September-October 2001 | Armand H. Delsemme
    Abstract: The young Earth appear to have been bombarded by comets for several hundred million years shortly after it was formed. This onslaught, perhaps involving hundreds of millions of comet impacts, is currently the best explantion for the origin of the Earth’s oceans, atmosphere and organic molecules. Although historically a controversial idea, there is now a considerable amount of physical and chemical evidence supporting the theory. Comet scientist Armand Delsemme reviews the evidence and argues that comets from the vicinity of Jupiter contributed the bulk of the constituents found in Earth’s biosphere.
  • The First US City Was Full of Immigrants

    03/09/2014 4:20:44 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 10 replies
    LiveScience ^ | March 06, 2014 | Megan Gannon, News Editor
    A sprawling city in the heartland of the United States was a cultural melting pot hundreds of years before Europeans ever set foot in North America. A study of dozens of teeth found at Cahokia, an ancient metropolis near modern-day St. Louis, shows that immigrants moved to the city from across the Midwest and perhaps as far away as the Great Lakes and Gulf Coast regions. Cahokia rose to prominence around A.D. 1050, when it underwent what some archaeologists call a cultural Big Bang. "All of a sudden, there's a giant rise in the size of the site," said study...
  • Infamous Mass Grave of Young Women in Ancient City of Cahokia Also Holds Men: Study

    03/02/2014 9:13:24 AM PST · by ckilmer · 110 replies
    westerndigs ^ | Aug 05,2013 | Blake de Pastino
    <p>The scene, discovered by archaeologists in Illinois more than 40 years ago, depicts one of the most extravagant acts of violence ever documented in ancient America: A thousand-year-old pit found under a tall earthen mound, lined from corner to corner with skeletons — 53 in all — neatly arranged two bodies deep, each layer separated by woven fiber mats.</p>
  • Did a Mega-Flood Doom Ancient American City of Cahokia?

    03/09/2014 4:33:46 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 30 replies
    National Geographic ^ | October 31, 2013 | Glenn Hodges
    One thousand years ago, on a floodplain of the Mississippi River near modern-day St. Louis, the massive Native American city known today as Cahokia sprang suddenly into existence. Three hundred years later it was virtually deserted... While analyzing cores from Horseshoe Lake, an oxbow lake that separated from the Mississippi River some 1,700 years ago, Munoz's team discovered a layer of silty clay 19 centimeters (7.5 inches) thick deposited by a massive ancient flood. It's unlikely that the ancient floodwaters were high enough to inundate the ten-story mound at Cahokia's center, a structure now called Monk's Mound... But a flood...
  • Infamous Mass Grave of Young Women in Ancient City of Cahokia Also Holds Men: Study

    03/01/2014 3:51:42 AM PST · by Renfield · 23 replies
    Western Digs ^ | 8-5-2013 | Blake de Pastino
    <p>The victims all appeared to be women, mostly in their late teens or early 20s. Evidence suggested they were strangled, or perhaps cut at the throat, at the edge of their shared mass grave, and then interred, meters away from an ornate burial of two men thought to be clan elders, political leaders, spiritual guides, or all three.</p>
  • Epic Fire Marked ‘Beginning of the End’ for Ancient Culture of Cahokia, New Digs Suggest

    03/01/2014 3:33:14 AM PST · by Renfield · 27 replies
    Western Digs ^ | 9-16-2013 | Blake de Pastino
    Excavations in the Midwest have turned up evidence of a massive ancient fire that likely marked “the beginning of the end” for what was once America’s largest city, archaeologists say.The digs took place in southern Illinois, just meters away from the interstate highways that carve their way through and around modern-day St. Louis. But 900 years ago, this was the heart of Greater Cahokia, a civilization whose trade routes and religious influence stretched from the Great Lakes to the Deep South, and whose culture shaped the lifeways of the Plains and Southern Indians.An artist’s rendering depicts Cahokia’s city center...
  • Who Needs a Moon?

    05/28/2011 4:43:54 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 30 replies
    Science ^ | 27 May 2011 | Govert Schilling
    BOSTON—The number of Earth-like extrasolar planets suitable for harboring advanced life could be 10 times higher than has been assumed until now, according to a new modeling study. The finding contradicts the prevailing notion that a terrestrial planet needs a large moon to stabilize the orientation of its axis and, hence, its climate. In 1993, French mathematicians Jacques Laskar and Philippe Robutel showed that Earth’s large moon has a stabilizing effect on our planet’s climate. Without the moon, gravitational perturbations from other planets, notably nearby Venus and massive Jupiter, would greatly disturb Earth’s axial tilt, with vast consequences for the...
  • Are We Alone in the Universe?

    11/20/2013 9:33:30 AM PST · by Dysart · 148 replies
    NYT ^ | 11-20-13 | Paul Davies
    THE recent announcement by a team of astronomers that there could be as many as 40 billion habitable planets in our galaxy has further fueled the speculation, popular even among many distinguished scientists, that the universe is teeming with life.The astronomer Geoffrey W. Marcy of the University of California, Berkeley, an experienced planet hunter and co-author of the study that generated the finding, said that it “represents one great leap toward the possibility of life, including intelligent life, in the universe.” But “possibility” is not the same as likelihood. If a planet is to be inhabited rather than merely habitable,...
  • No Moon, no life on Earth, suggests theory

    03/20/2004 7:38:37 PM PST · by Leroy S. Mort · 234 replies · 1,418+ views
    NewScientist.com ^ | 18 March, 2004
    Without the Moon, there would have been no life on Earth. Four billion years ago, when life began, the Moon orbited much closer to us than it does now, causing massive tides to ebb and flow every few hours. These tides caused dramatic fluctuations in salinity around coastlines which could have driven the evolution of early DNA-like biomolecules. This hypothesis, which is the work of Richard Lathe, a molecular biologist at Pieta Research in Edinburgh, UK, also suggests that life could not have begun on Mars. According to one theory for the origin of life, self-replicating molecules such as DNA...
  • Earth's Moon is Rare Oddball

    11/20/2007 7:40:12 PM PST · by NormsRevenge · 79 replies · 129+ views
    Space.com on Yahoo ^ | 11/20/07 | Dave Mosher
    The moon formed after a nasty planetary collision with young Earth, yet it looks odd next to its watery orbital neighbor. Turns out it really is odd: Only about one in every 10 to 20 solar systems may harbor a similar moon. New observations made by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of stellar dust clouds suggest that moons like Earth's are—at most—in only 5 to 10 percent of planetary systems. "When a moon forms from a violent collision, dust should be blasted everywhere," said Nadya Gorlova, an astronomer at the University of Florida in Gainesville who analyzed the telescope data in...
  • Earth's Moon is 'cosmic rarity'

    11/21/2007 1:12:51 PM PST · by Aristotelian · 40 replies · 97+ views
    BBC News ^ | 21 November 2007 | Paul Rincon
    Moons like the Earth's - which are formed in catastrophic collisions - are extremely rare in the Universe, a study by US astronomers suggests. The Moon was created when an object as big as the planet Mars smacked into the Earth billions of years ago. The impact hurled debris into orbit, some of which eventually consolidated to form our Moon. The Astrophysical Journal reports that just 5-10% of planetary systems in the Universe have moons created this way.
  • Tomb May Shed Light On 10th Plague

    11/23/2004 6:11:43 PM PST · by blam · 86 replies · 4,257+ views
    Boston Globe ^ | 11-23-2004 | Charles M. Sennott
    Tomb may shed light on 10th plague By Charles M. Sennott, Globe Staff | November 23, 2004 LUXOR, Egypt — Out of the blinding light of a fall morning here in the Valley of the Kings, American archeologist Kent Weeks led the way down a narrow, stone passageway and into the entrance of a tomb. Weeks peered his flashlight into the enveloping darkness of ‘‘the hidden tomb,’’ as he calls it, and pressed on through the damp, winding passages toward what may be his archeological team’s most significant find after years of methodical digging, scraping, and brushing. At the end...
  • Scientists Find 800,000-Year-Old Footprints In UK

    02/07/2014 3:10:44 PM PST · by blam · 46 replies
    phys.org/news ^ | 2-7-2014 | Jill Lawless
    Scientists Find 800,000-Year-Old Footprints Inn UK (Update) Jill LawlessFebuary 7, 2014Undated handout photo issued by the British Museum Friday Feb. 7, 2014 of some of the human footprints, thought to be more than 800,000 years old, found in silt on the beach at Happisburgh on the Norfolk coast of England, with a camera lens …They were a British family on a day out—almost a million years ago. Archaeologists announced Friday that they have discovered human footprints in England that are between 800,000 and 1 million years old—the most ancient found outside Africa, and the earliest evidence of human life in...
  • Scientists find 800,000-year-old footprints in UK

    02/08/2014 10:55:20 AM PST · by artichokegrower · 29 replies
    San Francisco Chronicle ^ | February 7, 2014 | JILL LAWLESS
    LONDON (AP) — They were a British family on a day out — almost a million years ago. Archaeologists announced Friday that they have discovered human footprints in England that are between 800,000 and 1 million years old — the most ancient found outside Africa, and the earliest evidence of human life in northern Europe.
  • The Mystery of the North Star: Astronomers baffled to find Polaris is getting BRIGHTER

    02/06/2014 12:11:57 AM PST · by ApplegateRanch · 77 replies
    Daily Mail ^ | UPDATED: 16:18 EST, 5 February 2014 | MARK PRIGG
    Team found that Polaris is 2.5 times brighter today than in 137CE Experts say find is 'entirely unexpected' Astronomers have discovered that Polaris, the north star, is getting brighter. They say the star has suddenly reversed two decades of dimming. It is expanding at more than 100 times the rate they expected - and nobody is sure why. A team led by Scott Engle of Villanova University in Pennsylvania recalibrated historic measurements of Polaris by Ptolemy in 137 C.E., the Persian astronomer Al-Sufi in 964 C.E., and others. They investigated the fluctuations of the star over the course of several...
  • One million-year-old settlement uncovered in Britain

    01/16/2014 8:11:02 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 56 replies
    Ancient Origins ^ | January 13, 2014 | April Holloway
    Archaeologists believe they have found the birthplace of British civilisation, and it is underneath a Ł15-a-night caravan park in Norfolk, England. Discoveries at the site include one million-year-old artefacts and fossilised animal remains, which are the oldest ever found in the UK. Scientists now believe that it was the first, or one of the first settlement sites of early humans in Britain. Although researchers are yet to uncover any human remains from our predecessors, it is believed the site currently lying beneath Manor Caravan Park in Happisburgh, Norfolk, was a settlement created by early human relatives, such as Homo erectus....
  • New Iron Age Sites Discovered in Finland [Roman era]

    01/11/2014 9:30:28 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 13 replies
    Popular Archaeology ^ | Friday, January 10, 2014 | unattributed
    Artifacts included a battle axe, a knife, and a bronze buckle, all associated with burned human bones, initially thought to be dated to around 1000 - 1200 CE before analysis. Similar objects have been discovered in the Baltic Sea area and in Ladoga Karelia. Identical cape buckles have also been found in Gotland. But based on the University of Helsinki analysis, the cremation grave finds date to a time that is significantly earlier -- during the Viking Age between 775-980 CE, based on their application of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) techniques... ...in the area between the towns of Loviisa and...
  • Bill Nye, Ken Ham Creationism Debate Tickets Sell Out in Minutes; Streaming Info Released

    01/07/2014 1:56:15 PM PST · by SeekAndFind · 31 replies
    Christian Post ^ | 01/07/2014 | Stoyan zaimov
    Tickets for the upcoming debate on the viability of creationism between "The Science Guy" Bill Nye and Creation Museum CEO and President Ken Ham sold out within minutes, but information has been released for how people can still watch it via live streaming. "Sorry, all tickets for the debate with Bill Nye sold out within minutes!" Ham posted on Facebook on Monday, when the $25 tickets for the Feb. 4 debate at The Creation Museum's 900-seat Legacy Hall in Petersburg, Ky., went on sale. The debate will center around the question: "Is creation a viable model of origins in today's...
  • ‘Super-Earths’ and ‘mini-Neptunes’ abound among planets outside our solar system

    01/06/2014 5:21:47 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 9 replies
    washingtonpost.com ^ | Monday, January 6,
    Astronomer Geoff Marcy of the University of California at Berkeley presented data showing that about 85 percent of planets found by NASA’s Kepler space telescope are “mini-Neptunes” or “super-Earths.” Marcy noted that these planets orbit close to their parent stars and that it is possible, with advances in instrument sensitivity, that scientists will discover an abundance of small, rocky planets at more distant orbits. But that’s not what we see so far. Instead, there seems to be a distinct cosmic preference for this intermediate range of planet. These planets also seem to follow a pronounced pattern: Up to about twice...
  • Paranthropus Boisei: Human Ancestors More Rugged than Originally Thought

    12/07/2013 8:13:09 PM PST · by gooblah · 21 replies
    The Guardian Express ^ | December 6 2013 | Douglas Cobb
    Human ancestors, at least some of them, were more rugged and powerfully built than scientists originally thought that they were, if the most recently discovered bones of Paranthropus boisei are any indication. They had powerful forearms well-suited for climbing trees, as well as being bipedal.
  • Baffling 400,000-Year-Old Clue to Human Origins

    12/05/2013 11:46:56 PM PST · by 2ndDivisionVet · 37 replies
    The New York Times ^ | December 4, 2013 | Carl Zimmer
    An artist's interpretation of the hominins that lived near the Sima de los Huesos cave in Spain. Scientists have found the oldest DNA evidence yet of humans’ biological history. But instead of neatly clarifying human evolution, the finding is adding new mysteries. In a paper in the journal Nature, scientists reported Wednesday that they had retrieved ancient human DNA from a fossil dating back about 400,000 years, shattering the previous record of 100,000 years. The fossil, a thigh bone found in Spain, had previously seemed to many experts to belong to a forerunner of Neanderthals. But its DNA tells a...
  • Ancient Humans Had Sex With A Mystery Species (Not Neanderthals Or Denisovans)

    12/05/2013 6:33:43 AM PST · by blam · 129 replies
    BI/Live Science ^ | 12-4-2013 | Stephanie Pappas
    Ancient Humans Had Sex With A Mystery Species Stephanie Pappas Live Science Dec. 4, 2013, 3:33 PM A new, improved sequencing of ancient human relative genomes reveals that Homo sapiens didn't only have sex with Neanderthals and a little-understood line of humans called Denisovans. A fourth, mystery lineage of humans was in the mix, too. As reported by the news arm of the journal Nature, new genetic evidence suggests that several hominids — human relatives closer than humans' current living cousin, the chimpanzee — interbred more than 30,000 years ago. This group of kissing cousins included an unknown human ancestor...
  • At 400,000 Years, Oldest Human DNA Yet Found Raises New Mysteries

    12/04/2013 12:31:08 PM PST · by Theoria · 45 replies
    The New York Times ^ | 04 Dec 2013 | Carl Zimmer
    Scientists have found the oldest DNA evidence yet of humans’ biological history. But instead of neatly clarifying human evolution, the finding is adding new mysteries. In a paper in the journal Nature, scientists reported Wednesday that they had retrieved ancient human DNA from a fossil dating back about 400,000 years, shattering the previous record of 100,000 years. The fossil, a thigh bone found in Spain, had previously seemed to many experts to belong to a forerunner of Neanderthals. But its DNA tells a very different story. It most closely resembles DNA from an enigmatic lineage of humans known as Denisovans....
  • What preserved T. rex tissue? Mystery explained at last

    12/02/2013 10:18:24 AM PST · by Ha Ha Thats Very Logical · 100 replies
    NBC News ^ | November 27 | Stephanie Pappas
    The controversial discovery of 68 million-year-old soft tissue from the bones of a Tyrannosaurus rex finally has a physical explanation. According to newly published research, iron in the dinosaur's body preserved the tissue before it could decay. The research, headed by Mary Schweitzer, a molecular paleontologist at North Carolina State University, explains how proteins — and possibly even DNA — can survive for millennia. Schweitzer and her colleagues first raised this question in 2005, when they found the seemingly impossible: soft tissue preserved inside the leg of an adolescent T. rex unearthed in Montana.
  • 10,000-year-old house uncovered outside Jerusalem

    11/25/2013 9:42:46 AM PST · by Red Badger · 101 replies
    http://www.timesofisrael.com ^ | November 25, 2013, 4:24 pm | By Haviv Rettig Gur
    With range of dramatic finds in excavations ahead of highway expansion, archaeologists trace 10 millennia of human development A remarkable archaeological find in the Judean lowlands southwest of Jerusalem includes a six-millennia-old cultic temple and a 10,000-year-old house. The ancient sites were located in routine archaeological digs conducted ahead of a planned expansion of Route 38, the main access road to Beit Shemesh. The building is the oldest ever found in the area, and constitutes remarkable “evidence of man’s transition to permanent dwellings,” researchers said Monday. Labeling it “a fascinating glimpse into thousands of years of human development,” the Israel...
  • On the Road to One Thousand Exoplanets

    11/23/2013 7:08:18 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 13 replies
    Universe Today ^ | October 16, 2013 | David Dickinson
    A quiet milestone in modern astronomy may soon come to pass. As of today, The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia lists a current tally of 998 extrasolar planets across 759 planetary systems. And although various tabulations differ slightly, very soon we should be living in an era where over one thousand exoplanets are known. The history of exoplanet discovery has paralleled the course of the modern age of astronomy. It’s strange to think that a generation has already grown up over the past two decades in a world where knowledge of extrasolar planets is a given. I remember hearing of the promise...
  • Neolithic Death Ritual Includes Earliest Evidence for European Beer

    11/23/2013 11:35:49 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 29 replies
    Past Horizons ^ | Saturday, November 23, 2013 | University of Barcelona
    Spanish excavations in Can Sadurní cave (Begues, Barcelona) have discovered four human skeletons dated to about 6,400 years ago. The skeletal remains of the individuals are particularly important as they are in a very good state of preservation. An archaeological campaign carried out previously identified other individuals which were not so well preserved but belong to the same stratigraphic layer. Archaeologists excavating in 1999, also discovered within the cave, evidence for the earliest European beer, which may have been included as part of the death ritual... A small landslip from the outer part of the cave must have taken place...
  • Red Christmas: Billionaire Eyes Private Mars Mission in 2017

    11/24/2013 5:00:35 AM PST · by lbryce · 27 replies
    Mars Daily ^ | November 25, 2013 | Staff
    Billionaire Dennis Tito has revealed his scheme for dispatching two astronauts to the red planet as early as December 2017, saying that 'rare alignments' of planets should be exploited as the context of the project. 'Inspiration Mars' would be a 501-day US mission to the planet without landing on its surface and would take the opportunity of a rare alignment of Mars and earth so that the mission would require minimal rocket fuel, according to a report released on Wednesday. Two separate trips would be necessary for the Mars Mission - Tito proposed that the first launch would involve a...
  • Evidence of 3.5-Billion-Year-Old Bacterial Ecosystems Found in Australia

    11/14/2013 9:57:54 AM PST · by onedoug · 24 replies
    Science Daily ^ | 12 NOV 2013 | Smummarizing Noffke, et al
    Reconstructing the rise of life during the period of Earth's history when it first evolved is challenging. Earth's oldest sedimentary rocks are not only rare, but also almost always altered by hydrothermal and tectonic activity. A new study from a team including Carnegie's Nora Noffke, a visiting investigator, and Robert Hazen revealed the well-preserved remnants of a complex ecosystem in a nearly 3.5 billion-year-old sedimentary rock sequence in Australia.