Keyword: huntergatherers

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  • Archaeologists to explore feasting habits of ancient builders of Stonehenge

    12/23/2009 6:29:02 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 13 replies · 408+ views
    Culture24 ^ | Monday, December 21, 2009 | Culture24 Staff
    The team who worked on the Stonehenge Riverside Project in 2009 are to return to their findings to explain the eating habits of the people who built and worshipped at the stone circle over four thousand years ago... the new 'Feeding Stonehenge' project will analyse a range of materials including cattle bones and plant residue... Initial research suggests the animals were brought considerable distances to the ceremonial site.. The original Stonehenge Riverside project, which strengthened the idea that nearby Durrington Walls was part of the Stonehenge complex, yielded a surprisingly wide range of material ranging from ancient tools to animal...
  • Were the Vikings Smoking Pot While Exploring Newfoundland?

    07/28/2019 1:19:46 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 54 replies
    Live Science ^ | July 15, 2019 | Owen Jarus
    Located in northern Newfoundland, the site of L'Anse aux Meadows was founded by Vikings around A.D. 1000. Until now, archaeologists believed that the site was occupied for only a brief period... In August 2018, an archaeological team excavated a peat bog located nearly 100 feet (30 meters) east of the Viking settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows. They found a layer of "ecofacts" -- environmental remains that may have been brought to the site by humans -- that were radiocarbon dated to the 12th or 13th century. These ecofacts include remains of two beetles not native to Newfoundland -- Simplocaria metallica,...
  • Archaeologists uncover earliest evidence for equid bit wear in the ancient Near East

    07/28/2019 11:19:33 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 25 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | May 16, 2018 | Elana Oberlander, Bar-Ilan University
    An international team of archaeologists has uncovered the earliest example of the use of a bridle bit with an equid (horse family) in the Near East. The discovery provides first evidence of the use of the bit (mouth piece) to control an animal long before the appearance of the horse in the Near East. Evidence of the bridle bit was derived from the skeleton of a donkey dating to the Early Bronze Age III (approximately 2700 BCE) found at the excavations of the biblical city Gath (modern Tell es-Safi) of the Philistines, the home of Goliath, located in central Israel....
  • Stonehenge's Massive Megaliths May Have Been Moved into Place with Pig Lard

    07/21/2019 10:36:46 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 50 replies
    Live Science ^ | July 19, 2019 | Grant Currin
    Ancient people may have moved some of the massive megaliths of Stonehenge into place by greasing giant sleds with pig lard, then sliding the giant stones on them across the landscape, a new study suggests. After re-analyzing ceramic pots that earlier researchers believed were used to cook food, archaeologist Lisa-Marie Shillito concluded that many of those pots may have been used to collect fat that dripped off pigs as they were spit-roasted. The grease would have been stored as lard or tallow and used to lubricate the sleds most archaeologists believe were used to move the stones... The pottery fragments...
  • 7 Smokable Plants You Can Grow That Aren’t Marijuana

    06/21/2019 6:38:04 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 89 replies
    modernfarmer.com/ ^ | July 18, 2018 | By Brian Barth
    Don't worry, it's totally legal. Quite a few plants may be safely, and pleasurable, lit up in a pipe or rolling papers. Those listed below are legal, unregulated, and totally safe to use. They are also non-hallucinogenic and non-addictive – perhaps that explains their lack of popularity? While they won’t get you high, when blended according to the instructions below, these herbs produce a smooth, tasty smoke and give a gentle, relaxing buzz. All of the following varieties may be purchased online or at any well-stocked herb store. You may also grow your own. Of course, we’d be remiss not...
  • Ancient DNA from Roman and Medieval Grape Seeds Reveal Ancestry of Wine Making

    06/10/2019 7:26:31 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 33 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | Monday, June 10, 2019 | University of York
    A grape variety still used in wine production in France today can be traced back 900 years to just one ancestral plant, scientists have discovered. With the help of an extensive genetic database of modern grapevines, researchers were able to test and compare 28 archaeological seeds from French sites dating back to the Iron Age, Roman era, and medieval period. ...a team of researchers from the UK, Denmark, France, Spain, and Germany, drew genetic connections between seeds from different archaeological sites, as well as links to modern-day grape varieties. It has long been suspected that some grape varieties grown today,...
  • World’s first 'Cheerios' found: 3,000-year-old ‘cereal rings’ discovered in ancient fort

    06/10/2019 9:16:42 AM PDT · by ETL · 28 replies
    FoxNews.com/science ^ | June 10, 2019 | Chris Ciaccia | Fox News
    Archaeologists have uncovered "strange ring-shaped objects" from a 3,000-year-old hillfort site that unmistakably look like modern-day Cheerios. The discovery, made at a burial site in Austria, was found near an area that is believed to have stored cereals. The researchers note that the rings, which are [between ~1.0 & 1.25 in] in diameter, were deliberately put into the storage pit. "Three incomplete ring-shaped charred organic objects, found together with 14 rings and ring fragments made of clay were discovered in a secondary filled silo pit, excavated among a total of about 100 pits of this kind at the site," the...
  • Exploring the Origins of the Apple

    05/27/2019 6:54:52 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 40 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | Monday, May 27, 2019 | Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
    Apples originally evolved in the wild to entice ancient megafauna to disperse their seeds; more recently, humans began spreading the trees along the Silk Road with other familiar crops; dispersing the apple trees led to their domestication. Recent archaeological finds of ancient preserved apple seeds across Europe and West Asia combined with historical, paleontological, and recently published genetic data are presenting a fascinating new narrative for one of our most familiar fruits. In this study, Robert Spengler of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History traces the history of the apple from its wild origins, noting that...
  • Ancient Whiz Opens Archaeology Window [Look out for number one]

    05/23/2019 11:03:52 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 10 replies
    Scientific American ^ | May 13, 2019 | Bob Hirshon
    The residue of ancient urine can reveal the presence of early stationary herder-farmer communities. A 10,000-year-old archaeological site in central Turkey is helping scientists unlock the region's pee-historic past. That's right: the salty residue of ancient urine can reveal how and when humans went from hunter-gatherers to herder-farmers who kept and raised animals in their settlements... In the dry climate of central Turkey, the sodium, chloride and nitrates from all that animal excretion would be trapped in the layers of earth onto which they were originally peed. Excavating those salts, layer by layer, should provide a timeline of animal populations...
  • Israeli scientists brew beer with revived ancient yeasts

    05/23/2019 1:35:18 PM PDT · by Red Badger · 27 replies
    Phys.org ^ | May 22, 2019 | by Ilan Ben Zion
    Israeli researchers raised a glass Wednesday to celebrate a long-brewing project of making beer and mead using yeasts extracted from ancient clay vessels —some over 5,000 years old. Archaeologists and microbiologists from the Israel Antiquities Authority and four Israeli universities teamed up to study yeast colonies found in microscopic pores in pottery fragments. The shards were found at Egyptian, Philistine and Judean archaeological sites in Israel spanning from 3,000 BC to the 4th century BC. The scientists are touting the brews made from "resurrected" yeasts as an important step in experimental archaeology, a field that seeks to reconstruct the past...
  • New research reveals what was on the menu for peasants

    05/16/2019 5:28:43 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 60 replies
    Phys.org ^ | 05/16/2109 | University of Bristol
    Using chemical analysis of pottery fragments and animal bones found at one of England's earliest medieval villages, combined with detailed examination of a range of historical documents and accounts, the research has revealed the daily diet of peasants in the Middle Ages. The researchers were also able to look at butchery techniques, methods of food preparation and rubbish disposal at the settlement Dr. Julie Dunne and Professor Richard Evershed from the University of Bristol's Organic Geochemistry Unit, based within the School of Chemistry, led the research, published today in the Journal of Archaeological Science. "Much is known of the medieval...
  • New research reveals what was on the menu for medieval peasants

    05/17/2019 8:03:53 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 56 replies
    Phys dot org ^ | May 16, 2019 | University of Bristol
    Scientists from the University of Bristol have uncovered, for the first time, definitive evidence that determines what types of food medieval peasants ate and how they managed their animals. Using chemical analysis of pottery fragments and animal bones found at one of England's earliest medieval villages, combined with detailed examination of a range of historical documents and accounts, the research has revealed the daily diet of peasants in the Middle Ages. The researchers were also able to look at butchery techniques, methods of food preparation and rubbish disposal at the settlement... The OGU team used the technique of organic residue...
  • Modern analysis of ancient hearths reveals Neanderthal settlement patterns

    04/29/2019 7:39:30 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 4 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | April 24, 2019 | PLOS
    Most paleolithic household activities are thought to have taken place around hearths or fires. The author of the present study chose to examine the Middle Paleolithic site El Salt in Spain, which contains eleven well-preserved and overlapping open-air hearth structures. It was previously unclear whether these hearths were formed during successive short-term site occupations or fewer, longer term occupations. The authors examined the micromorphology of the different layers within the hearth structures to assess occupation timings within the study unit and conducted both a lipid biomarker analysis and isotope analysis to gain information about potential food and fuel. The results...
  • Genes which prevent 4 million people gaining weight discovered, in new hope for slimming medicine

    04/19/2019 10:38:01 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 20 replies
    www.telegraph.co.uk ^ | 18 April 2019 • 4:00pm | Henry Bodkin, Health Correspondent
    The genes which protect around four million people in the UK from obesity have been discovered following a major research project. Scientists at Cambridge University say drugs to keep people slim are now a possibility after they identified the handful of genetic factors that prevent overeating. Medics have known for several years that genes can influence a person’s weight. However, the new study is significant because it reveals in granular detail which variants suppress or encourage appetite. The research team analysed the genetic profiles of more than half a million volunteers from the UK Biobank. They found that around six...
  • Early Neolithic Mass Grave Reveals New Evidence of a Violent Age in Central Europe

    04/22/2019 10:28:41 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 43 replies
    Deutsche Welle ^ | August 17, 2015 | Zulfikar Abbany
    It's an age often described as one of social unrest, leading to an "apocalyptic nightmare of violence, warfare, and cannibalism." A Neolithic mass grave in Germany shows the idea may not be far wrong... Christian Meyer and his fellow researchers now believe they have enough evidence to explain "conclusively" what happened at the site of a mass grave in Schöneck-Kilianstädten, near Frankfurt, around 5207-4849 BC. If they are right, their findings may help our understanding of early social unrest among the first Central European farmers of the Neolithic era... The site at Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals a "new violence-related pattern: the intentional...
  • 'Round A Table of Wines and Wars: Agricultural Practices of the Etruscans

    04/17/2019 11:17:10 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 29 replies
    CBTNews Features ^ | 2006 | CropBiotech Net
    The Italian peninsula seems to shimmer and shine with history and art, from graceful, full bodied nymphs set against make-believe cypresses and oaks, to crumbling mounds of marble on which lie the almost breathable, almost visible words of lives, songs, and politics past. But before all the art, before the reawakening, before the soldiers cloaked in scarlet and gold, and the senators in their Senate hall...before the reign of emperors and tyrants was a race of peoples whose culture lived on in the greatest empire the world has ever known. They were the Etruscans, a mysterious tribe that scattered throughout...
  • Food for thought: Why did we ever start farming?

    04/06/2019 11:55:47 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 73 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | April 2, 2019 | University of Connecticut
    The reason that humans shifted away from hunting and gathering, and to agriculture -- a much more labor-intensive process -- has always been a riddle. It is only more confusing because the shift happened independently in about a dozen areas across the globe... One theory posits that in times of plenty there may have been more time to start dabbling in the domestication of plants like squash and sunflowers, the latter of which were domesticated by the native peoples of Tennessee around 4,500 years ago. The other theory argues that domestication may have happened out of need to supplement diets...
  • A 5,000-year-old barley grain discovered in Finland changes understanding of livelihoods

    04/05/2019 8:23:04 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 41 replies
    Eurekalert! ^ | April 3, 2019 | University of Helsinki
    The age of the grains was ascertained using radiocarbon dating. Based on the results, the grains originated in the period of the Pitted Ware culture, thus being approximately 4,300-5,300 years old. In addition to the cereal grains, the plant remnants found in the sites included hazelnut shells, apple seeds, tuberous roots of lesser celandine and rose hips. The study suggests that small-scale farming was adopted by the Pitted Ware Culture by learning the trade from farmers of the Funnel Beaker Culture, the latter having expanded from continental Europe to Scandinavia. Other archaeological artefacts are also evidence of close contact between...
  • First Anatolian farmers were local hunter-gatherers that adopted agriculture

    03/21/2019 12:29:15 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 16 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | Tuesday, March 19, 2019 | Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
    Farming was developed approximately 11,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, a region that includes present-day Iraq, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Egypt and Jordan as well as the fringes of southern Anatolia and western Iran. By about 8,300 BCE it had spread to central Anatolia, in present-day Turkey. These early Anatolian farmers subsequently migrated throughout Europe, bringing this new subsistence strategy and their genes. Today, the single largest component of the ancestry of modern-day Europeans comes from these Anatolian farmers. It has long been debated, however, whether farming was brought to Anatolia similarly by a group of migrating farmers from the...
  • Diet-induced changes favor innovation in speech sounds

    03/17/2019 11:36:15 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 29 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | March 14, 2019 | University of Zurich
    Diet-induced changes in the human bite resulted in new sounds such as "f" in languages all over the world, a study by an international team led by researchers at the University of Zurich has shown. The findings contradict the theory that the range of human sounds has remained fixed throughout human history. Human speech is incredibly diverse, ranging from ubiquitous sounds like "m" and "a" to the rare click consonants in some languages of Southern Africa. This range of sounds is generally thought to have been established with the emergence of the Homo sapiens around 300,000 years ago. A study...