Keyword: mathematics

I home school a young girl. In years past, we have gone to the local air show and done such things as measure the tops and bottom of wings and rotos and figure the ratio or difference between the area of the top of the wing versus the bottom and estimated which wings had more lift than others. We measure how much area the wheels occupied on the ground and consulted with the crew chief what the tire pressure was and calculated the weight of the plane. In years past we were able to see F18s form a vapor cone...

by Gina Cassini  Top Right NewsOne student got tired of being dumbeddown by Common Core's convoluted "standards" to do basic arithmetic. "Standards" like how to add two numbers, which the student was told to do like THIS: WHAT? It's enough to make you pull your hair out. So when he was given his next basic arithmetic assignment, to find the difference between 180 and 158 (180158), this 5th grade student just did it his own way  the right way  and dissed Common Core with single, awesome word:

Robert Krulwich/NPRPoor Johannes Kepler. One of the greatest astronomers ever, the man who figured out the laws of planetary motion, a genius, scholar and mathematician — in 1611, he needed a wife. The previous Mrs. Kepler had died of Hungarian spotted fever, so, with kids to raise and a household to manage, he decided to line up some candidates — but it wasn't going very well.Being an orderly man, he decided to interview 11 women. As Alex Bellos describes it in his new book The Grapes of Math, Kepler kept notes as he wooed. It's a catalog of small...

Nearly 90 years after Werner Heisenberg pioneered his uncertainty principle, a group of researchers from three countries has provided substantial new insight into this fundamental tenet of quantum physics with the first rigorous formulation supporting the uncertainty principle as Heisenberg envisioned it. In the Journal of Mathematical Physics, the researchers reports a new way of defining measurement errors that is applicable in the quantum domain and enables a precise characterization of the fundamental limits of the information accessible in quantum experiments. Quantum mechanics requires that we devise approximate joint measurements because the theory itself prohibits simultaneous ideal measurements of position...

For a new study ranking the best jobs of 2014, jobs website CareerCast.com did some numbercrunching and found Â— perhaps not surprisingly Â— that crunching numbers is a pretty good gig.With a median income of $101,360 and a 23% projected job growth rate by 2022, mathematician topped the siteâ€™s roundup of the most desirable jobs. CareerCast points to the â€śexponentially growing popularity of mathematicsâ€ť in everything from healthcare and technology to sports and politics.Â“Mathematicians are employed in every sector of the economyâ€¦ from Wall Street brokerages to energy exploration companies to IT R&D labs to university classrooms,Â” CareerCast publisher Tony...

The Silicon Valley touts itself as a meritocracy where people climb the economic ladder based on the power of their ideas. But many people of color can't even find that ladder, let alone climb it. They're not part of the valley's whitemaledominated "bro culture," advocates say, and aren't connected to the social and educational networks where companies recruit talent.

Mathematics has been called the language of the universe. Scientists and engineers often speak of the elegance of mathematics when describing physical reality, citing examples such as Ď€, E=mc2, and even something as simple as using abstract integers to count realworld objects. Yet while these examples demonstrate how useful math can be for us, does it mean that the physical world naturally follows the rules of mathematics as its "mother tongue," and that this mathematics has its own existence that is out there waiting to be discovered? This point of view on the nature of the relationship between mathematics and...

It is one the oldest mathematical problems in the world. Several centuries ago, the twin primes conjecture was formulated. As its name indicates, this hypothesis, which many science historians have attributed to the Greek mathematician Euclid, deals with prime numbers, those divisible only by themselves and by one (2, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc.). Under this assumption, there exists an infinite number of pairs of prime numbers whose difference is two, called twin primes (e.g., 3 and 5), but nobody has been able to confirm this so far.

A Jewel at the Heart of Quantum Physics Artist’s rendering of the amplituhedron, a newly discovered mathematical object resembling a multifaceted jewel in higher dimensions. Encoded in its volume are the most basic features of reality that can be calculated — the probabilities of outcomes of particle interactions. Physicists have discovered a jewellike geometric object that dramatically simplifies calculations of particle interactions and challenges the notion that space and time are fundamental components of reality.“This is completely new and very much simpler than anything that has been done before,” said Andrew Hodges, a mathematical physicist at Oxford University who has...

It is impossible that Christianity is not God's revelation of truth to man. Simply impossible. The math proves it beyond question. It doesn't take faith to believe that one plus one equals two, and it doesn't take faith to identify the religion which has mathematical certainty in its corner. God didn't have to give us mathematical proof of His existence, but He did it anyway. God didn't have to give us proof of Christianity, but He chose to do so. And God didn't have to give us proof of His love for us, but that is exactly what He did....

Every pure mathematician has experienced that awkward moment when asked, “So what’s your research good for?” There are standard responses: a proud “Nothing!”; an explanation that mathematical research is an art form like, say, Olympic gymnastics (with a much smaller audience); or a stammered response that so much of pure math has ended up finding application that maybe, perhaps, someday, it will turn out to be useful. That last possibility is now proving itself to be dramatically true in the case of category theory, perhaps the most abstract area in all of mathematics. Where math is an abstraction of the...

Most people have heard of “evolutionary biology.” But the term “evolution” is often applied in a broader sense (gradual, naturalistic changes over long ages) to other fields of study. Some people study geology or astronomy from an evolutionary perspective. But has anyone ever studied “evolutionary mathematics”? What would an evolutionist mathematician study? Can the existence of numbers and mathematical laws be explained by a timeandchance naturalistic origin? To answer these questions, let us first consider some background material and definitions. Mathematics is the study of the relationships and properties of numbers. What, then, are numbers? That may seem like an...

Certain measures of brain anatomy were even better at judging learning potential than traditional measures of ability such as IQ and standardized test results, says study author Kaustubh Supekar of Stanford University. These signatures include the size of the hippocampus — a string bean–shaped structure involved in making memories — and how connected the area was with other parts of the brain. The findings suggest that kids struggling with their math homework aren’t necessarily slacking off, says cognitive scientist David Geary of the University of Missouri in Columbia. “They just may not have as much brain region devoted to memory...

A fifth of adults are so bad at math that they struggle to perform basic mental arithmetic, a survey has revealed. More than a third can only manage sums that total less than 100 and have to use a calculator for anything larger. One in 50 people were stumped by adding or subtracting in their head if the total was more than ten. And one in three parents believed their children’s ability exceeded their own. …

An Indian teen has recently proposed a solution to an unsolved problem in mathematics. The 17yearold young achiever, Rutvik Oza, a student of The H. B. Kapadia New High School, from Ahmedabad, Gujarat has now put a full stop to another open problem in the field of maths by providing a closed formula for the problem called Reve's Puzzle (also popularly known as the 4peg Tower of Hanoi Problem). When asked about how was he feeling, "Thrilled! I really didn't realize at first that the problem that I had solved was an open problem in mathematics. It was only later...

HetchingerEd is offering a rather radical proposal to increase the number of American students who graduate college: dump math. Specifically, the argument is that since many college students, a disproportionately large number of them of an AfricanAmerican or Hispanic descent, are unprepared to tackle collegelevel mathematics courses, they might be stymied by a requirement that all those receiving a degree from a particular institution must pass the freshman version of the course. A fifth of students entering a fouryear college don’t have the needed math skills to pass the course and are forced into remediation. Nearly half of community college...

Bill Thurston, who made fundamental contributions to our understanding of lowdimensional manifolds and related structures, died on Tuesday, aged 65.

A TYPICAL American school day finds some six million high school students and two million college freshmen struggling with algebra. In both high school and college, all too many students are expected to fail. Why do we subject American students to this ordeal? I’ve found myself moving toward the strong view that we shouldn’t. My question extends beyond algebra and applies more broadly to the usual mathematics sequence, from geometry through calculus. State regents and legislators — and much of the public — take it as selfevident that every young person should be made to master polynomial functions and parametric...

How to Win a ThreeWay Gunfight Truels are things guaranteed to make any Western fifty percent better — by adding a third person to a duel. Each person can choose his or her target, and the worst person might very well be the winner — provided they play it smart. Learn how to win yourself a truel, gunslingerstyle. Game theorists have thought about the problem of duels for a long time. As much as the Old West was depicted as a lawless place where anything might happen, it was also known for hanging its criminals high — which meant that...

A 16yearold schoolboy has solved a mathematical problem which has stumped mathematicians for centuries, a newspaper report said. The boy put the historical breakthrough down to “schoolboy naivety.” Shouryya Ray, who moved to Germany from India with his family at the age of 12, has baffled scientists and mathematicians by solving two fundamental particle dynamics problems posed by Sir Isaac Newton over 350 years ago, Die Welt newspaper reported on Monday. Ray’s solutions make it possible to now calculate not only the flight path of a ball, but also predict how it will hit and bounce off a wall. Previously...

If one manages to graduate from high school without the rudiments of algebra, geometry and trigonometry, there are certain relatively highpaying careers probably offlimits for life  such as careers in architecture, chemistry, computer programming, engineering, medicine and certain technical fields. For example, one might meet all of the physical requirements to be a fighter pilot, but he's grounded if he doesn't have enough math to understand physics, aerodynamics and navigation. Mathematical ability helps provide the disciplined structure that helps people to think, speak and write more clearly. In general, mathematics is an excellent foundation and prerequisite for study in...

Enlarge Image Laserinduced switching. Experimental images showing two small domains with magnetic orientation up (white) and down (black). Each laser pulse reverses the direction repeatedly. Credit: Johan Mentink; Richard Evans (inset) An ultrashort heat pulse can predictably flip a bit in a magnetic memory like the one in your hard drive. The surprising effect could ultimately lead to magnetic memories hundreds of times faster and more energy efficient than today's hard drives. It also provides a way to control the direction in which a bit is magnetized without applying something else that has a direction, such as a magnetic...

LAST FALL, President Obama threw what was billed as the first White House Science Fair, a photo op in the giltmirrored State Dining Room. He tested a steering wheel designed by middle schoolers to detect distracted driving and peeked inside a robot that plays soccer. It was meant as an inspirational moment: children, science is fun; work harder. Politicians and educators have been wringing their hands for years over test scores showing American students falling behind their counterparts in Slovenia and Singapore. How will the United States stack up against global rivals in innovation? The president and industry groups have...

We all know the standard drill for a math class. The teacher delivers lectures on a new concept, students do some homework problems, and after a few weeks they take an exam. Some do well, some do poorly, and then it's on to the next topic.

Finite formula found for partition numbersFor centuries, some of the greatest names in math have tried to make sense of partition numbers, the basis for adding and counting. Many mathematicians added major pieces to the puzzle, but all of them fell short of a full theory to explain partitions. Instead, their work raised more questions about this fundamental area of math. On Friday, Emory mathematician Ken Ono will unveil new theories that answer these famous old questions. Ono and his research team have discovered that partition numbers behave like fractals. They have unlocked the divisibility properties of partitions, and developed...

Benoît B. Mandelbrot, a maverick mathematician who developed an innovative theory of roughness and applied it to physics, biology, finance and many other fields, died Thursday in Cambridge, Mass. He was 85...Dr. Mandelbrot coined the term “fractal” to refer to a new class of mathematical shapes whose uneven contours could mimic the irregularities found in nature...In a seminal 1982 book, “The Fractal Geometry of Nature,” Dr. Mandelbrot defended mathematical objects that he said others had dismissed as “monstrous” and “pathological.” Using fractal geometry, he argued, the complex outlines of clouds and coastlines, once considered unmeasurable, could now “be approached in...

Benoit B. Mandelbrot, a maverick mathematician who developed an innovative theory of roughness and applied it to physics, biology, finance and many other fields, died on Thursday in Cambridge, Mass. He was 85. His death, at a hospice, was caused by pancreatic cancer, his wife, Aliette, said. He had lived in Cambridge. Dr. Mandelbrot coined the term “fractal” to refer to a new class of mathematical shapes whose uneven contours could mimic the irregularities found in nature. “Applied mathematics had been concentrating for a century on phenomena which were smooth, but many things were not like that: the more you...


Those who most loudly proclaim the need for qualified math and science teachers are literally being challenged on how much they value science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. “Despite the fact that Washington’s Legislature and Governor last session passed a law (House Bill 2621) intending to accelerate the teaching and learning of math and science, the system is hardwired to do the opposite,” the Center for Reinventing Public Education found. “In a new analysis from the University of Washington’s Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE), researchers demonstrate that the average pay for math and science teachers in Washington state lags behind...

Walter Rudin, a preeminent mathematician who taught at UWMadison for 32 years, died Thursday at the age of 89 after suffering from Parkinson’s disease. Rudin’s advanced work on mathematical analysis may have been of interest to only a small worldwide audience, but his three textbooks were translated into multiple languages and used by generations of college students. “Especially because of his textbooks, he was known universally among undergraduates and graduates studying mathematics,” said Alexander Nagel, a colleague in the UWMadison math department. Rudin was born in Vienna, Austria, on May 2, 1921, to a prosperous Jewish family. His family fled...

At least 25 people are reported to have been killed in an explosion on the Metro system in central Moscow, with a second blast coming shortly afterwards. The first blast happened at the city's central Lubyanka station, reports quoting security sources said. A second explosion happened at the Park Kultury station, Russian news agency Tass reported. Ten people were injured in the first blast, Tass said, quoting the emergencies ministry. The number of casualties at the second blast is not yet clear.

The forecasts of global warming are based on the mathematical solutions of equations in models of the weather. But all of these solutions are inaccurate. Therefore no valid scientific conclusions can be made concerning global warming. The false claim for the effectiveness of mathematics is an unreported scandal at least as important as the recent climate data fraud. Why is the math important? And why don't the climatologists use it correctly? Mathematics has a fundamental role in the development of all physical sciences. First the researchers strive to understand the laws of nature determining the behavior of what they are...

boom in affordable housing in the 1950s was helped by the invention of a distinctive multifunctional piece of equipment: the backhoe. Its strong yet relatively slender articulated arm allowed precise yet rapid placement for digging or lifting. The manipulative device is trim and fast, since hoses transfer power to it from a powerful hydraulic pump within the main chassis. The "arm" of the backhoe makes many people think the equipment design is similar to a human arm, but what makes it so versatile is that it is actually more like a giant human finger. If a valuable piece of equipment...

Enlarge ImageObviously. The area of this triangle is 13, a congruent number. Credit: L. Blizard/Science Quick! What do the numbers 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, and 23 have in common? If you said they're all "congruent" numbersnumbers related to the areas of certain trianglesthen you may be one of those folks who scored an 800 on your math SAT. Even if that answer didn't leap to mind, you may be intrigued to know that mathematicians have now cataloged the congruent numberswhich are easy to define but not so easy to spotup to a trillion. A...

Environmentalism cannot explain all behavior It is obvious and true that one’s environment influences one’s behavior. A Chinese will tend to act differently than a Russian; for example, they will tend to celebrate different holidays and show variation in respect to their elders, purely because of socialization. No one disputes this. It is also true and obvious that one’s physiology and biology, one’s neurochemical makeup, influences one’s behavior. A 250pound, musclebound man is more likely to play for the NFL than is a short, 150pound, deskbound man. Goldberg is fond of repeating, “an adult male’s ability to grow a moustache...

Even a popular president like Barack Obama cannot win arguments against two forces: God and mathematics. While the president has openly shared his reverence for the former, he has decided to take on the latter. It’s a fight that he will lose. Upon taking office, President Obama decided to postpone his campaign promise to implement a true costsaving reform of Social Security and Medicare. Instead, he’s trying to expand the nation’s entitlement offerings with massive new government spending on health care. The Congressional Budget Office’s midJuly “score” of the main House healthcare bill puts the price tag at about $1...

In the TV Show NUMB3RS Charlie Eppes, a worldclass mathematician, helps his FBI Agent brother solve many of his perplexing FBI cases through different mathematical formulas. NUMB3RS is coming to life, but in this case its not Crimes the world class mathematician is solving, but pandemics. The math whiz's at Tel Aviv University have developed a formula to predict that path of pandemics like the swine flu. This is important because it will direct authorities when to close mass transit, shut down and even how to distribute doctors and medicines. It wont prevent swine flu but it will predict the...

Caution: politicalparty purists may be miffed by this article; but I call ‘em like I see ‘em. Adolf Hitler was a poor student of mathematics, but he got the hang of it sufficiently to figure how to take over the German government. A “majority,” Hitler reasoned, consisted of 51 per cent of the votes necessary to control 51 per cent of the seats in the legislature –  26 per cent of those voting, in other words. Unfortunately, the majority of Americans now find themselves victims of the same political calculation. Polls indicate that the liberal Democrats now in charge...

Claims of bias against women in academic science have been greatly exaggerated. Meanwhile, men are becoming the second sex in American higher education.In 2006 the National Academy of Sciences released Beyond Bias And Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering, which found â€śpervasive unexamined gender biasâ€ť against women in academic science. Donna Shalala, a former Clinton administration cabinet secretary, chaired the committee that wrote the report. When she spoke at a congressional hearing in October 2007, she warned that strong measures would be needed to improve the â€śhostile climateâ€ť women face in university science. This â€ścrisis,â€ť...

In a recent study, Bartolo Luque and Lucas Lacasa of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid in Spain have discovered a new pattern in primes that has surprisingly gone unnoticed until now. They found that the distribution of the leading digit in the prime number sequence can be described by a generalization of Benford’s law. In addition, this same pattern also appears in another number sequence, that of the leading digits of nontrivial Riemann zeta zeros, which is known to be related to the distribution of primes. Besides providing insight into the nature of primes, the finding could also have applications...

A FrenchRussian mathematician has won the Abel Prize today for his work on advanced forms of geometry. The winner of the 6 million Norwegian kroner (US$920,000) prize, Mikhail Leonidovich Gromov, has held a permanent appointment at the Institute of Advanced Scientific Studies (IHES) outside Paris since 1982. The Abel committee cited Gromov specifically for his contributions to three subdisciplines of modern geometry: the study of Riemannian space, symplectic geometry, and groups of polynomial growth. Gromov is "renowned among mathematicians for his original approach", says Ian Stewart, a mathematician at the University of Warwick in Coventry. Among other things, modern geometers...

No one suspected that Ax + By = Cz (note unique exponents) might also be impossible with coprime bases until a remarkable discovery in 1993 by a Dallas, Texas number theory enthusiast by the name of Andrew Beal. Beal was working on FLT when he began to look at similar equations with independent exponents. He constructed several algorithms to generate solution sets but the very nature of the algorithms he was able to construct required a common factor in the bases. He began to suspect that coprime bases might be impossible and set out to test his hypothesis by computer....

Is mathematics the language of the universe?MARIO LIVIO IS an astrophysicist, a man whose work and worldview are inextricably intertwined with mathematics. Like most scientists, he depends on math and an underlying faith in its incredible power to explain the universe. But over the years, he has been nagged by a bewildering thought. Scientific progress, in everything from economics to neurobiology to physics, depends on math's ability. But what is math? Why should its abstract concepts be so uncannily good at explaining reality? The question may seem irrelevant. As long as math works, why not just go with it? But...

From Sandro Magister of Chiesa, a piece about Pope Benedict XVI's interest in the nature of mathematics within the relationship of faith and science: Scientists of worldwide fame, like Richard Dawkins of England and Piergiorgio Odifreddi of Italy, insistently link mathematics with the profession of atheism. Spread through conferences, articles, and bestselling books, their theories aspire to become a common language and philosophy. In simple terms, the objections to these atheist mathematicians are the ones expressed by a 17yearold Roman high school student, Giovanni, during a questionandanswer session with the pope in St. Peter's Square, crowded with young people on...

Mathematicians Land Top Spot in New Ranking of Best and Worst Occupations in the U.S. BY SARAH E. NEEDLEMANThe Wall Street Journal Nineteen years ago, Jennifer Courter set out on a career path that has since provided her with a steady stream of lucrative, lowstress jobs. Now, her occupation — mathematician — has landed at the top spot on a new study ranking the best and worst jobs in the U.S. "It's a lot more than just some boring subject that everybody has to take in school," says Ms. Courter, a research mathematician at mental images Inc., a maker of...

Nov. 23  BURLINGAME  California's largest teachers union will back a fight in court to overturn the state's new eighthgrade algebra requirement. The Burlingamebased California Teachers Association has joined the lawsuit by the California School Boards Association and the Association of California School Administrators against the state Board of Education's decision to require all middle school students to be tested in Algebra I by the end of eighth grade starting in 2011. The state board "acted abruptly, imprudently and without fully understanding the consequences of its actions on our schools, teachers and students," said David Sanchez, president of the...

The New York Times recently reported on a study that found, once again, that the United States is failing to develop the math skills of its students, particularly girls, especially compared to other countries where math education is more highly valued.  Snip Bob Compton, an Indianapolisbased venture capitalist and entrepreneur who cofounded Indian Math Online, hatched the idea when he was producing “Two Million Minutes”, a documentary comparing high school education in India, China and the United States. He realized that Indian teenagers who were the same age as his daughters were three years ahead of them in math.

Not Ready for Algebra by: Irene Warren, November 04, 2008 A trend shows that elementary and advanced math students have fallen below the national average. The Brown Center on Education Policy hosted an event at the Brookings Institution recently to discuss possible ways to better prepare students to succeed in higherlevel math courses. “Algebra in eighth grade was once reserved for the mathematically gifted student” the Brookings Institution noted in an October 2008 events announcement. “From 1990 to 2007, national enrollment in algebra courses soared from 16 percent to more than 30 percent of all eighth graders.” However, proficiency scores...

WASHINGTON: Americans may like to make fun of girls who are good at math, but this attitude is robbing the country of some of its best talent, resear chers reported on Friday. They found that while girls can be just as talented as boys at mathematics, some are driven from the field because they are teased, ostracized or simply neglected. "The US culture that is discouraging girls is also discouraging boys," Janet Mertz, a University of WisconsinMadison professor who led the study said in a statement. "The situation is becoming urgent. The data show that a majority of the top...

French primary school children will be learning multiplication tables by rote and conjugating verbs in the pluperfect tense under a backtobasics programme to be introduced after the summer holidays. Critics denouced Xavier Darcos, the Education Minister who developed the plan, as oldfashioned, outoftouch and reactionary, and unions called for a strike over the reform.He responded by saying: “It's not by listening to a great pianist for hours on end that you become one, it's by doing your scales.” The programme is an attempt to prioritise French and mathematics on a primary school curriculum that has been loaded with subjects such...


