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Keyword: rna

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  • Telomere extension turns back aging clock in cultured human cells, study finds

    01/23/2015 2:28:53 PM PST · by Red Badger · 15 replies
    medicalxpress.com ^ | Provided by Stanford University Medical Center
    A new procedure can quickly and efficiently increase the length of human telomeres, the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes that are linked to aging and disease, according to scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine. Treated cells behave as if they are much younger than untreated cells, multiplying with abandon in the laboratory dish rather than stagnating or dying. The procedure, which involves the use of a modified type of RNA, will improve the ability of researchers to generate large numbers of cells for study or drug development, the scientists say. Skin cells with telomeres lengthened by...
  • Former APA Pres. Dr. Cummings Discusses Gay Change,Epigenetics,Neutrinos,& Political Correctness

    03/15/2013 10:43:49 AM PDT · by Maelstorm · 2 replies
    RPVNetwork ^ | March 15, 2013 | F.R Newbrough
    Former APA Pres. Dr. Nicolas Cummings Discusses Gay Change, Epigenetics, Neutrinos, & Political Correctness. - RPVNetwork
  • Researchers make alternatives to DNA and RNA

    04/21/2012 10:34:28 AM PDT · by OldNavyVet · 6 replies
    The Los Angeles Times ^ | 21 April 2012 | Eryn Brown
    DNA and RNA molecules are the basis for all life on Earth, but they don't necessarily have to be the basis for all life everywhere, scientists have shown.
  • You Are What You Eat: Genetically Modified Foods Include “Information”

    02/04/2012 4:00:27 PM PST · by opentalk · 40 replies
    Smart Publications ^ | January 14, 2012 | John Morgenthaler
    Vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients in our foods, we expect. But information? According to recent research from China’s Nanjing University, when people eat rice, tiny sequences of microRNA from the plant-based food can survive the body’s digestive process and end up absorbed in human tissue where — and here’s the reason why we need to know about this study — plant microRNA may actually affect how our cells behave and function. In the study, Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA, published in the Journal Cell Research, the genetic material from rice showed up...
  • A micro-RNA as a key regulator of learning and Alzheimer's disease

    09/23/2011 8:22:09 AM PDT · by decimon · 9 replies
    Scientists identify an RNA molecule as a potential target for new Alzheimer's therapies Göttingen, September 23rd, 2011. Proteins are the molecular machines of the cell. They transport materials, cleave products or transmit signals – and for a long time, they have been a main focus of attention in molecular biology research. In the last two decades, however, another class of critically important molecules has emerged: small RNA molecules, including micro-RNAs. It is now well established that micro-RNAs play a key role in the regulation of cell function."A micro-RNA regulates the production of an estimated 300-400 proteins. This class of molecules...
  • Pssst! Don't tell the creationists, but scientists don't have a clue how life began

    02/28/2011 1:23:34 PM PST · by Abathar · 70 replies
    Scientific American ^ | 2/28/2011 | John Horgan
    Exactly 20 years ago, I wrote an article for Scientific American that, in draft form, had the headline above. My editor nixed it, so we went with something less dramatic: "In the Beginning…: Scientists are having a hard time agreeing on when, where and—most important—how life first emerged on the earth." That editor is gone now, so I get to use my old headline, which is even more apt today. Dennis Overbye just wrote a status report for The New York Times on research into life's origin, based on a conference on the topic at Arizona State University. Geologists, chemists,...
  • Dangerous bacterium hosts genetic remnant of life's distant past (RNA can do)

    08/12/2010 4:22:51 PM PDT · by decimon · 13 replies
    Yale University ^ | August 12, 2010 | Unknown
    Within a dangerous stomach bacterium, Yale University researchers have discovered an ancient but functioning genetic remnant from a time before DNA existed, they report in the August 13 issue of the journal Science. To the surprise of researchers, this RNA complex seems to play a critical role in the ability of the organism to infect human cells, a job carried out almost exclusively by proteins produced from DNA's instruction manual. "What these cells are doing is using ancient RNA technology to control modern gene expression," said Ron Breaker, the Henry Ford II Professor of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology at...
  • MicroRNA Stops Liver Cancer In Mice

    06/16/2009 5:45:34 PM PDT · by grey_whiskers · 16 replies · 529+ views
    Future Pundit ^ | 6-13-2009 | Randall Parker
    A new study suggests that delivering small RNAs, known as microRNAs, to cancer cells could help to stop the disease in its tracks. microRNAs control gene expression and are commonly lost in cancerous tumors. Researchers have shown that replacement of a single microRNA in mice with an extremely aggressive form of liver cancer can be enough to halt their disease, according to a report in the June 12 issue of the journal Cell, a Cell Press publication. Cancer amounts of cells that have damaged programs. Their information state is incorrect. MicroRNAs work naturally in cells to regulate gene expression. Using...
  • Virus has powerful mini-motor to pack up its DNA (be sure to read conclusion!)

    04/28/2009 5:55:41 PM PDT · by GodGunsGuts · 33 replies · 1,843+ views
    Journal of Creation ^ | Jonathan Safarti, Ph.D.
    --snip-- How does the virus manage to assemble this long information molecule at high pressure inside such a small package, especially when the negatively charged phosphate groups repel each other? It has a special packaging motor, more powerful than any molecular motor yet discovered, even those in muscles. Douglas Smith, an assistant professor of physics at UCSD, explained the challenge:
  • Genetic changes outside nuclear DNA suspected to trigger more than half of all cancers

    03/25/2009 11:03:27 PM PDT · by neverdem · 10 replies · 852+ views
    A buildup of chemical bonds on certain cancer-promoting genes, a process known as hypermethylation, is widely known to render cells cancerous by disrupting biological brakes on runaway growth. Now, Johns Hopkins scientists say the reverse process — demethylation — which wipes off those chemical bonds may also trigger more than half of all cancers. One potential consequence of the new research is that demethylating drugs now used to treat some cancers may actually cause new cancers as a side effect. "It's much too early to say for certain, but some patients could be at risk for additional primary tumors, and...
  • Cell Motors Play Together (in symphony)

    03/02/2009 6:48:59 PM PST · by GodGunsGuts · 8 replies · 532+ views
    CEH ^ | Febraury 27, 2009
    Cell Motors Play Together Feb 27, 2009— If one molecular machine by itself is a wonder, what would you think of groups of them playing in concert?  Recent papers and news articles are claiming that’s what happens in living cells: molecular motors coordinate their efforts...
  • Lab-'evolved' Molecules Support Creation

    01/17/2009 3:04:35 PM PST · by GodGunsGuts · 119 replies · 2,019+ views
    ICR ^ | January 17, 2009 | Brian Thomas, M.S.
    Lab-'evolved' Molecules Support Creation by Brian Thomas, M.S. Scientists attempting to demonstrate random evolution in the laboratory have found something entirely different: evidence supporting creation. Gerald Joyce of the Scripps Research Institute coaxed an RNA-like long chain molecule, called R3C, to copy itself. The journal New Scientist stated that Joyce’s “laboratory-born ribonucleic acid (RNA) strand evolves in a test tube.” But it “evolved” only after “Joyce's team created” it. “After further lab tinkering,” Joyce’s colleague Tracy Lincoln “redesigned the molecule” so that it would replicate more effectively.1 What Joyce and his team actually discovered was how difficult it is and...
  • Chemists edge closer to recreating early life

    01/13/2009 10:43:23 PM PST · by gondramB · 79 replies · 1,329+ views
    Chemistry World ^ | 09 January 2009
    A test tube based system of chemicals that exhibit life-like qualities such as indefinite self-replication, mutation, and survival of the fittest, has been created by US scientists. The researchers say their perpetually replicating RNA enzymes take us a step closer to understanding the origins of life on Earth, as well as to how life may one day be synthesised in the lab. ---- 'This is the very end of the line, where chemistry starts turning into biology,' says Joyce. 'It's the first case, other than in biology, of molecular information having been immortalised.'
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man

    01/13/2009 8:14:51 PM PST · by cacoethes_resipisco · 31 replies · 970+ views
    Listverse ^ | January 5, 2009
    Through history, as natural selection played its part in the development of modern man, many of the useful functions and parts of the human body become unnecessary. What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution. This list covers the ten most significant evolutionary changes that have taken place - leaving signs behind them.
  • Artificial molecule evolves in the lab

    01/09/2009 10:46:53 AM PST · by Coyoteman · 66 replies · 1,522+ views
    New Scientist ^ | January 8, 2009 | Ewen Callaway
    A new molecule that performs the essential function of life - self-replication - could shed light on the origin of all living things. If that wasn't enough, the laboratory-born ribonucleic acid (RNA) strand evolves in a test tube to double itself ever more swiftly. "Obviously what we're trying to do is make a biology," says Gerald Joyce, a biochemist at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. He hopes to imbue his team's molecule with all the fundamental properties of life: self-replication, evolution, and function. Joyce and colleague Tracey Lincoln made their chemical out of RNA because most researchers...
  • Dignitas Personae

    12/12/2008 12:06:09 PM PST · by annalex · 32 replies · 716+ views
    The Vatican ^ | 12.12.2008 | The Roman Curia
    Regarding the Instruction Dignitas PersonaeAim In recent years, biomedical research has made great strides, opening new possibilities for the treatment of disease, but also giving rise to serious questions which had not been directly treated in the Instruction Donum vitae (22 February 1987).  A new Instruction, which is dated 8 September 2008, the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, seeks to provide some responses to these new bioethical questions, as these have been the focus of expectations and concerns in large sectors of society.  In this way, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith seeks both...
  • Without enzyme, biological reaction essential to life takes 2.3 billion years

    11/16/2008 8:19:06 PM PST · by Maelstorm · 13 replies · 693+ views
    http://www.physorg.com/ ^ | November 11, 2008 | University of North Carolina School of Medicine
    All biological reactions within human cells depend on enzymes. Their power as catalysts enables biological reactions to occur usually in milliseconds. But how slowly would these reactions proceed spontaneously, in the absence of enzymes – minutes, hours, days? And why even pose the question? One scientist who studies these issues is Richard Wolfenden, Ph.D., Alumni Distinguished Professor Biochemistry and Biophysics and Chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Wolfenden holds posts in both the School of Medicine and in the College of Arts and Sciences and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1995,...
  • Engineers Build First-ever Multi-input 'Plug-and-play' Synthetic RNA Device

    10/20/2008 6:03:44 PM PDT · by Soliton · 199+ views
    Science Daily ^ | Oct. 20, 2008
    Engineers from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have created a "plug-and-play" synthetic RNA device--a sort of eminently customizable biological computer--that is capable of taking in and responding to more than one biological or environmental signal at a time. In the future, such devices could have a multitude of potential medical applications, including being used as sensors to sniff out tumor cells or determine when to turn modified genes on or off during cancer therapy. A synthetic RNA device is a biological device that uses engineered modular components made of RNA nucleotides to perform a specific function--for instance, to detect...
  • “Space rock” reveals life’s origins

    10/07/2008 3:06:26 AM PDT · by LibWhacker · 22 replies · 602+ views
    Phenomenica ^ | 10/6/08
    Washington, Oct 06: A meteorite, which crashed into Australia 40 years ago, is telling researchers new things about how life may have started on Earth, and how that almost universal protein left-handedness came to be. For more than 150 years, scientists have known that the most basic building blocks of life - chains of amino acid molecules and the proteins they form - almost always have the unusual characteristic of being overwhelmingly “left-handed.” The molecules, of course, have no hands, but they are almost all asymmetrical in a way that parallels left-handedness. This observation, first made in the 1800s by...
  • We may all be space aliens: study

    06/14/2008 12:22:54 AM PDT · by LibWhacker · 117 replies · 238+ views
    Yahoo | AFP ^ | 6/13/08 | Marlowe Hood
    PARIS (AFP) - Genetic material from outer space found in a meteorite in Australia may well have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, according to a study to be published Sunday. European and US scientists have proved for the first time that two bits of genetic coding, called nucleobases, contained in the meteor fragment, are truly extraterrestrial. Previous studies had suggested that the space rocks, which hit Earth some 40 years ago, might have been contaminated upon impact. Both of the molecules identified, uracil and xanthine, "are present in our DNA and RNA," said lead...
  • Crops That Shut Down Pests' Genes

    11/06/2007 8:33:55 AM PST · by BGHater · 9 replies · 69+ views
    Technology Review ^ | 05 Nov 2007 | Katherine Bourzac
    Monsanto is developing genetically modified plants that use RNA interference to kill the insects that eat them. Researchers have created plants that kill insects by disrupting their gene expression. The crops, which initiate a gene-silencing response called RNA interference, are a step beyond existing genetically modified crops that produce toxic proteins. Because the new crops target particular genes in particular insects, some researchers suggest that they will be safer and less likely to have unintended effects than other genetically modified plants. Others warn that it is too early to make such predictions and that the plants should be carefully tested...
  • Genome 2.0 - Mountains of new data are challenging old views

    09/07/2007 10:44:05 PM PDT · by neverdem · 17 replies · 1,004+ views
    Science News ^ | Week of Sept. 8, 2007 | Patrick Barry
    When scientists unveiled a draft of the human genome in early 2001, many cautioned that sequencing the genome was only the beginning. The long list of the four chemical components that make up all the strands of human DNA would not be a finished book of life, but a road map of an undiscovered country that would take decades to explore. JUNK BOOM. Simpler organisms such as bacteria (blue) have a smaller percentage of DNA that doesn't code for proteins than more-complex organisms such as fungi (grey), plants (green), animals (purple), and people (orange).S. Norcross
  • Living view in animals shows how cells decide to make proteins

    12/07/2006 6:27:09 PM PST · by annie laurie · 7 replies · 426+ views
    PhysOrg.com ^ | November 30, 2006
    Scientists at Duke University Medical Center have visualized in a living animal how cells use a critical biological process to dice and splice genetic material to create unique and varied proteins. The scientists say the findings, made in mice, help explain a key wonder of human biology: how the same genes found in every cell of an individual’s body can produce different proteins in different tissues and organs. These varied proteins, in turn, dictate the function of each tissue or organ. The findings also may offer insight into a number of diseases, including cancer, in which the genetic process --...
  • U.S. scientists win Nobel for "gene silencing"

    10/02/2006 10:37:15 AM PDT · by A. Pole · 6 replies · 367+ views
    Reuters UK ^ | Mon Oct 2, 2006 | Sarah Edmonds and Patrick Lannin
    STOCKHOLM (Reuters) - Americans Andrew Fire and Craig Mello won the 2006 Nobel prize for medicine on Monday for their discovery of how to switch off genes, a potential road to new treatments for diseases from AIDS to blindness and cancer. [...] Through experiments with worms, the two showed that a double strand of ribonucleic acid, or RNA, the genetic messenger of the cell, can "silence" targeted genes in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). [...]
  • Gene silencing directs muscle-derived stem cells to become bone-forming cells

    06/01/2006 7:08:48 PM PDT · by Coleus · 6 replies · 321+ views
    Using a relatively new technology called RNA interference to turn off genes that regulate cell differentiation, University of Pittsburgh researchers have demonstrated they can increase the propensity of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) to become bone-forming cells. Based on these results, the investigators believe that by turning off specific genetic factors they can control the capacity of MDSCs as a means of treating various musculoskeletal diseases and injuries. RNA interference is a simple yet powerful technique that uses short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) – small molecules that prevent a gene from being expressed – to turn off the production of specific proteins...
  • DNA or RNA? Versatile Player Takes a Leading Role in Molecular Research

    06/21/2006 6:46:59 PM PDT · by annie laurie · 16 replies · 380+ views
    The New York Times ^ | June 20, 2006 | NICHOLAS WADE
    For decades, DNA has been the star of molecular biology. But it is increasingly having to share the stage as biologists discover more about the versatility of RNA, long viewed as a mere copyist of the genes encoded in the famous double helix. Looked at from RNA's point of view, DNA is just a passive archive of information, a dull hunk of a telephone directory; it is RNA that looks up the numbers, establishes the connections and determines how long each call will last. "Anything DNA can do, RNA can do better," was the slogan on a slide shown by...
  • Ultra-sensitive microscope reveals DNA processes

    11/16/2005 3:40:35 AM PST · by snarks_when_bored · 1,218 replies · 9,199+ views
    New Scientist ^ | November 15, 2005 | Gaia [sic] Vince
    Ultra-sensitive microscope reveals DNA processes     * 14:02 15 November 2005     * NewScientist.com news service     * Gaia Vince A new microscope sensitive enough to track the real-time motion of a single protein, right down to the scale of its individual atoms, has revealed how genes are copied from DNA – a process essential to life. The novel device allows users to achieve the highest-resolution measurements ever, equivalent to the diameter of a single hydrogen atom, says Steven Block, who designed it with colleagues at Stanford University in California. Block was able to use the microscope to track a molecule of DNA...
  • Evolutionist criticisms of the RNA World conjecture (Getting RNA by chance is impossible!)

    06/14/2005 8:29:17 PM PDT · by DaveLoneRanger · 5 replies · 385+ views
    Graham Cairns-Smith is well known for a bizarre theory that the first living organisms were clay minerals of the origin of life. But not so well known is that he is driven to such outlandish ideas by the enormous chemical difficulties of mainstream theories of chemical evolution, such as the RNA World (see also The RNA World: A Critique): The implausibility of prevital nucleic acid If it is hard to imagine polypeptides or polysaccharides in primordial waters it is harder still to imagine polynucleotides. But so powerful has been the effect of Miller's experiment on the scientific imagination that to...
  • The Terror Network: North America

    05/28/2005 7:52:19 PM PDT · by BringBackMyHUAC · 4 replies · 640+ views
    The Terror Network: North America
  • New RNA polymerase discovered in plants

    02/12/2005 6:38:38 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 4 replies · 452+ views
    Medical News Today ^ | Feb 11 2005 | Tony Fitzpatrick
    A team headed by Craig Pikaard, Ph, D., Washington University professor of biology in Arts & Sciences, has discovered a fourth kind of RNA polymerase found only in plants and speculated to have been a plant feature for more than 200 million years. RNA polymerase is an enzyme, or protein machine, essential for carrying out functions of cells and for expression of biological traits. It does its job by copying a template of DNA genetic information in order to make RNAs that encode proteins or that function directly in the cell... Pikaard and his collaborators discovered that Pol IV does...
  • Ode to the Code [Evolution & DNA]

    11/13/2004 8:50:11 AM PST · by PatrickHenry · 21 replies · 1,741+ views
    American Scientist ^ | Nov-Dec 2004 | Brian Hayes
    The genetic code was cracked 40 years ago, and yet we still don't fully understand it. We know enough to read individual messages [sic], translating from the language of nucleotide bases in DNA or RNA into the language of amino acids in a protein molecule. The RNA language is written in an alphabet of four letters (A, C, G, U), grouped into words three letters long, called triplets or codons. Each of the 64 codons specifies one of 20 amino acids or else serves as a punctuation mark signaling the end of a message. That's all there is to the...
  • Israeli Scientists Unravel RNA Splicing

    09/12/2004 1:05:47 PM PDT · by yonif · 11 replies · 493+ views
    Israel National News ^ | 13:06 Sep 12, '04 / 26 Elul 5764
    A team of scientists from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has gained insight into how the DNA code is turned into instructions for protein construction. The researchers revealed the structure of a cellular editor that "cuts and pastes" the first draft of RNA straight after it is formed from its DNA template. Many diseases appear to be tied to mistakes in this process, and understanding the workings of the machinery involved may lead to the ability to correct or prevent them in the future. For the past 25 years, scientists have...
  • Battle Between Bubbles Might Have Started Evolution

    09/03/2004 6:49:50 AM PDT · by PatrickHenry · 121 replies · 1,968+ views
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers are proposing that the first battle for survival-of-the-fittest might have played out as a simple physical duel between fatty bubbles stuffed with genetic material. The scientists suggest that genetic material that replicated quickly may have been all the bubbles needed to edge out their competitors and begin evolving into more sophisticated cells. This possibility, revealed by laboratory experiments with artificial fatty acid sacs, is in sharp contrast to a current theory of the earliest evolution of cells, which suggests that cellular evolution was driven by primordial genetic machinery that actively synthesized cell membranes or otherwise...
  • RNA could form building blocks for nanomachines

    08/13/2004 8:11:12 AM PDT · by Michael_Michaelangelo · 7 replies · 403+ views
    Purdue News ^ | 08/11/04 | Chad Boutin
    RNA could form building blocks for nanomachines WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – Microscopic scaffolding to house the tiny components of nanotech devices could be built from RNA, the same substance that shuttles messages around a cell's nucleus, reports a Purdue University research group.
  • Scientists Confront 'Weird Life' on Other Worlds

    05/08/2004 7:08:27 AM PDT · by Momaw Nadon · 122 replies · 1,345+ views
    SPACE.com ^ | Friday, May 7, 2004 | Leonard David
    WASHINGTON, D.C. – What are the limits of organic life in planetary systems? It’s a heady question that, if answered, may reveal just how crowded the cosmos could be with alien biology. A study arm of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council (NRC), has pulled together a task group of specialists to tackle the issue of alternative life forms -- a.k.a. "weird life". To get things rolling, a workshop on the prospects for finding life on other worlds is being held here May 10-11. The meeting is a joint activity of the NRC’s Space Studies Board's Task...
  • Evolved DNA stitches itself up [Ever closer to "life-in-the-lab"]

    04/06/2004 7:25:45 PM PDT · by PatrickHenry · 42 replies · 380+ views
    Nature ^ | 31 March 2004 | Philip Ball
    Could DNA have kick-started life on Earth instead of RNA? Researchers have managed to create bits of DNA that can stitch themselves together without a helping hand from other molecules. By contrast, natural DNA needs enzymes to stitch itself up, correct mutations, or make copies of itself. The creation of this super-capable DNA suggests that rare bits of natural DNA might have evolved the same capability in the past. That could alter our thinking about how life began. Researchers have known for decades that RNA, the molecule that translates information in DNA into proteins, can show enzyme-like behaviour. These special...
  • Laboratory 'Theme Park' Re-creates RNA World For Study [Origin of Life]

    08/27/2003 8:13:51 AM PDT · by PatrickHenry · 19 replies · 451+ views
    CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (Aug. 26, 2003) People love theme parks, giant playgrounds that usually offer patchwork renditions of either an evocative historical moment or a particular future vision. Rarely, if ever, are theme parks built around a biological theme – and never do such parks fit inside a test tube. Almost never. Scientist David Bartel is hard at work on what might seem an impossibility – a microscopic theme park whose motif, the origins of life, is of equal interest to both scientists and philosophers. So far, Bartel has developed some impressive displays. In a paper published in the journal Science...
  • A POX TO BLIGHT WITH

    09/29/2002 3:49:12 PM PDT · by Pistol · 9 replies · 328+ views
    E-mail ^ | 9.29.02 | Fred Reed
    A Pox To Blight WithTechnology Is Good For You        I've decided that I support the exploration of Mars. I want to go first. And hide there, in a sealed space suit. I was boring myself to death on one of those diabolical exercise machines at Gold's, and in desperation reading Scientific American, a magazine of left-wing politics and occasional science. I ran across a small blurb about Eckhard Wimmer, of the State University of New York at Stonybrook. He and some other folk had built artificial polio virus, said SciAm, starting with mail-order chemicals. And it worked. It...
  • New word in life's lexicon

    05/27/2002 10:14:07 PM PDT · by AndrewC · 7 replies · 401+ views
    New word in life's lexiconResearchers find 22nd amino acid in a microbe.24 May 2002JOHN WHITFIELDThere's a new word to life's vocabulary. DNA letters can be rearranged to spell out a 22nd amino acid, researchers have discovered. DNA: the letters of life have more permutations than we thought. © Getty Images The scientists who cracked life's genetic code in the 1950s said that it writes a mere 20 'words' - the amino acids from which the myriad proteins in all life are built. But in 1986 another amino acid was discovered in bacteria. "We thought the 21st was an aberration,...