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Synthetic DNA Created, Evolves on Its Own
The National Geographic News ^ | April 19, 2012 | Christine Dell'Amore

Posted on 04/19/2012 8:05:05 PM PDT by 2ndDivisionVet

Step aside, DNA—new synthetic compounds called XNAs can also store and copy genetic information, a new study says.

And, in a "big advancement," these artificial compounds can also be made to evolve in the lab, according to study co-author John Chaput of the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. (See "Evolution vs. Intelligent Design: 6 Bones of Contention.")

Nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA are composed of four bases—A, G, C, and T. Attached to the bases are sugars and phosphates. (Get a genetics overview.)

First, researchers made XNA building blocks to six different genetic systems by replacing the natural sugar component of DNA with one of six different polymers, synthetic chemical compounds.

The team—led by Vitor Pinheiro of the U.K.'s Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology—then evolved enzymes, called polymerases, that can make XNA from DNA, and others that can change XNA back into DNA.

This copying and translating ability allowed for genetic sequences to be copied and passed down again and again—artificial heredity.

Last, the team determined that HNA, one of the six XNA polymers, could respond to selective pressure in a test tube.

As would be expected for DNA, the stressed HNA evolved into different forms.

This shows that "beyond heredity, specific XNAs have the capacity for Darwinian evolution," according to the study, published tomorrow in the journal Science. (Read "Darwin's Legacy" in National Geographic magazine.)

"Thus, heredity and evolution, two hallmarks of life, are not limited to DNA and RNA."

XNA Could Demystify Origins of Life?

All of XNA'S actions are "completely controlled by experimentalists—it's 100 percent unnatural," study co-author Chaput noted.

But such control means that scientists can "use [XNA] to ask very basic questions in biology," such as about the origins of life, Chaput said.

For instance, "it's possible that life didn't begin with DNA and proteins like we see today—it may have begun with something much, much simpler," he said.

A scientist could potentially evolve XNA to discover various functions that would have been important for early life.

Overall, he said, the new discovery is "pretty cool—and very powerful."


TOPICS: Business/Economy; History; Science
KEYWORDS: godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble

1 posted on 04/19/2012 8:05:10 PM PDT by 2ndDivisionVet
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To: 2ndDivisionVet
Good article ~ things we need to know so we may conquer the worlds!

Now, about DNA being a self-replicating, self-assembling chemical ~ we knew that. Darwinian evolution has little to do with self-assembly though.

What we don't know is if it has super computers in there somewhere.

2 posted on 04/19/2012 8:28:43 PM PDT by muawiyah (ue)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet
Good article ~ things we need to know so we may conquer the worlds!

Now, about DNA being a self-replicating, self-assembling chemical ~ we knew that. Darwinian evolution has little to do with self-assembly though.

What we don't know is if it has super computers in there somewhere.

3 posted on 04/19/2012 8:29:02 PM PDT by muawiyah (ue)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet

Seems to me its a better arguement for intelligent design than “natural” evolution.


4 posted on 04/19/2012 8:31:54 PM PDT by cport (How can political capital be spent on a bunch of ingrates)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet
Looks like that totally pagan rag, (but one with really fancy photos!) The National Geographic has finally found the ultimate way to write God out of the equation.

"Oh, Happy Day!" (oops, sorry NG, for that culturally insensitive, religions musical reference)

Unfortunately, they let some "soon to be dismissed" staff writer slip into the headline a bit of religious terminology, i.e. "Synthetic DNA Created, Evolves on Its Own."

Keep plugging away, NG. Or, as Douglas Adams said, "Keep banging the rocks together!"

5 posted on 04/19/2012 8:32:10 PM PDT by BwanaNdege (Man has often lost his way, but modern man has lost his address - Gilbert K. Chesterton)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet
NO! I won't accept that stupid ending to Mass Effect 3 no matter what "science" they trot out to try and reenforce it!

It's nonsense circular logic that Bio-ware wrote over a weekend because EA wanted to get the game out as fast as possible while hyping it up as much as they could!

The Synthesis ending was stupid! The Control Ending was stupid! and Destroy left everyone Effed over!

http://download.gamezone.com/uploads/image/data/1097686/mass_effect_fail.png

Oh wait, we weren't talking about Mass Effect 3's ending?

Sorry, I am still in remission from it.....

6 posted on 04/19/2012 8:33:33 PM PDT by KC_Lion (I will NEVER vote for Romney, the GOP will go the way of the Whigs if they nominate him)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet
First, researchers made XNA building blocks to six different genetic systems by replacing the natural sugar component of DNA with one of six different polymers, synthetic chemical compounds.

...

For instance, "it's possible that life didn't begin with DNA and proteins like we see today—it may have begun with something much, much simpler," he said.

Except in this case, they've shown that they can change something very complex into another form. They started with DNA, not something simpler. Am I reading it wrong?

7 posted on 04/19/2012 8:34:50 PM PDT by pepsi_junkie (Who is John Galt?)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet

Maybe I’m just paranoid, but it sounds like a potential “mad scientist” loophole to get around percentages of human DNA based experimentation in the lab by using XNA.


8 posted on 04/19/2012 9:15:02 PM PDT by Southern Magnolia
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To: 2ndDivisionVet

Even if this is true. It was an act of creation by an intelligent being to make it happen. Therefore not evolved in a truly naturalistic way.


9 posted on 04/19/2012 9:23:14 PM PDT by ColdSteelTalon (Light is fading to shadow, and casting its shroud over all we have known...)
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To: cport
Seems to me its a better arguement for intelligent design than “natural” evolution.

It obeys the laws of nature like "natural" evolution.

10 posted on 04/19/2012 9:35:34 PM PDT by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet; SunkenCiv

Who’s your daddy?


11 posted on 04/19/2012 9:40:49 PM PDT by wildbill (You're just jealous because the Voices talk only to me.)
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To: Moonman62

Let me see if I’m understanding this correctly.

It took an ‘intelligent’ designer to ‘create’ an artificial life form using synthetic materials, to force unnatural ‘evolution’ because they couldn’t make it happen naturally...

Wow...just...wow. Brilliant Einstein!

And for what purpose? Slavery? Eventual sales of ‘unique’ life forms as toys for children?

To lift man above G-d?

Reminds me of a story I read a long time ago from a big book where artificial life forms ‘happened’ and became so evil that they ate humans and mated with animals.

Only one family on the whole earth still retained unpolluted DNA, and survived the fire that swept in...I mean deluge... to destroy the evil life forms. Otherwise, humanity would have been extinct in 8 little bites of a meal.


12 posted on 04/19/2012 10:24:44 PM PDT by PrairieLady2
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To: 2ndDivisionVet

Just from reading the brief review posted, there appear to
be a few potential areas that need clarification...

1) Where were the non natural sugar compounds attached to the
bases derived from? Were they synthesized in a nonintelligent
way?

2) only one of the artifical DNA’s(namely HNA) was able to
be altered by “selection pressure” What did the other XNA’s
do? Did they compete with the action of HNA? What was the
selection pressure? Was it a naturally occuring condition?

3) If the researchers “evolved” the polymerases, did they
start with a predetermined polymerase and changed it , or
did they form a polymerase by chance, and then “evolved” it?
Since when is using intelligence to alter something an
example of “naturally” occuring phenomena? Again, what were
the conditions for this “evolution” Was it a naturally
occuring physical environment, or was it a contrived environment?

4) How long of the chains of the XNAs were formed?...could there
be a natural limit to the size of these chemical polymers,
as is curling back in on itself and rendering itself useless
for further interactions.

5) Did these compounds pair up? What brought the compounds
all together in the correct way? What was the “chemical
yield” of these chemical reactions. Did only one percent
or 0.000001% of the polymers behave as reported.

6) What would happen to these compounds after their formation
if they are just left standing around...Would they decompose
rapidly?(think entropy)

7) Since the DNA’s and RNA’s need proteins and other
cytoplasmic agents to replicate and coil, and separate
(think mitotic spindle, or swivel proteins, non histone
proteins, etc) How does this information help that?

8) The action of DNA/RNA, protein synthesis ,etc in forming
life from basic chemicals is seen everyday in the development
of offspring(think babies, kittens, puppies, and guppys)
How does this information differ from that phenomena?


13 posted on 04/19/2012 10:34:02 PM PDT by Getready (Wisdom is more valuable than gold and diamonds, and harder to find.)
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To: PrairieLady2
Let me see if I’m understanding this correctly.

It took an ‘intelligent’ designer to ‘create’ an artificial life form using synthetic materials, to force unnatural ‘evolution’ because they couldn’t make it happen naturally...

Wow...just...wow. Brilliant Einstein!

And for what purpose? Slavery? Eventual sales of ‘unique’ life forms as toys for children?

To lift man above G-d?

I imagine people like yourself once said the same thing about the telephone, computers, and the Internet. You should lead by example and go flip your main circuit breaker.

14 posted on 04/19/2012 10:40:49 PM PDT by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet
Chimeras
15 posted on 04/20/2012 12:16:44 AM PDT by fella ("As it was before Noah, so shall it be again.")
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To: 2ndDivisionVet

Interesting stuff. They should be able to learn a lot from it.


16 posted on 04/20/2012 12:44:58 AM PDT by TigersEye (Life is about choices. Your choices. Make good ones.)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet
Sounds like a recipe for disaster.
17 posted on 04/20/2012 12:54:03 AM PDT by smokingfrog ( sleep with one eye open (<o> ---)
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To: Southern Magnolia
No, the mad scientists are going to use artificial DNA to create ... Mega Piranha!.

It's a real movie - check it out.

18 posted on 04/20/2012 1:36:07 AM PDT by John Locke
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To: 2ndDivisionVet

If the article is correct, it described Lamarckian evolution not Darwinian. That is, ‘pressures’ provoke hereditary changes passed down to offspring. “Giraffes have long necks because they needed to reach the tender growth at the top of the tree.”


19 posted on 04/20/2012 1:57:19 AM PDT by Chaguito
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To: 2ndDivisionVet

There are many like them. And they have a plan.


20 posted on 04/20/2012 3:17:22 AM PDT by Biff55 (Winter is coming.)
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To: BwanaNdege

So, how did Nat Geo write God out of the picture when it comes to Quarks, Hadrons, Fermions, Physics, Chemistry?


21 posted on 04/20/2012 5:04:59 AM PDT by muawiyah (ue)
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To: Moonman62; PrairieLady2
It always does come down to the same old thing ~ slavery.

This will be used as just another excuse for the creation of a race of mutant body servants.

22 posted on 04/20/2012 5:07:58 AM PDT by muawiyah (ue)
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To: wildbill; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks wildbill. This topic should make WWI's Battle of the Somme look like Keeping Up With The Kardashians. ;')

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


23 posted on 04/20/2012 6:44:44 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (FReepathon 2Q time -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: muawiyah
This will be used as just another excuse for the creation of a race of mutant body servants.

Brilliant idea - I can hardly wait! Certainly they can take care of humanity's every personal whim. Maybe they can function as a food source too, be thrilled to die on command and provide every taste and flavor desired by the human palate.

We could call them Shmoon (the plural of Shmoo!)

SHMOO

24 posted on 04/20/2012 7:01:06 PM PDT by Bernard Marx
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To: 2ndDivisionVet; Quix

Ahh, crap.

As in the days of Noah...


25 posted on 04/20/2012 7:18:51 PM PDT by roamer_1 (Globalism is just socialism in a business suit.)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet; roamer_1

THX THX.

INDEED . . . as in the days of Noah . . .

Just one puzzle piece among many dozens on the same type of issue.

BTW, Roamer, 2ND Div Vet—would enjoy an update from both of you . . .

Prayers & hugs

LUB BROS.


26 posted on 04/20/2012 7:57:40 PM PDT by Quix (Times are a changin' INSURE you have believed in your heart & confessed Jesus as Lord Come NtheFlesh)
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To: Moonman62; roamer_1; 2ndDivisionVet; Quix
I imagine people like yourself once said the same thing about the telephone, computers, and the Internet. You should lead by example and go flip your main circuit breaker.

Moonman62, their is a large difference between creating material things that are useful and messing around with the fundamentals of living things, designed by The LORD as, in His infinite wisdom, He intended them to be. Man's unfettered imagination is very capable of creating vast evil. The LORD is infinite in wisdom and intellect. We, in comparison, are less than buffoons. For us to think that we should tamper with His creation in such a fashion is pure foolishness. Someday, hopefully, you will be able to see this.

The LORD separated people groups by confounding their language because He knew that if man was not restrained that they would carry out the evil things that they imagined. The LORD knew that the evil man would do, would out pace the good, so He therefore caused them to become separated. Today language, once again, is not a barrier and man sets out to do all that he imagines, and it is often evil. It is written in Holy Scripture that once again The LORD will intervene, and return just before the point is reached that if He did not, all flesh would be destroyed.

_____________________________________________

Genesis 11:6 And the LORD said, Behold, the people [is] one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.

Genesis 11:7 Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech.

______________________________________________

Mark 13:19 For [in] those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be.

Mark 13:20 And except that the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect's sake, whom he hath chosen, he hath shortened the days.

27 posted on 04/20/2012 11:30:03 PM PDT by Bellflower (The LORD is Holy, separated from all sin, perfect, righteous, high and lifted up.)
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To: Bellflower
The LORD separated people groups by confounding their language because He knew that if man was not restrained that they would carry out the evil things that they imagined. The LORD knew that the evil man would do, would out pace the good, so He therefore caused them to become separated. Today language, once again, is not a barrier and man sets out to do all that he imagines, and it is often evil.

Like you using man's greatest global communications tool to promote ignorance.

28 posted on 04/21/2012 12:50:30 AM PDT by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: Bellflower; Alamo-Girl; Amityschild; AngieGal; AnimalLover; Ann de IL; aposiopetic; aragorn; ...

INDEED.

If folks think that The Lord God Almighty is pleased with humans

under the direction of fallen angels

mixing human DNA with the DNA of dogs, pigs, apes, cows, reptiles

particularly toward creating an intense, hard to stop biological-robot-super-soldier

or

to create biological-robot-super-slaves

they are grossly mistaken.


29 posted on 04/21/2012 1:06:08 AM PDT by Quix (Times are a changin' INSURE you have believed in your heart & confessed Jesus as Lord Come NtheFlesh)
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To: Moonman62

Are you calling the

Book of Enoch

ignorance?


30 posted on 04/21/2012 1:09:10 AM PDT by Quix (Times are a changin' INSURE you have believed in your heart & confessed Jesus as Lord Come NtheFlesh)
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To: Moonman62
Like you using man's greatest global communications tool to promote ignorance.

Sadly, no light yet.

31 posted on 04/21/2012 1:19:34 AM PDT by Bellflower (The LORD is Holy, separated from all sin, perfect, righteous, high and lifted up.)
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To: John Locke
No, the mad scientists are going to use artificial DNA to create ... Mega Piranha!. It's a real movie - check it out.

I prefer "the best vegetable movie ever":


32 posted on 04/21/2012 3:35:16 AM PDT by Pollster1 (Can we afford as much government as welfare-addicted voters demand?)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet

Sooooo, Terminator might be real???

Seriously though, this scares the CRAP out of me!


33 posted on 04/21/2012 4:16:30 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to the tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet
Very much an experimental petitio principii on their part.

XNA != 'cells' ; the polymerases were synthesized to order and did not form spontaneously; this article mentions selection pressure (unspecified) on the XNA in a test tube (in vitro, not in vivo, and not through the mechanism of selection of macroscopic characteristics of the organism possessing the XNA); no mention of any ability of any analogues to mRNA or the like, nor of any changes to the codons when going from four to six base pairs; come to think of it, no explanation of why six base pairs were used; and no mention of spontaneous mistranscriptions, methlyation, etc.

Too much smoke being blown, not enough fire as yet.

Cheers!

34 posted on 04/21/2012 5:32:32 AM PDT by grey_whiskers (The opinions are solely those of the author and are subject to change without notice.)
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To: 2ndDivisionVet

if it evolves, does it live?


35 posted on 04/21/2012 11:16:48 AM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. +12 ..... Crucifixion is coming)
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To: ColdSteelTalon

there is no evidence for your thought.


36 posted on 04/21/2012 11:18:56 AM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. +12 ..... Crucifixion is coming)
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To: Southern Magnolia

Faux nucleotide sequences in the ultimate hubris of man.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8U7xpGi5SsU&feature=related


37 posted on 04/21/2012 11:19:58 AM PDT by Domestic Church (AMDG ...)
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To: Moonman62

It really makes you wonder doesn’t it?


38 posted on 04/21/2012 11:28:29 AM PDT by superloser
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To: bert

bert, was not the synthetic dna created by an intelligent being?


39 posted on 04/21/2012 12:02:23 PM PDT by ColdSteelTalon (Light is fading to shadow, and casting its shroud over all we have known...)
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To: Quix

Indeed. Thanks for the ping!


40 posted on 04/21/2012 9:51:37 PM PDT by Alamo-Girl
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