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Before the Fall of the Reindeer People
Environmental Graffiti ^ | 13 Dec 2009 | EG

Posted on 12/21/2009 8:32:22 AM PST by BGHater

A_Sami_family_in_Norway_around_1900
A Sami (Lapp) family in Norway around 1900
Photo: Library of Congress

In the freezing far northern reaches of Europe live an indigenous, semi-nomadic people of fishermen, fur trappers and reindeer herders. Like a thin but stubborn sheet of ice, these people have inhabited Sápmi, a large but sparsely populated area covering parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia’s Kola Peninsula for thousands of years. They remained closely tied to nature throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, as their clothes, dwellings and other trappings of culture bear witness – here beautifully frozen in film

. These people are the Sámi.

Sami_family_in_front_of_their_home_1870s
Sami family in front of their home, 1870s

Photo: Unknown photographer

“This singular race is divided into three different groups: mountain, forest, and fisher Lapps. The first two are nomadic and almost entirely dependent upon reindeer. Nearly all the needs of the Lapps are supplied by this useful creature, which closely resembles a stag. The flesh provides his food; from its milk he obtains cheese; from the hide, clothes, leather, foot and tent covering, while the antlers yield material for knife blades, vessels, etc.” Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913, Lapland and Lapps

Two_persons_in_Sami_dresses_outside_Jokkmokk_Old_Church_from_1753_c._1860
Two persons in Sami dresses outside Jokkmokk Old Church, Sweden, c. 1860
Photo: Swedish National Heritage Board

Nordic_Sami_people_Lavvu_old_photography_from_1900-1920
Nomadic Sami people in Sapmi in front of two Lavvu Tents, 1900-1920
Photo: Granbergs Nya Aktiebolag

Two hundred years ago, the Sámi people lived in more or less peaceable co-existence with the societies surrounding them. However, as modern industrialism cranked its wheel throughout the rest of Europe, the Sámi began to feel the strain in the relationship with their neighbours, and the accelerating changes in their culture that would hit high gear during the second half of the 20th century became apparent. Yet the Sámi way of life refused to be buried.

Nicolas_Nilsen_and_Kristin_Mikkelsdatter_from_Kvalsund,_wearing_the_Kvalsund_kofte_1884
Nicolas Nilsen and Kristin Mikkelsdatter from Kvalsund, 1884
Photo: R. Bonaparte

A people without a sovereign state, the Sámis have made the Arctic Area of the Nordic countries the land of a nomadic culture unique to Europe; a culture so much more in tune with its natural environment as to be almost unrecognisable to eyes dulled by consumerism and the computer. As motley as the many colours of their costumes, this diverse group of people – a people with up to ten languages and more dialects spoken among them – yet share some common characteristics and customs.

Three_Sami_men_exchanging_Tobacco_in_Lyngen,_Troms,_Norwa
Three Sami men are exchanging tobacco in Lyngen, Troms, Norway, early 1900
Photo: Anne Margrethe Giæver

After breakfasting, those Sámi men who practiced reindeer husbandry would have gone about their daily routines – feeding, milking and helping to tend their animals; driving them to fresh grazing lands; breeding and birthing when the season dictated. Their animals would provide them with many of the materials they needed: pelts to keep warm and for use as the walls in their dwellings; antlers to be employed alongside other bones and wood for crafting; and of course meat and milk for meals.

Bei_den_Renntierherden_1925
Photo, 1925: Richard Fleischhut

“The Sámi are believed to be the first known culture to have herded animals,” writes one scholar. “To capture and train draft reindeer for pulling snow sleds, they lasso the wild reindeer, tie it to a tree, and slowly train it until it is domesticated. The reindeer sleds, as well as skis, are vital to Sámi life in the winter.” The reindeer were cardinal, morning, noon and night.

Erdhütte_der_Lappen_bei_Tromsoe
Photo, 1925: Richard Fleischhut

A frugal lunch might have followed for a Sámi family – especially during the long, dark winter – while the mothers fed and cared for their young in cradles of wood and horn. Youths might have gathered berries or helped with repairs. Immaculately crafted tools would have hung from their waists, ready for everyday use or when needed in fishing and hunting. Sámi handicrafts, known as doudji, were born of a time when the Sámi people were isolated from the outside world and needed to be self-sufficient to survive.

Lapland_Mother
Warm Hearts of the North, Sami mother, pre-1923

Photo: Borg Mesch

Made from wood, bone, horn, leather and roots, crafts ranged from knives and cases to women’s bags and wooden cups, with the underlying belief that they should serve a purpose. That didn’t mean objects couldn’t be decorative; and while the Sámi women spent their afternoon making wares, embroidery with beads, tin thread, weaving and textiles would have been the treasures of their toil. By the 19th century, items could have been exchanged as well as used, and certainly there was an art to it all.

Lappen_bieten_selbstgefertigte_Puppen_aus_Renntierfellen_an_1925
Photo, 1925: Richard Fleischhut

The traditional clothing worn by the Sámi is called gakti, a patchwork type of attire typified by a main colour adorned with contrasting bands, plaits and metal embroidery, often with a high collar to keep out the cold. The various different patterns and jewellery spoke of the person’s marital status, where they hailed from, and other cultural variations of the different regions. Traditionally, gákti was made from reindeer leather, sinews and perhaps wool, with cotton and silk introduced later.

Erdhütte_der_Lappen_bei_Tromsoe_1925
Photo, 1925: Richard Fleischhut

When the dogs had returned home and the reindeer shuffled together for warmth, when the day – if it had even dawned – began to darken, the Sámi families would return to their shelters – the focal points around which their lives turned, even if their location was only temporary. Similar in design to the Native American tipi, but less vertical and more stable in high winds, the lavvu could be set up and taken down quickly, allowing the Sámi to follow their reindeer herds or otherwise move from place to place.

Sami_tent_Lavu_late_1800s
Sámi Lavvu tent, late 1800s Photo via Friman

Supported by evenly spaced, forked or notched poles arranged into a tripod, with other straight poles to give structure to the form, the lavvu were then covered in reindeer hides – until inexpensive textiles were made available. Inside, a fireplace in the middle would have been used for heating and to keep mosquitoes at bay, the smoke escaping through a hole in the top. The goahti was a slightly larger construction, similar to a Sámi lavvu or a peat-covered version using the same base structure.

Sami_Laplanders_in_Dalarne_county_in_Sweden
Nomad Sami settlement near Hävlingskällorna in Dalarne, Sweden, pre-1926

Photo: Svensk Turistforening

The handiwork of the Sámi people was supremely functional, but when the evenings and winters had closed in, their music and song was less practical in principle. The traditional Yoik is one of several modes of Sámi song listeners would have heard – slow, chant-like, emotive singing expressive of personal attempts to touch on the spiritual essence of a subject, say an animal or bird in nature. Other styles may not have contained words, or might have told a story about a special person or event.

Lappin_mit_Kind_in_der_Wiege_1925
Photo, 1925: Richard Fleischhut

In truth, there were as many differences as similarities among the Sámi of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Different cultures that have been identified include the Forest Sámi, Fjeld or Mountain Sámi, Sea Sámi and Eastern Sámi. Yet such classifications were further complicated by other differences of language, livelihood and history that riddled the system of small, sometimes migratory groups of families – or siidas – like beautiful cracks in the ice.

old_photo_from_late_1880_of_Sami_girls_from_Telemark_County_in_Southern_Norway

Sámi girls from Telemark County in Southern Norway, late 1880
Photo: M. M. Lohne

The Sámi have lived in northern Europe since the last glacial ice sheets melted away, following herds of reindeer, living off the land, and adapting to the harsh winter winds and climate. However, they only became recognisable as their own distinct culture in the last few millennia. When the Black Death sank its teeth into Europe in 1349, it did not impact so heavily on the Sámis, who were less connected to the European trade routes and so were not infected and killed at nearly as high a rate as their neighbours.

Ivar_Samuelsen_Sea_Saami_Man_from_Finnmark_in_Norwegian_Lapland
Ivar Samuelsen, Sea Saami man from Finnmark in Norwegian Sapmi, 1884
Photo: Prins Roland Bonaparte

In the wake of the pandemic, those Sámi driven to fish off the north Norwegian coast became the Sea Sámi who, as they migrated and multiplied, settled Norway’s fjords and inland waterways, combining cattle raising with trapping and fishing. Meanwhile, a smaller minority of Mountain Sámi continued to hunt reindeer, and around the 1500s began taming the overhunted animals into herds, becoming the famed reindeer nomads – a lifestyle portrayed as archetypically Sámi but in fact only pursued by about 10% of the people.

Storehouse_(Stolpbod)_and_Sami_women_at_Slugufjäll_Sami_Settlement_in_Dalarne,_Sweden
Storehouse and Sami women at Slugufjäll Settlement, Dalarne, Sweden, pre-1926

Photo: C. Fries

The Sámi felt the pressure of interest shown in their areas by the surrounding states of Denmark-Norway, Sweden-Finland and Russia – not to mention instances of forced labour and the fact that all claimed the right to tax them. Yet for a long time, the Sámi way of life thrived in the north because of it was so supremely adapted to the harsh Arctic environment – and was fit to survive independent of crises like the low fish prices and resulting depopulation Norwegians living up north suffered during the 18th century.

Accommodation_for_nomad_Sami_(Lapps)_visiting_church_in_Fatomakke,_Västerbotten,_Sweden,_pre-1926
Photo: Svensk Turistforening

However, the fortunes of the Sámi people began to waver in the 19th century when the Norwegian authorities began taking away Sámi rights in a bid to make the Norwegian language and culture universal. Although on the Swedish and Finnish sides the authorities were less militant in their efforts to assimilate the Sámi culture, in all three Scandinavian countries a strong drive towards settlement in the north led to a weakening of the Sámi people’s economic and cultural status.

Sami_men_in_Vålådalen_in_Jämtland,_Sweden_pre_1926
Accommodation

for nomad Sami visiting church, Västerbotten, Sweden, pre-1926
Photo: G. Bergstedt

Worse was still to come. The tightest grip exerted on the Sámi occurred in the years between 1900 and 1940, when Norwegian nationalism intensified to the point where the government invested considerable money and effort into wiping out their culture. Anyone who wanted to claim new land for agriculture had to prove they could speak good Norwegian. The earlier myths of the Sámi as somehow innocently primitive and poor had reached a new and frightening level under the banner of a dominant, ‘civilising’ culture.

A_Nordic_Sami_or_Laplander_family_in_traditional_costumes_and_a_dog_from_Finland_pre_1936
A Nordic Sami family in traditional costumes and a dog from Finland, pre-1936
Photo: Kortcentralen Helsingfors

In Sweden, Sámi areas were increasingly exploited by the burgeoning mining industry and the building of the Luleå-Narvik railway, and later some Sámis were subjected to a compulsory sterilisation project. Meanwhile, in Russia the nomadic Sámi way of life was brutally interrupted by the collectivisation of reindeer herding and farming in general, with most of the people rounded up in a kolkhoz in the middle of the Kola Peninsula and forced to accept this radical new ideology or face the concentration camp.

Norway,_soldier_with_Lapplanders,_December_1940
Soldier with Sámi buying a fox skin, Norway, 1940
Photo: Schwarz

Matters didn’t improve any with the onset of WWII, when the eastern Sámi in north-eastern Finland and Russia found themselves fighting on opposing sides. When the Germans withdrew from the north of Finland and Russia, homes and other visible traces of history were laid to waste in a scorched earth policy. Many families were forced to evacuate, though some Sámi ended up in German prison camps. Areas like Finnmark county in Norway and all northern areas of Finland were left in smoking ruins.

deutscher_Unteroffizier_in_Boot_sitzend
Federal German Archive Photo, 1943: Rymas

After the War grew a renewed interest in the Sámi culture, the seeds of which had been sown in the late 1800s when the first Sámi newspapers were founded; the news spoken in Sámi on Norwegian national radio started in 1946. The construction of a hydro-electric dam on important grazing and calving areas in the Finnmark town of Alta in 1979 brought Sámi rights onto the political agenda. And since 1992, the Sámi have their own national day, which takes place on February 6.

Sami_reindeer_herder_in_Sweden
Sami reindeer herder in Sweden, 2005
Photo: Mats Andersson

Today, the Sámi people remain among the largest indigenous ethnic groups in Europe. Only around 2,800 Sámi are actively involved with full-time reindeer herding, but its continued existence is the legacy of a beautiful culture founded on seasonal migrations and the cycles of life.

Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12


TOPICS: History
KEYWORDS: colonial; finland; godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble; lapp; norway; reindeer; saami; sami
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1 posted on 12/21/2009 8:32:25 AM PST by BGHater
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To: SunkenCiv

Sámi, great photos.


2 posted on 12/21/2009 8:33:00 AM PST by BGHater (America is a Kakistocracy.)
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To: archy

Finnish bump


3 posted on 12/21/2009 8:40:47 AM PST by Jack Black
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To: archy

Finnish bump


4 posted on 12/21/2009 8:40:50 AM PST by Jack Black
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To: BGHater

We must get these poor people cell phones so we can warn them...about liberals.


5 posted on 12/21/2009 8:43:12 AM PST by Dixie Yooper (Ephesians 6:11)
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To: BGHater

During this joyous Christmas season, I’d like you to know....

A reindeer bit my sister once.


6 posted on 12/21/2009 8:43:29 AM PST by Responsibility2nd (During this joyous Christmas season, I'd like you to know....A reindeer bit my sister once.)
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To: BGHater

Awesome pics - what a demanding life - none of them look too old.


7 posted on 12/21/2009 8:52:17 AM PST by blackminorca
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To: blackminorca

A glimpse of our future under international climate change
regs such as cap and trade?


8 posted on 12/21/2009 9:01:03 AM PST by buckalfa (confused and bewildered)
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To: Responsibility2nd
One would hope so, but not too hard of course.

Whenever I go over that collection ~ and this is just part of a far larger collection accessible on the net, I look for family faces and always find a new one.

Now not all those faces are family ~

Worth nothing ~ there may be as many as 105,000 Sa'ami in the Fenno-Scandinavian peninsula but there are at least 9,000,000 Sa'ami descendants in the United States.

One aspect of Sa'ami life not covered in those pictures was the forced relocation of most of the population to America in the mid 1600s through the early 1700s.

9 posted on 12/21/2009 9:06:52 AM PST by muawiyah
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To: BGHater
Great post!


10 posted on 12/21/2009 9:27:38 AM PST by JoeProBono (A closed mouth gathers no feet)
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To: BGHater
"“The Sámi are believed to be the first known culture to have herded animals,” writes one scholar."

"Meanwhile, a smaller minority of Mountain Sámi continued to hunt reindeer, and around the 1500s began taming the overhunted animals into herds, becoming the famed reindeer nomads"

Uh...something doesn't compute. Is it the author's contention that no one else on Earth "herded animals" until the 16th century? Ok...no wonder the "scholar" chose to remain nameless.

The pictures seem contrived and poised to me. Natives ginning it up for a naive, or not so naive photographer out looking for his romantic preconceptions of a stone age existence...much like the highly stylized and arranged 19th century American Indian pictures that the media used to introduce the idea of the noble savage. To believe that most of these pictures are genuine seems similar to believing that if a photographer decided to come by my house to document a rapidly vanishing breed, the Southernus Redneckus, he'd just happen to find me in the front yard wearing a Budweiser cap, wife beater and cut offs...and I conveniently have my dogs, Camaro, truck, guns, tools, and family arranged around me. Ready for the glamor shot.
11 posted on 12/21/2009 9:55:36 AM PST by Spike Knotts
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To: muawiyah
One aspect of Sa'ami life not covered in those pictures was the forced relocation of most of the population to America in the mid 1600s through the early 1700s.

Can you elaborate a bit, this is fascinating? Where did they locate in America? Why would there be pressure brought on them to emigrate?

Great post here.


12 posted on 12/21/2009 10:04:53 AM PST by nathanbedford ("Attack, repeat, attack!" Bull Halsey)
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To: BGHater

Gramma got run over by a reindeer “bump”.


13 posted on 12/21/2009 10:15:25 AM PST by BerryDingle (I know how to deal with communists, I still wear their scars on my back from Hollywood-Ronald Reagan)
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To: nathanbedford
It's actually very simple. The New Sweden colony was established in territory claimed by UK about 1638. The first ship with colonists was called the Kalmar Nyckel (and there's a lot of history tied up in those two names BTW ~ so no discussion here this time).

There were 5 "official" colonial military crew members ~ all Swedes. All spoke Swedish. The rest of the passengers consisted mostly of "family groups" and we know the names of most the heads of household ~ and, best of all we know they were identified as speaking FINN, and not Swedish.

For most modern purposes FINN means "Finnish" but at that time it did not. That word denotes an individual from the Finnmark ~ that is, a Sa'ami.

As you know reindeer easily range 3000 miles. The Sa'ami followed reindeer wherever they went ~ full domestication came later, but it was common for the reindeer to range much further South in winter.

The Swedes regularly rounded up Sa'ami (and even Swedes without papers) who got too close to Stockholm. In this case they took their Sa'ami winter-time prisoners and shipped them to America ~ to what is now Delaware.

Within a few years of starting the colony there were thousands more Sa'ami present, the officers engaged the Dutch in a little war, the Dutch won, the colony then moved across the isthmus to Elkton Maryland, the officers were hired by the Dutch to run Nieuwe Amsterdam, and the Sa'ami were left on their own.

The Swedes continued to dispatch Sa'ami they caught too close to civilized spots to America, to the same place. The last shipments appear to have happened in the mid 1700s.

The Sa'ami settlements expanded. By 1700 the settlements to the North in Lancaster PA relocated to York (yoik?) PA to get away from Quaker harrassment. (All these people were nominally Lutheran ~ and in reality many still maintained older religious beliefs ~ SEE: Santa Claus, Reindeer, Dwarves, Chimneys, etc. ~ I know you know this stuff.)

By the early 1700s there were 5 Sa'ami colonies in Pennsylvania ~ and 2 Sa'ami colonies in Maryland. Best I can determine these colonies were identified with a "deer" or "elk" in their names, or in later colonies with the word "union" (for Kalmar Union).

Remember George Washington in the boat crossing the Delaware? See those guys doing the rowing? Remember the Maryland 400?

There are numerous family genealogies on the net that detail in some manner the Sa'ami experience in America.

The fellows walking barefoot at Valley Forge might well have been quite comfortable in fact.

Today there are millions of Americans of Sa'ami origin ~ some with a lot, some with not so much. I've been fairly successful in finding a remnant. Maybe we will be able to get together on a compendium of documentation someday. Maybe you'd like to help. To get started read what there is on the internet.

One more thing. Science has determined that the division between the Sa'ami and other white folk took place right at the end of the Ice Age 15,000 years ago. There've been some additions since that time ~ a handful of Yakuts with tame reindeer, some Eastern Slavs 7,000 years ago, and maybe even some folks from America back before the end of the Ice Age.

Having Sa'ami ancestors makes you almost a race apart ~ where the differences between the vast majority and your group are mediated by genes, and not just culture and language.

14 posted on 12/21/2009 12:45:45 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: Spike Knotts
Some of the photos date from the late 1800s where it was still very common to have folks stand in poses for minutes at a time ~ that was a function of the technology available in those days.

Regarding wearing their Sunday best, used to be everybody dressed up for a photo ~ women in their skirts, broad sleeved blouses, pointed hats/bonnets and the men in their best leather brogalis.

We have a number of family pictures where the photographer set up quite a long way from his subjects because you had many adults only 4' tall mixed in with others that were well over 7' tall. Fortunately they stood very still so we can do blow-ups of individuals that are very good likenesses.

You'll notice the photographers in FennoScandinavia had similar problems due to the height differentials.

15 posted on 12/21/2009 12:52:33 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: muawiyah
muawiyah,

Do you know of any websites that list the last names of known Saami settlers to the U.S.?

16 posted on 12/21/2009 5:26:34 PM PST by BerryDingle (I know how to deal with communists, I still wear their scars on my back from Hollywood-Ronald Reagan)
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To: BerryDingle

Sami, my apologies :).


17 posted on 12/21/2009 5:31:31 PM PST by BerryDingle (I know how to deal with communists, I still wear their scars on my back from Hollywood-Ronald Reagan)
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To: BGHater
The Sami are mostly mtDNA haplogroups 'V' and U5.
My mother was 'V' and my grandmother (Father's mother, Mrs Smith) was U5a.

My yDNA is R1b1b2, an Irishman with roots in Denmark.

18 posted on 12/21/2009 7:34:37 PM PST by blam
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To: BGHater; blam; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

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Thanks BGHater. Nice!

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19 posted on 12/21/2009 7:48:35 PM PST by SunkenCiv (My Sunday Feeling is that Nothing is easy. Goes for the rest of the week too.)
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To: SunkenCiv

How I love ya, How I love ya, my dear auld Sami....


20 posted on 12/21/2009 7:53:28 PM PST by blam
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To: BerryDingle
There are websites of all sorts that name Sa'ami settlers. The first problem you will discover is that as many of them had been Christianized by 1638, they have CHRISTIAN NAMES.

Those from Finland are a bit more fortunate since many of them have older Sa'ami names acceptable to the Suomi (the Uralic/Altaic white folk who run that place these days).

Sapala (spelled several ways) is a popular Sa'ami name, as is Takala!

That name means "Fisher", and you'll find some Skolt Sa'ami from Russia who are/were Russian Orthodox and they all translated their names (which meant the same thing, but in a different language) into English when they got here.

I know a number named Nelson, Hoke, Hovas/Hovis, and so on. Those names are all spelled a lot of different ways.

One problem is that MOST Sa'ami languages were not reduced to writing until well after Amerian settlement had begun. So, you have a mix of Sa'ami names in 11 Sa'ami languages, half a dozen other languages, and they're still fairly rural in Scandinavia with about 98% of their descendants living in the United States and almost no one here knows anyone there.

Look for "Lapland" "Surnames" ~ there are a number of quite informative sources ~

Also, Elsis ~ sometimes changed to Ellis ~ but when you find Elsis and Keppel you're into some hardcore, downhome, fish eating, reindeer chomping, ligonberry snacking Sa'ami.

My practice is to ignore the ethnicity of the names and read pieces about the people who lived on the land. Then there are the Finnish and Swedish medical services who use the Skolt and Inari as "test subjects". Got an unusual problem you think might be genetic, you may have a Sa'ami ancestor or two (usually two somewhere), and the Swedes and Finns have a paper or 2 or 3, or 100, on just your problem. Sometimes they compare their findings with OTHER PEOPLE who herd reindeers but who are not Sa'ami.

21 posted on 12/21/2009 8:46:20 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: blam
Blam, just reading a paper the other day that mentioned that some Sa'ami have genes clearly indicating Sakha/Yakuts ancestry from thousands of years ago.

If anyone is interested that's certainly an interesting connection.

Back during one of the mini Ice Ages over the last 10 thou, a bunch of them moved South to Bhutan. They did quite well. Buddha was a Sakha BTW.

Then, about 200 AD the Hindu Restoration was initiated, Buddhists weren't all that welcome, and the Sakha were chased away.

Recently Russian archaeologists have determined that the Sakha RETURNED to Yakutia.

They later left there when the climatological catastrophe of 535 AD happened. They are believed to have then conquered Korea, and Japan ~

And here everybody had their eyes on the Ainu trying to find that "white blood"! They should have asked the Emperor.

That part of Yakutia has recently been in the news. That's the area where Dr. Mann got his tree ring samples he then misused to tell everybody it was getting warmer.

It does appear that as isolated as Yakutia appears to be the folks who live there can get around the rest of the world quite easily.

22 posted on 12/21/2009 8:55:44 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: BGHater

Didn’t Chernobyl poison the lichens across northern Scandinavia and cause the reindeer farmers to cull their herds?


23 posted on 12/21/2009 9:04:40 PM PST by Rebelbase
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To: muawiyah; BGHater; SunkenCiv

This is fascinating stuff!


24 posted on 12/21/2009 9:10:54 PM PST by thecodont
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To: muawiyah
Sakas?
25 posted on 12/21/2009 9:17:53 PM PST by blam
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To: Rebelbase
Chernobyl poisoned all sorts of stuff in Scandinavia and Northern Russia.

However, a lot of that sinks into the soil, or was discovered to not present a long term threat. I believe the Russians are still prohibiting the consumption of Reindeer but folks in Western Scandinavia seem to be recovering.

One of the Sa'ami problems is they've lived with an exceedingly high iron content background for tens of thousands of years ~ and their game animals have had a high iron content. Some of the Sa'ami may well have spent the Younger Dryas on the Norwegian Coast eating little but seals.

They seem to have a NEED for a very high iron content in their food ~ way beyond what can be provided through ordinary means.

With the reindeer meat shortage, they probably ought to be provisioned with that canned Harp Seal meat the Canadians are putting out. Unfortunately the EU, which has a lot of people always into genocide, prohibits the importation of seal meat.

26 posted on 12/21/2009 9:19:24 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: blam
The words are all pronounced the same. The proto-Japanese/Korean language is closely related to Turkish languages. At the same time those languages are not necessarily connected to particular "races" or "ethnicities" in Eastern Northern Asia.

Yakutia is where the Eskimo, Aleuts and American Indians come from! This is also where the ruling classes in Korea and Japan came from.

With the recent translation of a good deal of their ancient records (the Sakha "lost writing" BTW) by Russian researchers, everybody now knows who these Sakha/Yakuts are.

There are "other" Saka ~ and today that part of the world is quite diverse having a population composed mostly of white folks of Russian origin.

BTW, unlike all other groups in Japan, the Japanese top nobel families (descended from the Sakha who went to India) have females with breasts ~ just like the statues in India.

Their warrior class must have been interested in the girls!

The Scythians supposedly were identified by a specific ideograph by the ancient Sumerians. Be interesting if it has reindeer antlers in it!

27 posted on 12/21/2009 9:26:49 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: muawiyah

Great post. I had heard of the New Sweden colony along the Delaware River but never knew that the Sa’ami were part of it. And your explanation of their influence on our Christmas tradition is especially interesting.


28 posted on 12/21/2009 9:35:16 PM PST by Pelham ("Badges?!! We don' need no stinkin' badges!!")
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To: muawiyah
Thank you for providing fascinating insights into a culture and a presence in America of which I have absolutely no knowledge. It is interesting that these people came through Lancaster Pennsylvania area which is also the route my German forebears took.

Also of interest is a DNA study which was recently completed of the Viking influence in the British Isles and Ireland. This is not, of course, to confuse the Vikings with The Family but it is to raise the issue whether any DNA studies have been undertaken?

Thanks again.


29 posted on 12/21/2009 11:45:08 PM PST by nathanbedford ("Attack, repeat, attack!" Bull Halsey)
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To: muawiyah
Thank you for providing fascinating insights into a culture and a presence in America of which I have absolutely no knowledge. It is interesting that these people came through Lancaster Pennsylvania area which is also the route my German forebears took.

Also of interest is a DNA study which was recently completed of the Viking influence in the British Isles and Ireland. This is not, of course, to confuse the Vikings with The Family but it is to raise the issue whether any DNA studies have been undertaken?

Thanks again.


30 posted on 12/21/2009 11:45:14 PM PST by nathanbedford ("Attack, repeat, attack!" Bull Halsey)
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To: muawiyah

My husband has connections to New Sweden, and at least one of his family lines there is Sa’ami, or so the research I’ve read says.

Hubby is a real mutt. Old American family with Swedish, English, German, Scots and Irish, and Welsh families on one side, on the other Slovakian and Japanese. Makes doing genealogy intersting...


31 posted on 12/22/2009 12:18:33 AM PST by Knitting A Conundrum (Without the Constitution, there is no America!)
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To: nathanbedford
Talk to BLAM on the DNA studies.

Yes, one rather famous (or infamous) study found that the Sa'ami, the Chippewa, the Berbers and some other American Indian groups (iriquois, Cherokee, Choctaw, etc.) carry a genetic marker unique to the Sa'mi.

That blew the ethnologists out of the water. They'd always believed the Sa'ami were a Turcic people who'd originated in Siberia somewhere. Genetic studies demonstrate that they have no more East Asian ancestry than other white folk ~ 5% to be precise ~ which is now generally believed to reflect some Ice Age or immediate post Ice Age gene transfers (my guess is trading girls over centuries you move those genes thousands of miles).

The most extreme notion to arise out of this is the idea that the Clovis people were, in fact, Sa'ami. The idea is they had boats, fished and hunted seals along the edge of the North Atlantic Ice Shelf, and went back and forth from Europe to America to Europe to America for many centuries.

An East Asian group from Siberia beat them to Oregon, and probably beat them to Wisconsin too (the famous Oregon human coprolite and a pile of butchered elephants from 14,500 years back play a part in that one).

Current belief is the Sa'ami are simply the first of many different groups that moved out of the Western European Refugia as the Big Ice melted and opened up new lands. They traveled further, faster, and harder and managed to become a genetic isolate for up to 15,000 years ~

32 posted on 12/22/2009 6:55:16 AM PST by muawiyah
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To: nathanbedford
About Lancaster County PA.

Lancaster was a major piece of New Sweden in the 1600s. About 1700s Penn, the Quaker, decided to start bringing in Quakers from England.

The Sweden colony folks were predominantly nominal Lutherans so the Quakers tried to convert them to the "true path". Swedish ministers were brought over to "defend" their colonists. This entailed bringing in big, strong churchmen to beat down Quaker missionaries messing with their people.

People were rough in those days and fistfights were not thought of as all that serious.

Some of the Lancaster Swedes and Sa'ami moved to Bucks County to get away from this. Read the history of Daniel Boone's family regarding that.

A smarter bunch relocated the colony to York PA on the other side of the river.

Later on the King of England used Lancaster as a dumping ground for German refugees ~ I think he didn't like the Quakers!

Roughly, if you find an ancestor from Lancaster in the 1600s, he or she is a Swede or Sa'ami. If the date slops over into 1701 to about 1725 or so, they are invariably Quaker. You get up beyond 1725 you find Germans ~ sometimes pretty obviously so. due to the interlocking ethnicities started by the Old West Gothic speaking people back in the 6th and 7th centuries, some German, English and Swedish surnames ARE IDENTICAL, so be very careful.

Your Sa'ami ancestors will probably have Swedish surnames and live in Lancaster county up to 1700, and then they live in York county.

33 posted on 12/22/2009 7:03:21 AM PST by muawiyah
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To: muawiyah
It seems that the more recent views by the archaeologists of the timing of the crossing from Siberia into America give or take 13,000 years ago was done the way you describe, that is, in small boats hunting along the coastline. Previously, the majority held that the early hunters came through a valley in Alaska which had warmed enough to form a corridor through the ice. Recent archaeological discoveries and carbon dating has shown that the people actually came before the corridor was opened, that leaves the boats.


34 posted on 12/22/2009 7:58:20 AM PST by nathanbedford ("Attack, repeat, attack!" Bull Halsey)
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To: muawiyah; BGHater
Thanks for some fascinating posts. Lots of new information to me.
35 posted on 12/22/2009 9:55:38 AM PST by colorado tanker (What's it all about, Barrrrry? Is it just for the power, you live?)
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To: muawiyah
Swedish ministers were brought over to "defend" their colonists. This entailed bringing in big, strong churchmen to beat down Quaker missionaries messing with their people.

That may possibly explain why part of my family original cemetary in Lancaster county was plowed over and crops grown on it.

36 posted on 12/22/2009 4:33:54 PM PST by BerryDingle (I know how to deal with communists, I still wear their scars on my back from Hollywood-Ronald Reagan)
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To: BerryDingle
Most likely. The parting of the ways when the Scanderhoovians abandoned Lancaster to the Quakers was most likely not at all sweet.

However, the old Lutheran churches in Elkton are owned by the Episcopals these days and maintained as historic sites.

In looking for Scanderhoovian Lutheran churches in America you have to look for the term "Evangelical" first.

37 posted on 12/22/2009 5:36:22 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: nathanbedford
Has to be by boat. We know when people first crossed into Australia ~ and it had to be by sea since the ocean never get low enough to allow some other form of crossing.

Wooden boats just don't last!

38 posted on 12/22/2009 5:38:01 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: muawiyah

Thanks.


39 posted on 12/23/2009 5:42:22 AM PST by Rebelbase
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To: BGHater

I had no idea these people were ordering their clothes out of catalogs from the North Face, Columbia Sports, etc. 100+ years ago. The shipping charges must have been tremendous.

40 posted on 12/23/2009 5:45:36 AM PST by Rebelbase
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To: muawiyah
Thanks for the inputs. Let me know when you write your first book on the Sami. You've written enough on FR and if collected together could almost make that book.

BTW, I'm presently in Indy (Carmel) for Christmas.

41 posted on 12/24/2009 6:33:54 AM PST by blam
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To: blam
Sounds great ~ enjoy the weather. Looks like you will be missing all the snow.

Now, a Sa'ami book ~ could be possible.

42 posted on 12/24/2009 5:11:44 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: blam

Traditional Sami homeland.

43 posted on 03/17/2010 6:21:24 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Renee Zellweger is a Sami

44 posted on 03/17/2010 6:26:38 PM PDT by blam
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To: BGHater
FYI:

Why are we writing Sami instead of Lapps on these pages?

"Lapp" means a patch of cloth for mending, thus the name suggests that the Sami are wearing patched clothes, a derogatory term and one that needs to be replaced. The word "Laplander" is also problematic since that could mean any person who lives within this region, also those that are non native. Finally there's a part of the Sami population who always have lived outside the region of "Lapland" such as the Sami's in Swedens, Jemtland and Härjedalen.

Webmasters note:

As a curiosity I'd like to mention that there's one Sami word that has made it into several of the major languages of this world, that word is Tundra -doesn't it speak volumes about which part of the world this is. :)

45 posted on 03/17/2010 6:32:58 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

How do you know she is one?


46 posted on 03/17/2010 6:33:43 PM PDT by Sawdring
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To: JoeProBono; Salamander; Slings and Arrows; Markos33

And, just coincidentally, as I clicked on this thread, the second movement of Sibelius’ Second Symphony is coursing through my living room.

Most evocative symphonic composer ever.


47 posted on 03/17/2010 6:34:14 PM PDT by shibumi ("..... then we will fight in the shade." (Cool Star - *))
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To: shibumi


48 posted on 03/17/2010 6:50:03 PM PDT by JoeProBono (A closed mouth gathers no feet)
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To: Sawdring
"How do you know she is one?"

She told me so (just kiddin')

It says so here.


49 posted on 03/17/2010 6:59:21 PM PDT by blam
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To: Rebelbase
"I had no idea these people were ordering their clothes out of catalogs from the North Face, Columbia Sports, etc. 100+ years ago. The shipping charges must have been tremendous"

Actually, they got most of their stuff in bulk lots, wholesale, at Sami's Club.
50 posted on 03/17/2010 7:04:05 PM PDT by shibumi ("..... then we will fight in the shade." (Cool Star - *))
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