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Protein Is Factor in Heart Disease, Researchers Say
NY Times ^ | January 6, 2005 | GINA KOLATA

Posted on 01/05/2005 4:19:08 PM PST by neverdem

Reducing the levels of a protein secreted by the body during inflammation may be as powerful in slowing heart disease and preventing heart attacks and deaths as lowering cholesterol, two teams of researchers are reporting.

The studies, published in Thursday's issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, provide the strongest evidence yet for the role of the protein, known as CRP for C-reactive protein, in heart disease. The participants were patients with severe heart disease who were taking high doses of statin drugs, which lower both cholesterol and CRP. Lower CRP levels, the researchers found, were linked to a slower progression of atherosclerosis and fewer heart attacks and deaths. And this effect was independent of cholesterol's effect on heart disease.

"What we now have is hard clinical evidence that reducing CRP is at least as important as lowering cholesterol," said Dr. Paul Ridker, of Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, who was the lead author on one of the studies.

But other heart disease researchers cautioned that more research was needed to prove that CRP directly causes heart disease. And most agreed that because the new studies involved only people with severe heart disease, it remains unknown whether healthy people would benefit from reducing their levels of CRP.

Still, the study investigators said they suspect that the results will be shown to apply more broadly. If they are correct, it could open a huge new market for the already popular statins - people whose cholesterol levels are normal but who have high levels of CRP. Of people who have heart attacks, half have normal cholesterol readings.

Dr. Ridker's study addressed the question of whether CRP levels independently predicted heart attacks and deaths. The second study, by Dr. Steven Nissen of the Cleveland Clinic and his colleagues, asked whether CRP independently predicted heart disease progression.

In both cases, the investigators concluded, the answer was yes. They, like most researchers in this field, have received support from drug companies and Dr. Ridker also is an inventor of a test for CRP, which his university licensed. He and his lab profit from the use of the test.

CRP is made in the liver and also in the walls of coronary arteries and possibly elsewhere in the body. Its levels, which can be measured with a simple blood test, often rise and remain high in patients who have chronic inflammation from conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, for example, or periodontal disease. Patients with chronic inflammation also have an increased risk of heart disease. Some heart disease experts said the new studies offered persuasive evidence that doctors should focus on keeping CRP levels low in patients with severe disease.

"This is missing link evidence," said Dr. Sidney Smith, a cardiologist at the University of North Carolina who is a past president of the American Heart Association and co-chairman of a committee of the heart association and the American College of Cardiology that that sets treatment guidelines.

But others said that CRP could instead be a marker for something else that statin drugs are doing to reduce heart disease risk.

"These are very important papers," said Dr. James Cleeman, who is coordinator of the National Cholesterol Education Program at the National Heart, and Blood Institute. "They are provocative. But we need to recognize that the relationship between CRP and heart disease is a developing story. This adds to the evidence but I'm not sure it settles the issue."

CRP levels in healthy young people are low, usually less than 1 milligram per liter of blood, but they rise with age and with obesity, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary life. A third of the population has levels greater than 3, which have been associated with heart disease risk, Dr. Ridker said.

If people lose weight, stop smoking, exercise or take oral diabetes drugs, their CRP levels fall.

The evidence is increasing that CRP and heart disease are somehow linked. More than 30 studies have found that the higher the level of CRP, the greater the risk of heart disease and that CRP predicts risk independently of other factors, including cholesterol. Scientists have developed hypotheses to explain why, proposing that the protein could cause plaque to develop in coronary arteries, leading plaque to burst open and blood clots to form that then block arteries and cause heart attacks.

Some drug companies have started programs to develop drugs that specifically target CRP and prevent its synthesis.

But what these findings mean remains uncertain. The fact that CRP levels drop with exercise and weight loss, for example, has led some experts to argue that the protein is a marker of heart disease risk, not a cause, as gray hair is a marker but not a cause of aging .

CRP was discovered about 70 years ago by scientists who were trying to understand why some strep bacteria caused disease and others did not. It was named because it was found in the third band on an electrophoresis gel, referred to as band C by scientists. About half a century ago, doctors noticed that CRP flooded the blood after a heart attack and, for a while, they used it to help diagnose heart attacks.

Dr. Ridker's study involved 3,745 patients who had been hospitalized with heart attacks or severe chest pain from blocked coronary arteries and then were followed for two and a half years. Dr. Ridker said that when the study, sponsored by Bristol-Myers Squibb, was being planned several years ago, the thought was that it would ask whether moderate statin therapy - 40 milligrams a day with the company's Pravachol - was as effective in preventing heart attacks as more intense therapy with 80 milligrams a day of Pfizer's statin, Lipitor.

"I said, 'This is a good study, but it can be better,' " Dr. Ridker said. He proposed also asking about CRP - would people in the study with lower CRP levels have fewer heart attacks and deaths?

"My idea at the time was that I would be happy to find a 10 percent residual benefit or a 20 percent residual benefit," from low CRP levels, Dr. Ridker said. "We never dreamed we'd get a risk reduction as large as the risk reduction from lowering LDL cholesterol."

Dr. Nissen's study, sponsored by Pfizer, examined plaque in the coronary arteries of 502 patients with heart disease, comparing intense to moderate statin therapy and using the same doses of the same drugs as Dr. Ridker's study used. Intense therapy resulted in lower cholesterol levels and slower growth of plaque, Dr. Nissen reported. But he also suspected that something else was going on, because some patients seemed to be doing much better than others with the same cholesterol levels.

Upon further analysis, Dr. Nissen found that levels of CRP dropped independently of cholesterol, and were independently associated with a slowing of disease progression. In patients who achieved both low levels of CRP and low levels of cholesterol, plaque actually regressed in their coronary arteries, Dr. Nissen found.

"I'm looking right at the plaque and when your CRP level is reduced, you are stopping the disease," Dr. Nissen said. "We are saying that CRP is a direct participant in atherosclerosis."

The next step, Dr. Ridker said, is to see if reducing CRP levels can prevent heart attacks in healthy people. His new study will enroll 15,000 people with normal cholesterol levels but higher than average levels of CRP, above 2 milligrams per liter of blood. The participants will be randomly assigned to take 20 milligrams a day of a statin, AstraZeneca's Crestor, or a placebo.

Some experts say the new findings make it clear that doctors should monitor CRP levels in patients with severe heart disease and do whatever it takes, including giving high doses of the most powerful statins, to get levels below 2 milligrams per liter of blood.

"What these two papers are saying is that not only is CRP a risk factor on its own, but we should be aggressively treating it," said Dr. Valentin Fuster, a past president of the American Heart Association and director of the cardiovascular institute at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York.

But Dr. Daniel Rader, a heart disease researcher at the University of Pennsylvania, said that may not be so easy in patients who are already doing everything possible.

"You've already counseled them about life style, you've already given a statin, you're already targeting LDL cholesterol to less than 70," a very low level that is recommended by the current guidelines," he said. "So if you find a high CRP, what do you do? Do you tell the patient, 'Oh, this is bad. You're at high risk?' "

A difficult question, Dr. Ridker said, but one he predicted will not arise too often.

Most patients with severe heart disease are not taking high doses of statins, he said, so there is room for doctors to experiment with higher doses and different drugs to reduce CRP levels, if necessary.

"There is a huge payoff if physicians understand that they need to titrate not just the cholesterol but also the CRP," Dr. Ridker said. "That alone will save tens of thousands of lives, right there."


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Culture/Society; Government; News/Current Events; US: District of Columbia; US: New York; US: North Carolina; US: Ohio
KEYWORDS: cad; chd; crp; health; healthcare; heart; heartdisease; inflammation; medicine
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1 posted on 01/05/2005 4:19:12 PM PST by neverdem
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To: neverdem

bttt


2 posted on 01/05/2005 4:22:24 PM PST by netmilsmom (God send you a Blessed 2005!)
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To: neverdem

BTTT for later


3 posted on 01/05/2005 4:22:46 PM PST by EdReform (Free Republic - helping to keep our country a free republic. Thank you for your financial support!)
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To: neverdem

FINALLY....my friends and family won't think I'm crazy.....I've been recommending CRP checks for 5 plus years....it's a measure of INFLAMMATION.....whether in the heart or elsewhere....and IT MATTERS!


4 posted on 01/05/2005 4:24:06 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: El Gato; JudyB1938; Ernest_at_the_Beach; Robert A. Cook, PE; lepton; LadyDoc; jb6; tiamat; PGalt; ..

FReepmail me if you want on or off my health and science ping list.


5 posted on 01/05/2005 4:27:41 PM PST by neverdem (May you be in heaven a half hour before the devil knows that you're dead.)
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To: neverdem

placemarker


6 posted on 01/05/2005 4:27:49 PM PST by Lil'freeper (Error 404. The page you requested was not found.)
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To: neverdem

Oh, another scare campaign to stampede the unintelligent to their doctors for another useless test.


7 posted on 01/05/2005 4:31:20 PM PST by snopercod (I want to see Arthur C. Clarke out there with a shovel cleaning up debris)
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To: snopercod
Oh, another scare campaign to stampede the unintelligent to their doctors for another useless test.

Agreed.

8 posted on 01/05/2005 4:39:08 PM PST by Fiddlstix (This Tagline for sale. (Presented by TagLines R US))
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To: snopercod
Oh, another scare campaign to stampede the unintelligent to their doctors for another useless test.

How about offering some data to back up your statement
9 posted on 01/05/2005 4:48:11 PM PST by uncbob
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To: Fiddlstix

Husband had okey Cholestrol test but high CRP so Dr. wanted him on cholestrol lowering drugs for rest of life. Only 50% of high Cholestrolers have consequences so didn't make sense. Did research, found CRP was indication of chronic inflamation. Found he had gengivitis. Not on meds and doing great. Bottom line for me - solve the problem, don't just medicate to mask it.


10 posted on 01/05/2005 4:53:24 PM PST by pacpam (action=consequence applies in all cases)
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To: goodnesswins

I can see this might help prevent heart disease but How can this therapy benefit a person with a severely damaged heart.


11 posted on 01/05/2005 4:57:30 PM PST by tubebender (If I had know I would live this long I would have taken better care of myself...)
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To: neverdem

ping


12 posted on 01/05/2005 4:57:44 PM PST by boycott
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To: goodnesswins

Is a CRP check done through a blood test?


13 posted on 01/05/2005 5:05:36 PM PST by CaptainK
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To: tubebender

See Post 10.....CRP is an indication of "inflammation." Need to find that inflammation and deal with it, and personally, I do NOT believe STATINS are the way to do that. In other words, I don't agree with THIS therapy at all.....especially for someone with a severly damaged heart......UNLESS they are too lazy to do what it takes to find out what's really wrong....like...maybe DIET?


14 posted on 01/05/2005 5:07:23 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: CaptainK

YES, CRP is done through a blood check.


15 posted on 01/05/2005 5:07:45 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: pacpam
VERY GOOD. Get to the Root Cause, and not Symptom management that is all the AMA wants to do --- ie: SELL DRUGS.
16 posted on 01/05/2005 5:12:25 PM PST by Phyto Chems (Convert or DIE is there call --- but I will remember Nick Berg & now Paul Johnson and .....)
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To: goodnesswins

I just had lab workup as follow up to bypass surgery in July. Will I find CPR numbers on the report?


17 posted on 01/05/2005 6:08:50 PM PST by tubebender (If I had know I would live this long I would have taken better care of myself...)
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To: tubebender

NOT unless it was ordered.....some docs are "with it" and a lot more are not. ASK your doctor!!! And if he says NO, you don't need it....find another doctor. BACKGROUND: I was recently diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis ....my CRP was negligible one year ago....less than pt. 1.....when it was checked in October it was 1.7.....I have SOME kind of inflammation problem going on, obviously.....since it increased by 17 times.....(It's now back down, or was recently, although I'm still fighting some kind of inflammation or something.)


18 posted on 01/05/2005 6:41:55 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: goodnesswins
Put everybody with high CRP on doxycycline or similar benign anti-biotics. Some docs advocate this for BOTH rheumatoid arthritis as well as heart disease, believing that certain microbacteria cause the inflammation in joints as well as arteries:

Google search: chlamydia heart disease CRP

19 posted on 01/05/2005 7:13:17 PM PST by St. Johann Tetzel (A fool can ask more questions than a wise man can answer -or- Not every question deserves an answer.)
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To: neverdem; All

Interesting post. Thanks for the ping;comments.


20 posted on 01/05/2005 7:26:15 PM PST by PGalt
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To: St. Johann Tetzel

YES....I am on doxycycline ....I refused to go the HEAVY DRUG route....after doing research of my own, and finding a like minded doctor. (Too bad it takes soooo long to make you feel better, though!)


21 posted on 01/05/2005 7:28:56 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: goodnesswins

I was recently diagnosed with RA also, but because I have been taking aspirin 3x day for ordinary arthritis, I still had a low CRP. I now take it 4x per day, on schedule and with food.

Statins aren't the only way to lower CRP. ;-D


22 posted on 01/05/2005 7:30:33 PM PST by Judith Anne (Thank you St. Jude for favors granted.)
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To: neverdem

btt


23 posted on 01/05/2005 7:32:01 PM PST by Ciexyz (I use the term Blue Cities, not Blue States. PA is red except for Philly, Pgh & Erie)
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To: Judith Anne

How's your stomach doing? And, how's your RA? (My condolences for the diagnosis....I KNOW what IT'S like!)


24 posted on 01/05/2005 7:33:02 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: goodnesswins

It apparently works better when combined with Roxithromycin. Ask your doc if he's willing to try combined therapy.


25 posted on 01/05/2005 7:49:44 PM PST by St. Johann Tetzel (A fool can ask more questions than a wise man can answer -or- Not every question deserves an answer.)
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To: Judith Anne

The aspirin will reduce the inflammation but not kill the microbacteria that is probably causing the inflammation. Ask your doc about adding an antibiotic like doxycycline.


26 posted on 01/05/2005 7:51:27 PM PST by St. Johann Tetzel (A fool can ask more questions than a wise man can answer -or- Not every question deserves an answer.)
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To: St. Johann Tetzel

Are YOU a doctor?....I've done LOTS of research...never heard of Roxithromycin.....going to check now. THANKS.


27 posted on 01/05/2005 7:53:41 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: St. Johann Tetzel

RA is an auto immune disease caused by a prior strep infection long gone.


28 posted on 01/05/2005 7:53:52 PM PST by spunkets
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To: spunkets

RA could be MANY things.....what makes you so CERTAIN it's from "strep?"


29 posted on 01/05/2005 8:04:06 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: goodnesswins
"RA could be MANY things.....what makes you so CERTAIN it's from "strep?""

Arthritis is caused by many things. Rhumatoid arthritis is a specific arthritis caused by strep infection. It is a unique arthritis with it's own characteristics. Other organisms, such as B. burgdorferi, (lyme disease) can cause similar autoimmume diease.

30 posted on 01/05/2005 8:12:03 PM PST by spunkets
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To: spunkets

Hmmmm....so YOU are a doctor? If it's caused by strep (which I had when I was in my 20's).....and it comes back to haunt you by the immune system.....then WHY don't doctors SAY that? NO doctor I've read of, talked to, or heard of has EVER said "strep" was the cause of RA....in fact, I'll go to the roadback.org....and see what everyone THERE says.


31 posted on 01/05/2005 8:15:25 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: goodnesswins

I went and reviewd "The New Arthritis Breakthrough" Book I have....and Yes, strep CAN be an RA instigator, but I doubt that it ALWAYS is....if it is, amoxicillin should cure me, right?


32 posted on 01/05/2005 8:24:33 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: spunkets

Post 32 was for you.


33 posted on 01/05/2005 8:25:15 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: goodnesswins
The The arhtritis foundation says RA's cause is unknown. Historically RA got it's name from rheumatic fever. Most of the survivors end up with RA. Under causes at the AF site, mention is made at the end about infection, but the RA only appears afterward. The genetic section has some info, that may predispose some folks to rhumatic fever, or signiifcant strep infection and thus the link. Rheumatic fever is very contageous though and amongst the infected, RA is very high. Modern antibiotics have almost eliminated rheumatic fever. It only remains in folks that fail to treat step infections and allow them to complicate.

I'm not sure how similar the arthritis of RA and that from B.burg. are.

34 posted on 01/05/2005 8:40:52 PM PST by spunkets
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To: neverdem

Very interesting. I guess one can ask their doctor for a blood test that would indicate the levels discussed.


35 posted on 01/05/2005 8:48:31 PM PST by zeaal (SPREAD TRUTH!)
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To: goodnesswins
"amoxicillin should cure me, right?"

No. The infection is almost always gone, or at least almost total remission by the time RA developes. RA devlopes at a later time, sometimes decades after the infection. RA is actually an autoimmune disease where the body's own immune system is doing the attack and damage. It's usually controlled by reducing the immune response with corticosteroids and anti-inflamatories.

36 posted on 01/05/2005 8:54:22 PM PST by spunkets
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To: spunkets

Where do you get YOUR information? I will not use corticosteroids.....I WILL get to the bottom of the problem....likely mycoplasma within cells (strep gone hiding?)....


37 posted on 01/05/2005 8:58:14 PM PST by goodnesswins (Tax cuts, Tax reform, social security reform, Supreme Court, etc.....the next 4 years.....)
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To: neverdem; All
Purchase yourselves protease -- enzymes which not only reduce inflammation, but help digest proteins...

Infla-Zyme is one of more popular enzymes used here as well as in Europe.

38 posted on 01/05/2005 9:05:32 PM PST by F16Fighter
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To: goodnesswins
"Hmmmm....so YOU are a doctor?

No.

"If it's caused by strep (which I had when I was in my 20's).....and it comes back to haunt you by the immune system.....then WHY don't doctors SAY that?"

They do. Their lit. is where I got my info. From immunology and infectious disease lit., not athritis lit. My childhood doc also thought so.

"likely mycoplasma within cells (strep gone hiding?)."

There's no mycoplasma there. It's an immune attack on the synovia and smooth muscle at least. The joints and smooth muscle are usually aseptic-no bugs whatsoever. It's similar to MS, where intermittent immune attack occurs on the myelin sheaths of nerve cells.

"I will not use corticosteroids"

They are of little help in the long run. They are a short term fix that opens one up to infection, because of reduced immune response. Aspirin and nutrients, like geletin and glucosamine and chondroitin are effective in the long run. I know little of any other meds.

39 posted on 01/05/2005 9:27:00 PM PST by spunkets
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To: St. Johann Tetzel
"Put everybody with high CRP on doxycycline or similar benign anti-biotics. Some docs advocate this for BOTH rheumatoid arthritis as well as heart disease, believing that certain microbacteria cause the inflammation in joints as well as arteries: "

Could Lyme Disease cause this inflamation?

40 posted on 01/05/2005 9:53:02 PM PST by blam
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To: goodnesswins
This link from the AF illustrates the connection with strep I'm trying to convey. Here the link with infectious cause and immune system is clearer. They use the statement, "It sets off a disease process". The same happens in RA. It's just more complicated and subtle, with more unknowns and less understanding.

The article headlining this thread is about the recent hoopla over C reactive protein and atherosclerosis. Historically, all the clear evidence presenting itself to folks looking at atherosclerosis, was that of an immune reponse to the inner walls of arteries. That is what is observed at the beginning of and throughout the progression of the disease. Atherosclerotic plaques are not caused by junk food deposits. Their cause is unknown and the mechanism is immune attack. The initial disease starts with monocyte infiltration into the vessel walls. That is the beginning and bulk of the initial plaque.

41 posted on 01/05/2005 10:16:42 PM PST by spunkets
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To: blam
" Could Lyme Disease cause this inflamation?"

If the B. burgdorfi(sp) aren't killed right away during the initial primary stage of the disease, the joint attack is quite severe. The bug's a spirochete and like syphilis, the disease has 3 stages.

42 posted on 01/05/2005 10:21:21 PM PST by spunkets
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To: spunkets
" the disease has 3 stages."

I worry that I have it. What are the three stages?

43 posted on 01/05/2005 10:23:15 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
You could probably google up a site that has pics of the initial bite infection. It's a large bulleye lession. Clearing in the center and red cellulitis in a ring around the bite. You get very sick and after about a week to 2 weeks get severe joint pain also. It's crippling. Penicillin kills it fast. If you go through the first stage w/o the pen to kill the bugs, the damage is long lasting-on the order of years.

There's a blood test for ~$75, that can pick up bug antibodies. Pen. can then be given to kill the bugs to prevent further injury. I never noted that AL was in the disease range though. It's up here, so I have a bunch of pill bottles on the shelf, each containing one deer tick in case I ever got the bullseye, or sick.

44 posted on 01/05/2005 10:41:56 PM PST by spunkets
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To: blam

2nd stage is a kind of remission. In the 3rd, the bugs do some quick and severe destruction. THe range maps showing disease occurence stats are common on the better google links. CDC, NIH ect...


45 posted on 01/05/2005 10:45:50 PM PST by spunkets
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To: blam
You may have already found it...CDC link


46 posted on 01/05/2005 10:53:09 PM PST by spunkets
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To: neverdem
Dr. Linus Pauling had the answer for heart disease YEARS ago.

Daily Pauling Therapy - The Natural Cure for Heart Disease as Described by Linus Pauling on Video
VITAMIN C, NATURE'S MIRACULOUS HEALING MISSILE
Linus Pauling—Scientist for the Ages
Linus Pauling, PhD: The Last Interview
Linus Pauling on Heart Disease
The Famous Pauling/Rath Heart Disease Therapy
Vitamin C and Vascular Disease

47 posted on 01/05/2005 10:53:35 PM PST by NotJustAnotherPrettyFace (Michael <a href = "http://www.michaelmoore.com/" title="Miserable Failure">"Miserable Failure"</a>)
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To: neverdem

Ping


48 posted on 01/05/2005 11:27:29 PM PST by B.Bumbleberry
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To: goodnesswins

Please check out the links on my post #47.


49 posted on 01/06/2005 6:51:00 AM PST by NotJustAnotherPrettyFace (Michael <a href = "http://www.michaelmoore.com/" title="Miserable Failure">"Miserable Failure"</a>)
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To: pacpam

Exactly. But you and your husband might want to also check into the Dr. Pauling recommendations. (See post #47 above with the links.)


50 posted on 01/06/2005 6:52:04 AM PST by NotJustAnotherPrettyFace (Michael <a href = "http://www.michaelmoore.com/" title="Miserable Failure">"Miserable Failure"</a>)
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