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Alleged 40,000-Year-Old Human Footprints In Mexico Much, Much Older Than Thought
Eureka Alert/UC-Berkeley ^ | 11-30-2005 | Robert Sanders

Posted on 11/30/2005 11:24:19 AM PST by blam

Contact: Robert Sanders
rsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley

Alleged 40,000-year-old human footprints in Mexico much, much older than thought

Berkeley -- Alleged footprints of early Americans found in volcanic rock in Mexico are either extremely old - more than 1 million years older than other evidence of human presence in the Western Hemisphere - or not footprints at all, according to a new analysis published this week in Nature.

The study was conducted by geologists at the Berkeley Geochronology Center and the University of California, Berkeley, as part of an investigative team of geologists and anthropologists from the United States and Mexico.

Earlier this year, researchers in England touted these "footprints" as definitive proof that humans were in the Americas much earlier than 11,000 years ago, which is the accepted date for the arrival of humans across a northern land-bridge from Asia.

These scientists, led by geologist Silvia Gonzalez of Liverpool's John Moores University, dated the volcanic rock at 40,000 years old. They hypothesized that early hunters walked across ash freshly deposited near a lake by volcanoes that are still active in the area around Puebla, Mexico. The so-called footprints, subsequently covered by more ash and inundated by lake waters, eventually turned to rock.

But Paul Renne, director of the Berkeley Geochronology Center and an adjunct professor of earth and planetary science at UC Berkeley, and his colleagues in Mexico and at Texas A&M University report in the Dec. 1 issue of Nature a new age for the rock: about 1.3 million years.

"You're really only left with two possibilities," Renne said. "One is that they are really old hominids - shockingly old - or they're not footprints."

Renne's colleagues are Michael R. Waters, director of the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Texas A&M University; Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales and Mario Perez-Campa of the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology and History; Patricia Ochoa Castillo of the Mexican National Museum of Anthropology; and UC Berkeley graduate students Joshua M. Feinberg and Kim B. Knight. The Berkeley Geochronology Center, located a block from the UC Berkeley campus, is one of the world's preeminent anthropological dating laboratories.

Paleoanthropologist Tim White, professor of integrative biology at UC Berkeley, is familiar with the "so-called footprints" and knows Renne well, frequently collaborating with him in the dating of million-year-old sediments in an area of Ethiopia where White has excavated numerous fossils of human ancestors. He is not surprised at the new finding.

"The evidence (the British team) has provided in their arguments that these are footprints is not sufficient to convince me they are footprints," said White, who did not contribute to the new work that Renne's group is reporting in Nature. "The evidence Paul has produced by dating basically means that this argument is over, unless indisputable footprints can be found sealed within the ash."

Renne determined the new date using the argon/argon dating technique, which reliably dates rock as young as 2,000 years or as old as 4 billion years. The British-led researchers, however, relied mainly on carbon-14 dates of overlying sediments. Carbon-14 cannot reliably date materials older than about 50,000 years.

The idea for another test that, it turns out, throws more cold water on the footprint hypothesis came to Renne one morning in the shower. Many rocks retain evidence of their orientation at the moment they cool in the form of iron oxide grains magnetized in a direction parallel to the Earth's magnetic field at the time of cooling. Because the Earth's field has repeatedly flipped throughout the planet's history, it is possible to date rock based on its magnetic polarity.

Feinberg found that the rock grains in the volcanic ash had polarity opposite to the Earth's polarity today. Since the last magnetic pole reversal was 790,000 years ago, the rock must be at least that age. Because the Earth's magnetic polarity changes, on average, every 250,000 years, the argon/argon date is consistent with a time between 1.07 and 1.77 million years ago when the Earth's polarity was opposite to that of today.

Moreover, Feinberg found that each individual grain in the rock is magnetized in the same direction, meaning that the rock has not been broken up and reformed since it was deposited. This makes extremely unlikely the possibility that the original ash had been weathered into sand that early humans walked through before the sand was welded into rock again.

"Imagine two-millimeter-wide BBs cemented together where they're touching," Feinberg said. "The paleomagnetic data tell us that these things did not move around at all since they were deposited. They haven't been eroded and redeposited anywhere else. They fell while they were still hot, which raises the question of the validity of the footprints. If they were hot, why would anybody be walking on them?"

The British researchers, funded by the United Kingdom's Natural Environment Research Council, have promoted their hypothesis widely, most prominently at a July 4, 2005, presentation and press conference at the Royal Society's Summer Science Exhibition 2005 in London. The team, which includes Gonzalez as well as Professor David Huddart from John Moores University, also involves scientists from Bournemouth University, the University of Oxford and the Australian National University. They have yet to publish a peer-reviewed analysis of the footprints.

In all, the British team claims to have found 250 footprints - mostly human, but also dog, cat and cloven-hoofed animal prints - in a layer of volcanic ash deposited in a former lake bed now exposed near a reservoir outside Puebla. Its dating techniques returned a date of 40,000 years ago, in contrast to the oldest accepted human fossil from the Americas, an 11,500-year-old skull. This makes the rock "one of the most important areas in the study of early human occupation in the Americas and would support a much earlier human migration than is currently accepted," the team wrote.

One of the team members, Matthew Bennett of Bournemouth, was quoted on a Royal Society Web site as saying, "Accounting for the origin of these footprints would require a complete rethink on the timing, route and origin of the first colonization of the Americas."

Renne, Knight, Waters and the Mexico City archeologists visited the site at the Toluquilla quarry last year while collecting rocks from another anthropological site across the reservoir. Renne noted that the black, basaltic rock is very tough and is mined in slabs for building. Pre-Columbian Mexicans also constructed buildings from the rock, which they called xalnene, meaning "fine sand" in the Nahuatl language. Today, trucks headed toward the quarry routinely drive across the xalnene tuff in which the alleged footprints are found, and the rock itself is pockmarked with many depressions in addition to the alleged footprints.

"They're scattered all over, with no more than two or three in a straight line," which would be expected if someone had walked through the ash, Renne said. If the depressions were footprints, they could not have been made by modern humans, he noted, since even in Africa, Homo sapiens did not appear until about 160,000 years ago. Given the age of the volcanic rock and lacking other evidence of early human ancestors in the Americas 1.3 million years ago, the researchers wrote in their paper, "we consider such a possibility to be extremely remote."

Many paleontologists have withheld judgment on the alleged footprints, awaiting good geological dates, Feinberg said. "With this study, we're trying to nip any misrepresentation in the bud."

### The research was supported by the Center for the Study of the First Americans, the North Star Archaeological Research Program and the Berkeley Geochronology Center.


TOPICS: Mexico; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: 40000; alleged; footprints; godsgravesglyphs; human; mexico; much; old; older; than; thought; year
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1 posted on 11/30/2005 11:24:24 AM PST by blam
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To: blam

I can't help but say it... Were they heading north?


2 posted on 11/30/2005 11:26:42 AM PST by GAB-1955 (being dragged, kicking and screaming, into the Kingdom of Heaven....)
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To: GAB-1955

I wondered the same thing. Great minds and all that.


3 posted on 11/30/2005 11:27:18 AM PST by Gefreiter ("Are you drinking 1% because you think you're fat?")
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To: GAB-1955

LOL


4 posted on 11/30/2005 11:28:29 AM PST by Constitution Day
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To: blam

5 posted on 11/30/2005 11:32:00 AM PST by Boston Blackie
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To: blam

I told them to wipe their feet.


6 posted on 11/30/2005 11:33:12 AM PST by SmithL (There are a lot of people that hate Bush more than they hate terrorists)
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To: blam

Those are not Homo sapiens foot prints.

They are an unnamed pygmy species of the genus Bigfootus.


7 posted on 11/30/2005 11:33:25 AM PST by bert (K.E. ; N.P . Peta girls end up as spinsters)
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To: blam

Ancient Mexican footprints doing what ancient American footprints won't do.


8 posted on 11/30/2005 11:34:20 AM PST by Lockbar (March toward the sound of the guns.)
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To: SunkenCiv; Coyoteman

GGG Ping.


9 posted on 11/30/2005 11:34:54 AM PST by blam
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To: Gefreiter

I bet if the rock was hot enough that he left footprints we will find the guy soaking his feet in the Rio Bravo.


10 posted on 11/30/2005 11:36:54 AM PST by sgtbono2002
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To: blam

Evidence of the Elder Ones?


11 posted on 11/30/2005 11:38:25 AM PST by InsureAmerica (Evil? I have many words for it. We are as dust, to them. - v v putin)
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To: blam

"You're really only left with two possibilities," Renne said. "One is that they are really old hominids - shockingly old - or they're not footprints."

...or maybe a third possibility - that there was a flaw or error in the testing. Scientists must always include that possibility.


12 posted on 11/30/2005 11:40:17 AM PST by epluribus_2
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To: blam
"They fell while they were still hot, which raises the question of the validity of the footprints. If they were hot, why would anybody be walking on them?"

To get away from the volcano that was spewing the hot ash. Duh!

13 posted on 11/30/2005 11:40:48 AM PST by Ol' Dan Tucker (Karen Ryan reporting...)
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To: blam

I've read some really interesting stuff recently on the theory that the speed of light has been slowing down slightly since the beginning of the universe. If the universe is collapsing rather than expanding, it would explain why our aging tests always give these huge numbers. Something seems a little fishy to me. I think our cosmology is a little out of whack. It would also explain the red shift as light would have to "work" harder to push its way through more viscous collapsing space. Like a runner moving in a pool of gelatin. Who knows how old these footprints are. Most of our science is based upon a constant light speed.


14 posted on 11/30/2005 11:48:52 AM PST by emiller
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To: blam
If they were hot, why would anybody be walking on them?"

snip

In all, the British team claims to have found 250 footprints - mostly human, but also dog, cat and cloven-hoofed animal prints - in a layer of volcanic ash deposited in a former lake bed now exposed near a reservoir outside Puebla.

Not hot, but deposited in the water. I'd reckon they'd be walking 'cause they didn't have a car....

I love the way the evidence is dismissed because it does not fit the theoretical age bracket for hominids in the Western Hemisphere. How come horses could originate here and migrate elsewhere, but not humans?

15 posted on 11/30/2005 11:48:53 AM PST by Smokin' Joe (How often God must weep at humans' folly.)
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To: emiller

As a licensed cosmologist I take umbrage at the flippant remarks in this post.
My services have included some of the best minds in the universe including the Yeti, Mooseman, Al Sharpton among others. They all know a good cosmologist when they see one!


16 posted on 11/30/2005 12:05:05 PM PST by Duffboy
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To: epluribus_2

Time for a new calibration curve. Until then let me look at the pictures and I will decide for myself.


17 posted on 11/30/2005 12:06:05 PM PST by carumba
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To: Duffboy
As a licensed cosmologist

I need my toenails done.....how much do you charge.

18 posted on 11/30/2005 12:11:38 PM PST by Focault's Pendulum (I'm not a curmudgeon!!!! I've just been in a bad mood since '73)
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To: GAB-1955

Re: comments 2, 3, and 8. I just had to check before I said anything. Sure enough, beaten to the punch. I just knew FR was a place I belonged!


19 posted on 11/30/2005 12:31:23 PM PST by beelzepug (summer's over and I'm bummed)
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To: blam

Hmmmm . . .


20 posted on 11/30/2005 12:46:34 PM PST by BenLurkin (O beautiful for patriot dream - that sees beyond the years)
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To: blam

"They're scattered all over, with no more than two or three in a straight line," which would be expected if someone had walked through the ash,"

Oooh...Ahhh...oooh..ouch...oohshi....ahhh...oooh.


21 posted on 11/30/2005 12:56:27 PM PST by wildbill
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To: blam
Wow, out of Mexico and it's still going on.
22 posted on 11/30/2005 1:39:25 PM PST by Mike Darancette (Mesocons for Rice '08)
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To: emiller
If the universe is collapsing rather than expanding

Pragmatists agree that is just as bad as the expanding universe.

23 posted on 11/30/2005 1:43:50 PM PST by RightWhale (Repeal the law of the excluded middle)
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To: epluribus_2
"You're really only left with two possibilities," Renne said. "One is that they are really old hominids - shockingly old - or they're not footprints."

...or maybe a third possibility - that there was a flaw or error in the testing. Scientists must always include that possibility.

Sure, but they cited two separate lines of evidence that it couldn't be 40,000 years old: Argon-argon dating, and the paleomagnetic signature.

And as they mention, argon/argon "reliably dates rock as young as 2,000 years or as old as 4 billion years", while the initial 40,000 year old figure came from carbon-14 dating of a different layer above the "footprints".

I'm disappointed that they didn't mention any evidence regarding the footprints themselves, especially since "the British team claims to have found 250 footprints - mostly human, but also dog, cat and cloven-hoofed animal prints." Surely with such a variety of prints, they should be able to decide if at least some of them are legitimate. (But I guess that's not that team's specialty, so they left that up to someone else to examine.)

Another question: Does volcanic ash really have to be hot in order for a footprint to get impressed in it? How long does it take for ash to solidify? I'd expect the ash to take a footprint long after it's cooled down enough to walk on, especially if it was a shallow layer of ash.

24 posted on 11/30/2005 1:44:06 PM PST by jennyp (WHAT I'M READING NOW: Art of Unix Programming by Raymond)
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To: PatrickHenry

Genuine-scientific-controversy BUMP.


25 posted on 11/30/2005 1:44:49 PM PST by jennyp (WHAT I'M READING NOW: Art of Unix Programming by Raymond)
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To: wildbill

Any two would be in a straight line. Three, though, that means these hominids were broken-field running.


26 posted on 11/30/2005 1:46:52 PM PST by RightWhale (Repeal the law of the excluded middle)
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To: blam

27 posted on 11/30/2005 1:47:04 PM PST by Slicksadick (Go out on a limb........Its where the fruit is.)
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To: Slicksadick

28 posted on 11/30/2005 1:49:09 PM PST by Slicksadick (Go out on a limb........Its where the fruit is.)
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To: blam
quote These scientists, led by geologist Silvia Gonzalez of Liverpool's John Moores University, dated the volcanic rock at 40,000 years old. They hypothesized that early hunters walked across ash freshly deposited near a lake by volcanoes that are still active in the area around Puebla, Mexico. The so-called footprints, subsequently covered by more ash and inundated by lake waters, eventually turned to rock.

But Paul Renne, director of the Berkeley Geochronology Center and an adjunct professor of earth and planetary science at UC Berkeley, and his colleagues in Mexico and at Texas A&M University report in the Dec. 1 issue of Nature a new age for the rock: about 1.3 million years.

WOW, the accuracy of scientific dating of materials is astounding. Imagine if your car's engine tolerances was between 4mm and 130mm. Scientific precision...I think not.

29 posted on 11/30/2005 1:50:20 PM PST by Surtur (Free Trade is NOT Fair Trade unless both economies are equivalent.)
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To: blam

Wrong again Darwinists.


30 posted on 11/30/2005 1:51:58 PM PST by balch3
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To: Slicksadick

Looks like a damn good set of footprints to me. Of course these guys were a bit sloth toed based on the prints.


31 posted on 11/30/2005 1:56:13 PM PST by Centurion2000 ((Aubrey, Tx) --- America, we get the best government corporations can buy.)
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To: Centurion2000

they did not burn their feet?


32 posted on 11/30/2005 1:59:18 PM PST by sit-rep (If you acquire, hit it again to verify...)
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To: GAB-1955

But North would be South back then.


33 posted on 11/30/2005 2:06:35 PM PST by CJ Wolf (BTW can someone add 'zot' to the FR spellchecker?)
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To: jennyp
"Does volcanic ash really have to be hot in order for a footprint to get impressed in it? How long does it take for ash to solidify? I'd expect the ash to take a footprint long after it's cooled down enough to walk on, especially if it was a shallow layer of ash."

I'm not an expert but, I expect it does not have to be hot. In fact, it would probably be better if it were a little damp.

34 posted on 11/30/2005 2:12:29 PM PST by blam
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To: Slicksadick

Are these the prints from Mexico mentioned in this article.


35 posted on 11/30/2005 2:15:11 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
The British team claiming 40,000 years has a good website. Here's the Research page with links to pages on the footprints themselves, and the various dating methods they used. They used several it turns out. They make an excellent case that the ash is at least 38,000 years old, IMO. Also, on their homepage, they have a response to this new study.
36 posted on 11/30/2005 2:17:38 PM PST by jennyp (WHAT I'M READING NOW: Art of Unix Programming by Raymond)
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To: Slicksadick
Those aren't the Puebla footprints, are they? The footprints shown on the British group's webpage look much more ambiguous than these.
37 posted on 11/30/2005 2:20:02 PM PST by jennyp (WHAT I'M READING NOW: Art of Unix Programming by Raymond)
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To: blam
Are these the prints from Mexico mentioned in this article.

LOL, GMTA. I don't think they are.

38 posted on 11/30/2005 2:20:45 PM PST by jennyp (WHAT I'M READING NOW: Art of Unix Programming by Raymond)
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To: blam

Any taco wrappers found nearby?


39 posted on 11/30/2005 2:21:11 PM PST by reelfoot
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To: blam

Question:

If the magnetic field flips every 250,000 years . . .

. . . How can the last flip be 790,000 years ago?


40 posted on 11/30/2005 2:22:30 PM PST by Petruchio ( ... .--. .- -.-- / .- -. -.. / -. . ..- - . .-. / .. .-.. .-.. . --. .- .-.. / .- .-.. .. . -. ...)
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To: emiller

viscous collapsing space would be a great name for a rock band


41 posted on 11/30/2005 2:29:00 PM PST by xp38
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To: jennyp
From Archaeology magazine.

Insider: Fantastic Footprints

Volume 58 Number
5, September/October 2005

(Bournemouth University) Geologist Matthew Bennett of Bournemouth University used 3-D laser scanning to create a cast of what some say is a 40,000-year-old human footprint found in Mexico.

(© Sylvia Gonzalez)

A team of British and Mexican researchers led by geoarchaeologist Sylvia Gonzalez of Liverpool John Moores University surprised the world this summer with the announcement of their discovery of 40,000-year-old human footprints in an abandoned quarry south of Mexico City. That date would put humans in the Americas some 27,000 years before the earliest widely accepted site, Monte Verde, Chile, which dates to 12,500 years ago.

The team, which discovered the prints on the quarry surface in 2003, believes that the more than 200 human and animal footprints were made in a layer of volcanic ash following an eruption in the Toluquilla Basin 40,000 years ago; following the eruption, the rising waters of a nearby lake covered and preserved the hardened ash layer. On their website, www.mexicanfootprints.co.uk, the team reports they used at least five different techniques to date the deposits, including carbon-dating shells found in the ash as well as direct dating of the deposits using Optically Stimulated Luminescence, which can determine the time elapsed since minerals in soil were exposed to sunlight.

But despite the team's emphasis on using multiple dating methods and careful analysis of the footprints themselves, many scholars are leery of the pronouncements from Gonzalez's team. "As far as the Toluquilla footprints go, the key here is publication in a peer-reviewed journal," says Michael Collins, a Paleoindian expert at the Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory at the University of Texas, Austin. (ARCHAEOLOGY has learned that the team's paper was rejected twice by Nature, one of the world's premier peer-reviewed scientific journals, though it is said to be slated for publication in Quaternary Science Review.) "All the information out there so far is in the news media. This team, which is well-funded, has relied heavily on press releases in the past instead of publishing in refereed journals. That's not the way to do it. You can't do science by press release," says Collins, who also questions the dates obtained by the team by carbon-dating shells, which he says could have been deposited before or after the eruption. "I guess it's possible, but the dating sounds shaky. Again, I'm just going off a press release here, but the footprints are so ambiguous, and the dating is so totally questionable, that I have to say it doesn't deserve the attention it's received by media outlets like the BBC."

The ambiguity of the footprints is also an issue for Paul Renne, a geologist and the lab director at UC Berkeley's Geochronology Center. "If these were really footprints, it would be very exciting. But I visited the site last summer, and what I saw were scuff marks--impressions that could have been made by machinery or grazing animals," he says. "The area has been a dump and quarried for building stone. I saw nothing that I thought was even moderately convincing. Now, maybe I didn't see the optimal stuff--that's a possibility. But the surface is so disturbed that the only thing to do is to excavate fresh material that is unimpeachably undisturbed. There is also some question about whether this deposit is 40,000 years old. It may be as old as 500,000 years, in which case if they were human footprints...that would be something."

Human trackways are nothing new to archaeology. The Sistine Chapel of archaeological footprints are the 3.5 million-year-old Laetoli trackways, discovered in Tanzania in 1976 by a team led by Mary Leakey. Bruce Latimer, director of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and a specialist in the evolution of hominid locomotion has studied the Laetoli tracks. "A human footprint is unlike any other footprint made by any creature. It is unmistakable. The only thing close is a degraded ostrich print. And my feeling is, if you have to equivocate about it, it's probably not human," he says. "From what I've seen of the Mexican footprints, [the researchers] don't yet have one good print that you can say, 'that's human.' Now take Laetoli--those are clear as can be. You could find those on a modern-day beach. If the footprint images they are releasing are the best they have...I don't think we are looking at human footprints." Latimer adds that "there are no ostriches in Mexico, either."

While issues of dating will have to wait for publication in a scientific journal, there soon may be a way for anyone who has an interest in the footprints to have an up-close look at the site and arrive at their own conclusion. Geologist Matthew Bennett of Bournemouth University, who discovered the tracks together with Gonzalez and David Huddart (also of Liverpool John Moores), is heading up an innovative program of mapping and scanning at the site. "In detective stories you always read about plaster casts being made of footprints," he says. "But we used a 3-D laser scanner to make submillimeter-perfect reconstructions. During fieldwork this coming January we will be doing a 100 percent scan of the entire surface of the quarry to create a complete and perfect record of the footprints. Then it will be put on a Mexican web site and anyone will be able to visit the site in virtual reality for themselves."

© 2005 by the Archaeological Institute of America www.archaeology.org/0509/newsbriefs/insider.html

42 posted on 11/30/2005 2:32:57 PM PST by blam
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To: Petruchio
If the magnetic field flips every 250,000 years . . .

. . . How can the last flip be 790,000 years ago?

The article said "average". Which means we're overdue.
43 posted on 11/30/2005 2:41:02 PM PST by jennyp (WHAT I'M READING NOW: Art of Unix Programming by Raymond)
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To: blam
"One is that they are really old hominids - shockingly old - or they're not footprints."

My bet is that they are not footprints at all. It strains reason to suppose hominids were in the western hemisphere 1,000,000 years ago.

44 posted on 11/30/2005 2:44:59 PM PST by muir_redwoods (Free Sirhan Sirhan, after all, the bastard who killed Mary Jo Kopechne is walking around free)
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To: blam; Dinobot
Uh-oh, no peer-reviewed article yet, cuz it was rejected twice by Nature? Not a good sign. What's the reputation of "Quaternary Science Review"?

Dinobot, what do you think about all this?

45 posted on 11/30/2005 2:46:26 PM PST by jennyp (WHAT I'M READING NOW: Art of Unix Programming by Raymond)
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To: muir_redwoods
It strains reason to suppose hominids were in the western hemisphere 1,000,000 years ago.

That part actually doesn't bother me any. Homo erectus spread throughout Europe, Asia, & Africa from about 2mya to 500,000 ya, so if some of them ended up on this continent too, I wouldn't be too surprised.

46 posted on 11/30/2005 2:49:46 PM PST by jennyp (WHAT I'M READING NOW: Art of Unix Programming by Raymond)
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To: muir_redwoods

The spacing is a perfect human stride, footprints appear to be left, right, left etc... They have found fossil records and other evidence of humans that are over 200,000 years old. Who knows this might be true.


47 posted on 11/30/2005 2:51:10 PM PST by BushCountry (They say the world has become too complex for simple answers. They are wrong.)
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To: Duffboy
As a licensed cosmologist I take umbrage at the flippant remarks in this post.

Where do you buy your cosmoline? Since my local Army-Navy Store went out of business I haven't seen any.

48 posted on 11/30/2005 2:54:29 PM PST by Bernard Marx (Don't make the mistake of interpreting my Civility as Servility)
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To: jennyp
...some of them ended up on this continent too, I wouldn't be too surprised."

How would they have gotten here? This is long after the separation of the continents and the so-called Bering bridge may not have ever existed. I don't think pre-human hominids would have been building boats.

49 posted on 11/30/2005 2:56:15 PM PST by muir_redwoods (Free Sirhan Sirhan, after all, the bastard who killed Mary Jo Kopechne is walking around free)
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To: blam
Since the last magnetic pole reversal was 790,000 years ago, the rock must be at least that age. Because the Earth's magnetic polarity changes, on average, every 250,000 years

We're half a million years overdue for the poles to reverse their magnetic charge?

Uh-oh.

50 posted on 11/30/2005 2:57:15 PM PST by Argus
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