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Ancient Massacre Discovered in New Mexico -- Was It Genocide?
National Geographic ^ | 7-12-2007 | Blake d Pastino

Posted on 07/13/2007 2:40:09 PM PDT by blam

Ancient Massacre Discovered in New Mexico -- Was It Genocide?

Blake de Pastino in Jemez Springs, New Mexico
National Geographic News

July 12, 2007

Seven skeletons discovered in a remote New Mexico canyon were victims of a brutal massacre that may have been part of an ancient campaign of genocide, archaeologists say.

The victims—five adults, one child, and one infant—were members of an obscure native culture known as the Gallina, which occupied a small region of northwestern New Mexico around A.D. 1100 (see New Mexico map).

The culture suddenly vanished around 1275, as the last of its members either left the region or were "wiped out," archaeologists say.

The newfound skeletons could provide crucial clues to the people's mysterious fate, since scarcely more than a hundred Gallina remains have ever been found, said Tony Largaespada, an archaeologist with the U.S. Forest Service who made the discovery in 2005.

"Almost all of [the Gallina ever found] were murdered," he said. "[Someone] was just killing them, case after case, every single time."

Greg Nelson, a physical anthropologist at the University of Oregon, studied the newly unearthed skeletons and said they paint a macabre picture of violence inflicted on both sexes and all age groups.

"It's pretty obvious that they were killed—they're people who were wiped out," he said.

One skeleton was found with a fractured skull, forearm, jaw, thighbone, pelvis, and several broken ribs, Nelson said. Another bore cut marks on the upper arm that suggest blows from an ax. The child, about two years old, had had its skull crushed (see photos of the massacre scene).

The findings are grimly consistent with previous reports from other Gallina sites, the pair said. But the new skeletons offer tantalizing signs of how unique the culture may have been.

In particular, the skulls of two of the victims have an "unusual" flattened shape that has never been seen before in the Southwest, the experts said.

Such signs of a distinctive culture may help explain why the group was so plagued by violent conflicts with neighboring groups. But the scientists stress that their research is ongoing, and the ancient murders remain unsolved for now.

"We just don't know right now," Nelson said. "The evidence indicates that somebody was going through and killing them. Why and to what extent? We're not sure." Unusual Murder Scene

Among the other peculiarities of the murder scene is the arrangement of two of the bodies, the scientists said.

The victims, an adult male and female, were found face down and doubled over, their heads snapped back so far that their skulls rested between their shoulder blades (see how the bodies were found).

The bodies may have been deliberately posed, or the victims may have been crouching in defense when their necks were broken, Nelson noted.

But none of the seven dead appears to have been buried, suggesting that the group was struck by a swift attack.

"Normally when you bury people, you extend them, you flex them, you do these kinds of things—you don't bury them on their knees with their heads snapped back," he said. "So right away you know something screwy is going on."

Other evidence includes what appear to be the ruins of a burned pit house, or dugout dwelling, nearby.

"Why these [victims] were outside the house is kind of a mystery," Largaespada said. "Usually [attackers] threw [Gallina victims] in their houses and burned the houses on top of them. That's the case with 90 percent of them.

"But in this particular case they were thrown in a pile outside the house. … More than likely there are others [nearby]."

Largaespada discovered the grisly scene in October 2005 when he and a team were reburying a Gallina skeleton that had been in storage at his Forest Service office in the town of Jemez Springs.

When he arrived at the site where the bones were originally excavated, he saw evidence of other bodies eroding out of the road bank.

"So we set up our unit and [dug] down, and the first thing we saw was two skulls. Then it was three individuals. Then we found the baby. And it just kept multiplying from there."

Summer rains in May 2006 ended the dig, which the Forest Service had authorized as a small-scale emergency excavation.

Largaespada and Nelson are awaiting funding to continue their investigation of the site, as well as other unexcavated Gallina ruins nearby, which they say are probably plentiful along the rocky ridges of northern New Mexico.

"I bet there's a house on every one of these peaks around here," Largaespada said.

Was It Genocide?

Traces of the Gallina culture were first discovered in the 1930s by archaeologists working just a few miles from the newfound massacre site.

Scientists at the time described excavating a 25-foot-tall (7.6-meter-tall) circular stone tower that held the remains of 16 people, all of whom bore signs of gruesome deaths (see a picture of the tower ruins).

Since then several Gallina sites have been excavated, but scholarship on the culture's origins and demise have been limited, Nelson noted.

"Because not much has been done for a long time, it's almost like a whole debate should be renewed—where they came from, what happened to them," he said.

The duo reported their discovery this spring at meetings of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and the Paleopathology Association.

In their study, they write that the culture's disappearance was "possibly the result of genocide," reflecting the prevailing theory of the Gallina's demise, they said.

But whether the Gallina were the victims of true genocide—the extermination of one ethnic group by another—is a matter of debate, the scientists said.

"It could've been internecine—it could've been within the Gallina," Nelson said.

A crucial factor, he explained, is the severe drought that struck the Southwest soon after the culture's appearance around A.D. 1100.

(Read related story: "Ancient 'Megadroughts' Struck U.S. West, Could Happen Again, Study Suggests" [May 24, 2007].)

"Beginning in 1100, 1150, you start getting real drought conditions, and the water table starts dropping. That means you're not able to grow as much corn. So there's a chance that this is [a sign of] intervillage resource-stress problems."

This "megadrought" is also known to have spurred mass migrations throughout the region, including the abandonment of massive settlements built by the Anasazi, such as the sophisticated pueblos at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.

(See a photo of Chaco Canyon.)

With such dire competition for water and land, the Gallina may have been particularly vulnerable if they were seen as outsiders with their own, isolated culture, the researchers speculated.

"Look at it from this perspective," Nelson said. "If you live in the area, you're growing your corn, and new people come in.

"Then the environment goes down the tubes. Let's blame the new people. We don't know you. Maybe you speak a different dialect. And we can't grow our corn anymore. You must be witches, so we're just going to kill you."

Mystery of Deformed Skulls

Heather Edgar is a curator at Albuquerque's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology who has inspected the newfound skeletons.

She says perhaps the most distinct clues revealed by the new discovery are the two deformed skulls that Nelson first observed.

"It's not just him that sees [the deformation]," she said. "It's there."

The skulls are flattened on the back, just below the crown, Nelson explained. The deformation must have occurred during infancy, when the victims' skull bones were soft and malleable.

Both Nelson and Edgar said it's too soon to determine whether the deformations were intentional or merely the result of cradleboarding, the practice of carrying babies on boards strapped to mothers' backs.

"I could think of ways it could have been accidentally made, and I could think of ways it could have been purposely made, but the flattening is there," she said.

Edgar added that the duo's ongoing investigation of the massacre may provide the evidence needed to finally solve the mystery of the Gallina.

"I think the Gallina are an important point in the history of the area," she said. "Where did they come from, and where did they go?"

"Specifically the information that [Nelson and Largaespada] are working on is, where did they go?

"Did [the Gallina] contribute to a population that's alive today, and we just aren't aware of that? Or did they just move to another region? And there are theories out there that they were all massacred.

"Maybe the work they're doing can help figure that out."

TOPICS: News/Current Events; US: New Mexico
KEYWORDS: anasazi; ancient; aztlan; barbarians; cannibalism; chacocanyon; fourcorners; genocide; godsgravesglyphs; massacre; mexicanbarbarians; newmexico; noblesavages; pueblo; savages
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To: everyone

Definitely not “genocide.” The perpetrators weren’t white.
Therefore, it was just part of their (superior) culture.

61 posted on 07/14/2007 4:46:42 PM PDT by California Patriot ("That's not Charley the Tuna out there. It's Jaws." -- Richard Nixon)
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To: Tijeras_Slim

***You’re thinking of HWY 344 which curves around South Mtn. This place was right off N-14.***

I camped out there one night about June 6 1971. I was able to see the forest fire in the Santa Fe NF from my camp.

62 posted on 07/14/2007 7:37:45 PM PDT by Ruy Dias de Bivar (When someone burns a cross on your lawn the best firehose is an AK-47.)
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To: Nucluside

All those links and not one showed the general location of the dig or area.

Also, can you help me on another search. In 1957, before the interstate roads, my dad took us on a trip from El Paso to Clifton AZ. Somewhere on the way we passed a big Indian ruin off on the right(east) of the road. It was on Private property so we took pictures and went on. We have lost those pictures. Do you know where I might be talking about?

I have always been interested in old ruins of such nature.

63 posted on 07/14/2007 7:45:27 PM PDT by Ruy Dias de Bivar (When someone burns a cross on your lawn the best firehose is an AK-47.)
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To: fish hawk
You poor prejudice, self righteous bass turd. I almost feel sorry for the likes of you.

Thanks for the sympathy. But save it for yourself. You need it a lot more than I.

You are so righteous you probably are thinking to yourself, boy did I really nail that idiot. I’m sorry you parents didn’t do a better job raising you.

I was raised by wolves.

Well at least your not a skin head neo/nazi.(I think) I’m printing out your reply so as to use it in a few classes as an example.

Dude, I don't know what class YOU could possibly be teaching, but you're doing your students a disservice. You have to be one of the most inarticulate, harebrained prigs I've seen on this website. Are you sure you didn't take a wrong turn at DU?

Seriously, if you're no better at teaching than you are at presenting your point, then you should not be influencing impressionable minds. Resign immediately.

64 posted on 07/14/2007 10:43:44 PM PDT by IronJack (=)
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To: fish hawk
I see this same BS crap on almost any article about American Indians.

Just reminding you about the old adage about never arguing with a fool...;)

The preachey ethnocentrists always seem to have forgotten about Salem and Auchwitz...

65 posted on 07/15/2007 5:18:28 AM PDT by elli1
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To: blam

That’s what I remember. That’s what I was looking for. Thanks. My point was simply, what happened to them? They got wiped out, probably with help of Indian invaders, same with the Kennewick people.

66 posted on 07/15/2007 11:06:36 AM PDT by Jabba the Nutt (Jabba the Hutt's bigger, meaner, uglier brother.)
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To: Squantos
I found so many skeletons in New Mexico I quit counting.......

I thought you meant you had gone through the closets in the State Capitol in SF.

67 posted on 07/15/2007 11:11:31 AM PDT by greyfoxx39
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To: Jabba the Nutt
Kuelap - The Machu Picchu Of Northern Peru (Chachapoyas - White, blonde haired people)
68 posted on 07/15/2007 11:26:57 AM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: Nucluside
I love visiting New Mexico. But you’re right, there is a moonbat infestation. :-))
69 posted on 07/15/2007 1:40:34 PM PDT by colorado tanker
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To: greyfoxx39

After Tony replaced everything with IBM’s I quit diggin......he ruined the place...........:o)

70 posted on 07/15/2007 2:07:22 PM PDT by Squantos (Be polite. Be professional. But, have a plan to kill everyone you meet. )
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To: Squantos


71 posted on 07/15/2007 2:28:38 PM PDT by greyfoxx39
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To: blam

Anasazis are interesting. It’s a Navajo word that means “Stranger” or “Not one of us”. Anasazi artifacts look like Celtic artifacts.

72 posted on 07/15/2007 3:18:25 PM PDT by Ptarmigan (Bunnies=Sodomites)
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To: Ptarmigan

Though Anasazi is has been in use for quite a while, it is the Navajo for “ancient enemies,” and is considered to be derogatory.

Archaeologists have been using “Ancestral Puebloans.” However modern researchers prefer either the Hopi term “Hisatsinom” - the “ancient people” or the Tewa language “Se’da” - the “ancient ones.”

Since the Navajo did not arrive in this area until about 1350 AD, their word “Anasazi” shows a previous relationship between the two peoples, and is a clue that should not be discarded.

73 posted on 07/15/2007 4:26:50 PM PDT by george76 (Ward Churchill : Fake Indian, Fake Scholarship, and Fake Art)
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To: blam

No matter which way you slice it, it was the “illegals”

74 posted on 07/15/2007 8:17:11 PM PDT by Mumbles (Because we disagree doesn't make you or me right. Treat each ther with respect.)
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To: george76
"Archaeologists have been using “Ancestral Puebloans.” However modern researchers prefer either the Hopi term “Hisatsinom” - the “ancient people” or the Tewa language “Se’da” - the “ancient ones.”"

That's the translation I've always read...The Ancient Ones.

75 posted on 07/15/2007 8:20:52 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: SunkenCiv

Most interesting.

76 posted on 07/15/2007 8:30:12 PM PDT by Ciexyz
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To: blam
We have several Hopi friends who strongly prefer Hisatsinom. These pueblo people translate the Navajo word Anasazi as enemy. They offer many reasons why.

They also believe that the Navajos ( descended from Alaska / Canada into the southwest in the 1600’s ? ) were their enemies for centuries. The Navajos killed the pueblo people, stole their food and livestock, stole their women and children into slavery, stole their home lands...

77 posted on 07/15/2007 9:53:58 PM PDT by george76 (Ward Churchill : Fake Indian, Fake Scholarship, and Fake Art)
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The ancient enemies are currently still fighting...

78 posted on 07/15/2007 10:24:45 PM PDT by george76 (Ward Churchill : Fake Indian, Fake Scholarship, and Fake Art)
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To: blam
B..Bu..But this can't be!!!

Everyone knows that native Americans were perfect paragons of virtue who did not observe the evil Christian religion and were carbon neutral!!!

79 posted on 07/15/2007 10:34:18 PM PDT by rhinohunter (...I'm not waiting on a lady...I'm just waiting on a Fred)
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To: Ciexyz

Thanks. george76’s link is also:

80 posted on 07/16/2007 9:05:37 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Friday the 13th, July 2007. Trisdecaphobia!
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