Skip to comments.Ancient Massacre Discovered in New Mexico -- Was It Genocide?
Posted on 07/13/2007 2:40:09 PM PDT by blam
Ancient Massacre Discovered in New Mexico -- Was It Genocide?
Blake de Pastino in Jemez Springs, New Mexico
National Geographic News
July 12, 2007
Seven skeletons discovered in a remote New Mexico canyon were victims of a brutal massacre that may have been part of an ancient campaign of genocide, archaeologists say.
The victimsfive adults, one child, and one infantwere members of an obscure native culture known as the Gallina, which occupied a small region of northwestern New Mexico around A.D. 1100 (see New Mexico map).
The culture suddenly vanished around 1275, as the last of its members either left the region or were "wiped out," archaeologists say.
The newfound skeletons could provide crucial clues to the people's mysterious fate, since scarcely more than a hundred Gallina remains have ever been found, said Tony Largaespada, an archaeologist with the U.S. Forest Service who made the discovery in 2005.
"Almost all of [the Gallina ever found] were murdered," he said. "[Someone] was just killing them, case after case, every single time."
Greg Nelson, a physical anthropologist at the University of Oregon, studied the newly unearthed skeletons and said they paint a macabre picture of violence inflicted on both sexes and all age groups.
"It's pretty obvious that they were killedthey're people who were wiped out," he said.
One skeleton was found with a fractured skull, forearm, jaw, thighbone, pelvis, and several broken ribs, Nelson said. Another bore cut marks on the upper arm that suggest blows from an ax. The child, about two years old, had had its skull crushed (see photos of the massacre scene).
The findings are grimly consistent with previous reports from other Gallina sites, the pair said. But the new skeletons offer tantalizing signs of how unique the culture may have been.
In particular, the skulls of two of the victims have an "unusual" flattened shape that has never been seen before in the Southwest, the experts said.
Such signs of a distinctive culture may help explain why the group was so plagued by violent conflicts with neighboring groups. But the scientists stress that their research is ongoing, and the ancient murders remain unsolved for now.
"We just don't know right now," Nelson said. "The evidence indicates that somebody was going through and killing them. Why and to what extent? We're not sure." Unusual Murder Scene
Among the other peculiarities of the murder scene is the arrangement of two of the bodies, the scientists said.
The victims, an adult male and female, were found face down and doubled over, their heads snapped back so far that their skulls rested between their shoulder blades (see how the bodies were found).
The bodies may have been deliberately posed, or the victims may have been crouching in defense when their necks were broken, Nelson noted.
But none of the seven dead appears to have been buried, suggesting that the group was struck by a swift attack.
"Normally when you bury people, you extend them, you flex them, you do these kinds of thingsyou don't bury them on their knees with their heads snapped back," he said. "So right away you know something screwy is going on."
Other evidence includes what appear to be the ruins of a burned pit house, or dugout dwelling, nearby.
"Why these [victims] were outside the house is kind of a mystery," Largaespada said. "Usually [attackers] threw [Gallina victims] in their houses and burned the houses on top of them. That's the case with 90 percent of them.
"But in this particular case they were thrown in a pile outside the house. More than likely there are others [nearby]."
Largaespada discovered the grisly scene in October 2005 when he and a team were reburying a Gallina skeleton that had been in storage at his Forest Service office in the town of Jemez Springs.
When he arrived at the site where the bones were originally excavated, he saw evidence of other bodies eroding out of the road bank.
"So we set up our unit and [dug] down, and the first thing we saw was two skulls. Then it was three individuals. Then we found the baby. And it just kept multiplying from there."
Summer rains in May 2006 ended the dig, which the Forest Service had authorized as a small-scale emergency excavation.
Largaespada and Nelson are awaiting funding to continue their investigation of the site, as well as other unexcavated Gallina ruins nearby, which they say are probably plentiful along the rocky ridges of northern New Mexico.
"I bet there's a house on every one of these peaks around here," Largaespada said.
Was It Genocide?
Traces of the Gallina culture were first discovered in the 1930s by archaeologists working just a few miles from the newfound massacre site.
Scientists at the time described excavating a 25-foot-tall (7.6-meter-tall) circular stone tower that held the remains of 16 people, all of whom bore signs of gruesome deaths (see a picture of the tower ruins).
Since then several Gallina sites have been excavated, but scholarship on the culture's origins and demise have been limited, Nelson noted.
"Because not much has been done for a long time, it's almost like a whole debate should be renewedwhere they came from, what happened to them," he said.
The duo reported their discovery this spring at meetings of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and the Paleopathology Association.
In their study, they write that the culture's disappearance was "possibly the result of genocide," reflecting the prevailing theory of the Gallina's demise, they said.
But whether the Gallina were the victims of true genocidethe extermination of one ethnic group by anotheris a matter of debate, the scientists said.
"It could've been internecineit could've been within the Gallina," Nelson said.
A crucial factor, he explained, is the severe drought that struck the Southwest soon after the culture's appearance around A.D. 1100.
(Read related story: "Ancient 'Megadroughts' Struck U.S. West, Could Happen Again, Study Suggests" [May 24, 2007].)
"Beginning in 1100, 1150, you start getting real drought conditions, and the water table starts dropping. That means you're not able to grow as much corn. So there's a chance that this is [a sign of] intervillage resource-stress problems."
This "megadrought" is also known to have spurred mass migrations throughout the region, including the abandonment of massive settlements built by the Anasazi, such as the sophisticated pueblos at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.
(See a photo of Chaco Canyon.)
With such dire competition for water and land, the Gallina may have been particularly vulnerable if they were seen as outsiders with their own, isolated culture, the researchers speculated.
"Look at it from this perspective," Nelson said. "If you live in the area, you're growing your corn, and new people come in.
"Then the environment goes down the tubes. Let's blame the new people. We don't know you. Maybe you speak a different dialect. And we can't grow our corn anymore. You must be witches, so we're just going to kill you."
Mystery of Deformed Skulls
Heather Edgar is a curator at Albuquerque's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology who has inspected the newfound skeletons.
She says perhaps the most distinct clues revealed by the new discovery are the two deformed skulls that Nelson first observed.
"It's not just him that sees [the deformation]," she said. "It's there."
The skulls are flattened on the back, just below the crown, Nelson explained. The deformation must have occurred during infancy, when the victims' skull bones were soft and malleable.
Both Nelson and Edgar said it's too soon to determine whether the deformations were intentional or merely the result of cradleboarding, the practice of carrying babies on boards strapped to mothers' backs.
"I could think of ways it could have been accidentally made, and I could think of ways it could have been purposely made, but the flattening is there," she said.
Edgar added that the duo's ongoing investigation of the massacre may provide the evidence needed to finally solve the mystery of the Gallina.
"I think the Gallina are an important point in the history of the area," she said. "Where did they come from, and where did they go?"
"Specifically the information that [Nelson and Largaespada] are working on is, where did they go?
"Did [the Gallina] contribute to a population that's alive today, and we just aren't aware of that? Or did they just move to another region? And there are theories out there that they were all massacred.
"Maybe the work they're doing can help figure that out."
Many times photos reveal so much of the surrounding terrain that a little research could locate the area for plunderers.
Wasn’t it the Maya who did something like cradle-boarding to babies to give them the fashionalbe ‘flat-top’ look.
***When are you going to be back on days? I have the photo album from my trip...***
On day shift 18-20 and 28-31 this month.
I suppose you might be one of those conservatives that wonders why 90% of Indian tribes all vote for the Democrats. (including my tribe)
Nope, 344 is the road that goes north from the intersection of old 66 in Edgewood, and it curves around South Mtn and heads west, intersecting N-14 about two thirds of the way to Madrid.
Perhaps we’re both confused!
Uh ... it would appear that in THIS particular case, if anyone "massacred thousands upon thousands of natives," it was OTHER NATIVES! And if you're sick of "this same BS," I'm just as sick of seeing my ancestors painted as heartless, barbaric hegemonists just because they conquered a land populated by breechcloth-wearing grub-eaters. There is much to be appreciated from Indian culture. But the post-modern lie that it was serene, blissful, and ultimately edenic is offensive and hypocritical.
I suppose you might be one of those conservatives that wonders why 90% of Indian tribes all vote for the Democrats. (including my tribe)
No, I KNOW why 90% of Indian tribes vote Democrat: dependence. The bleeding hearts give them enough money to stay drunk, in return for their votes. Nothing complicated there.
And before you get to yammering too much, I grew up in the heart of Indian country. I'm within a day's drive of the largest reservation in the country, and I've seen the crushing poverty there. It exists for the same reason as poverty in the inner city: misguided hand-wringers have erased the self-worth of generations by providing endless welfare programs and assuming the guilt for the demise of a culture that could not survive its encounter with modernity.
YEP...I posted the pic. I know where yer speaking of now....the road I am speaking of is just south of Madrid on old 14 North going east towards 344.....
Definitely not “genocide.” The perpetrators weren’t white.
Therefore, it was just part of their (superior) culture.
***Youre thinking of HWY 344 which curves around South Mtn. This place was right off N-14.***
I camped out there one night about June 6 1971. I was able to see the forest fire in the Santa Fe NF from my camp.
All those links and not one showed the general location of the dig or area.
Also, can you help me on another search. In 1957, before the interstate roads, my dad took us on a trip from El Paso to Clifton AZ. Somewhere on the way we passed a big Indian ruin off on the right(east) of the road. It was on Private property so we took pictures and went on. We have lost those pictures. Do you know where I might be talking about?
I have always been interested in old ruins of such nature.
Thanks for the sympathy. But save it for yourself. You need it a lot more than I.
You are so righteous you probably are thinking to yourself, boy did I really nail that idiot. Im sorry you parents didnt do a better job raising you.
I was raised by wolves.
Well at least your not a skin head neo/nazi.(I think) Im printing out your reply so as to use it in a few classes as an example.
Dude, I don't know what class YOU could possibly be teaching, but you're doing your students a disservice. You have to be one of the most inarticulate, harebrained prigs I've seen on this website. Are you sure you didn't take a wrong turn at DU?
Seriously, if you're no better at teaching than you are at presenting your point, then you should not be influencing impressionable minds. Resign immediately.
Just reminding you about the old adage about never arguing with a fool...;)
The preachey ethnocentrists always seem to have forgotten about Salem and Auchwitz...
That’s what I remember. That’s what I was looking for. Thanks. My point was simply, what happened to them? They got wiped out, probably with help of Indian invaders, same with the Kennewick people.
I thought you meant you had gone through the closets in the State Capitol in SF.
After Tony replaced everything with IBM’s I quit diggin......he ruined the place...........:o)
Anasazis are interesting. It’s a Navajo word that means “Stranger” or “Not one of us”. Anasazi artifacts look like Celtic artifacts.
Though Anasazi is has been in use for quite a while, it is the Navajo for “ancient enemies,” and is considered to be derogatory.
Archaeologists have been using “Ancestral Puebloans.” However modern researchers prefer either the Hopi term “Hisatsinom” - the “ancient people” or the Tewa language “Se’da” - the “ancient ones.”
Since the Navajo did not arrive in this area until about 1350 AD, their word “Anasazi” shows a previous relationship between the two peoples, and is a clue that should not be discarded.
No matter which way you slice it, it was the “illegals”
That's the translation I've always read...The Ancient Ones.
They also believe that the Navajos ( descended from Alaska / Canada into the southwest in the 1600’s ? ) were their enemies for centuries. The Navajos killed the pueblo people, stole their food and livestock, stole their women and children into slavery, stole their home lands...
The ancient enemies are currently still fighting...
Everyone knows that native Americans were perfect paragons of virtue who did not observe the evil Christian religion and were carbon neutral!!!
Thanks. george76’s link is also:
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