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Study Says Near Extinction Threatened People
Physorg ^ | 4-24-2008 | RANDOLPH E. SCHMID

Posted on 04/24/2008 2:05:33 PM PDT by blam

Study says near extinction threatened people

By RANDOLPH E. SCHMID, AP Writer
April 24,2008

(AP) -- Human beings may have had a brush with extinction 70,000 years ago, an extensive genetic study suggests. The human population at that time was reduced to small isolated groups in Africa, apparently because of drought, according to an analysis released Thursday.

The report notes that a separate study by researchers at Stanford University estimated the number of early humans may have shrunk as low as 2,000 before numbers began to expand again in the early Stone Age.

"This study illustrates the extraordinary power of genetics to reveal insights into some of the key events in our species' history," Spencer Wells, National Geographic Society explorer in residence, said in a statement. "Tiny bands of early humans, forced apart by harsh environmental conditions, coming back from the brink to reunite and populate the world. Truly an epic drama, written in our DNA."

Wells is director of the Genographic Project, launched in 2005 to study anthropology using genetics. The report was published in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

Previous studies using mitochondrial DNA - which is passed down through mothers - have traced modern humans to a single "mitochondrial Eve," who lived in Africa about 200,000 years ago.

The migrations of humans out of Africa to populate the rest of the world appear to have begun about 60,000 years ago, but little has been known about humans between Eve and that dispersal.

The new study looks at the mitochondrial DNA of the Khoi and San people in South Africa which appear to have diverged from other people between 90,000 and 150,000 years ago.

The researchers led by Doron Behar of Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel and Saharon Rosset of IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., and Tel Aviv University concluded that humans separated into small populations prior to the Stone Age, when they came back together and began to increase in numbers and spread to other areas.

Eastern Africa experienced a series of severe droughts between 135,000 and 90,000 years ago and the researchers said this climatological shift may have contributed to the population changes, dividing into small, isolated groups which developed independently.

Paleontologist Meave Leakey, a Genographic adviser, commented: "Who would have thought that as recently as 70,000 years ago, extremes of climate had reduced our population to such small numbers that we were on the very edge of extinction."

Today more than 6.6 billion people inhabit the globe, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.

The research was funded by the National Geographic Society, IBM, the Waitt Family Foundation, the Seaver Family Foundation, Family Tree


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: analysis; catastrophism; extinction; genetic; godsgravesglyphs; near; toba
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1 posted on 04/24/2008 2:05:33 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

global warming did it! Those nomads and their SUVs.


2 posted on 04/24/2008 2:06:53 PM PDT by utherdoul
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To: blam

I do not for one minute believe that 70,000 years ago man ONLY lived in Africa.


3 posted on 04/24/2008 2:09:32 PM PDT by stockpirate (Be a MAVERICK in the GOP , go against the wishes of our nominee John McCain!)
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To: SunkenCiv
GGG Ping. I'm suprised...no mention of Toba.

Late Pleostocene Human Population Bottlenecks. . . (Toba)


4 posted on 04/24/2008 2:09:47 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam
Wow, those woolly mammoth farts must have played havoc with the carbon footprints.
5 posted on 04/24/2008 2:11:50 PM PDT by mtbopfuyn
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To: stockpirate

That is absurd to the maximum degree. At the end of their 100,000+ year run the Neanderthals were still around 50,000 years ago in Europe and elsewhere outside of africa. Modern man had already been around for a while at that time.


6 posted on 04/24/2008 2:19:28 PM PDT by RJS1950 (The democrats are the "enemies foreign and domestic" cited in the federal oath)
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“Study Says Near Extinction Threatened People”

I tend to feel pretty dang threatened whenever anyone’s pointing a near extinction at me.


7 posted on 04/24/2008 2:19:53 PM PDT by Grimmy (equivocation is but the first step along the road to capitulation)
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To: blam

The Environmental Protection Agency saved us! Whew, that was close!


8 posted on 04/24/2008 2:21:00 PM PDT by Revolting cat! (You're gonna cry 96 tears!)
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To: blam
Old news repackaged for the current scare.

The Yellowstone super volcano exploded about 70,000 years ago. Human population crashed about the same time.

Coincidence?

Genetic collapse in such a short period points to a single calamitous event. A meteor hitting the Yucatan or the Yellowstone super volcano erupting puts millions of tons of particulate matter into the atmosphere at once, dramatically altering the climate. Global warming (or cooling) alters the climate more slowly giving plants and animals (including humans) more time to adjust to the changes. Times are tough but not nearly as tough as no sunshine and cold temperatures for a couple of years.

There have been a number of public television specials and at least one movie on the Yellowstone super volcano .

Yahoo or Google the term to find links.

P.S.: Of course, like every other one of da*n these extinction level events, its overdue to happen again. Enjoy your evening.

9 posted on 04/24/2008 2:30:06 PM PDT by Captain Rhino ( If we have the WILL to do it, there is nothing built in China that we cannot do without.)
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To: blam

San people?

Did they become Arabs?


10 posted on 04/24/2008 2:33:32 PM PDT by wolfcreek (I see miles and miles of Texas....let's keep it that way.)
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To: Grimmy

Well, it all depends on what caliber the near extinction is and if the holder looks like they know where the safety is on the thing. ;-)


11 posted on 04/24/2008 2:33:49 PM PDT by Captain Rhino ( If we have the WILL to do it, there is nothing built in China that we cannot do without.)
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To: blam
"Who would have thought that as recently as 70,000 years ago, extremes of climate had reduced our population to such small numbers that we were on the very edge of extinction."


12 posted on 04/24/2008 2:34:36 PM PDT by Jeff Chandler (It takes a father to raise a child.)
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To: Captain Rhino

“The Yellowstone super volcano exploded about 70,000 years ago”

Wasn’t that 640,000 yrs ago?


13 posted on 04/24/2008 2:37:06 PM PDT by wolfcreek (I see miles and miles of Texas....let's keep it that way.)
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To: blam

In genetic terms, this kind of extreme stress can be a great thing for a species, as only the very fittest (especially mentally resourceful) survive.

What nearly killed us probably made us much smarter.


14 posted on 04/24/2008 2:38:57 PM PDT by Atlas Sneezed (Guns don’t kill people, criminals and the governments that create them do.)
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To: stockpirate

“I do not for one minute believe that 70,000 years ago man ONLY lived in Africa.”

Maybe the implication is that we are of the generation from Africa, which survived 200,000 years (so far).

There may have been others, on other land masses, whose entire civilization disappeared. Died out from drought, from cold, from disease, from whatever.


15 posted on 04/24/2008 2:46:01 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (I reserve the right to misinterpret the comments of any and all posters)
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To: Beelzebubba

and yet we still have liberals.


16 posted on 04/24/2008 2:47:14 PM PDT by CzarNicky (The problem with bad ideas is that they seemed like good ideas at the time.)
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To: Captain Rhino; wolfcreek
"The Yellowstone super volcano exploded about 70,000 years ago. Human population crashed about the same time."

See the link in post #4...that was the Toba eruption 70-75,000 years ago. Yellowstone was 640,000 years ago.

17 posted on 04/24/2008 2:47:15 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam
"Tiny bands of early humans, forced apart by harsh environmental conditions, coming back from the brink to reunite and populate the world.

Noah.

18 posted on 04/24/2008 2:51:56 PM PDT by Doomonyou (Let them eat lead.)
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To: Beelzebubba

“What nearly killed us probably made us much smarter.”


Which is why we now think we are responsible for the weather on Earth, and that we can control it. (/sarc)


19 posted on 04/24/2008 2:52:52 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (I reserve the right to misinterpret the comments of any and all posters)
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To: blam

“that was the Toba eruption 70-75,000 years ago. Yellowstone was 640,000 years ago. “

Wonder who lived there, in Yellowstone’s caldera, before being buried under tons of lava?


20 posted on 04/24/2008 3:04:46 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (I reserve the right to misinterpret the comments of any and all posters)
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To: mtbopfuyn

“Wow, those woolly mammoth farts must have played havoc with the carbon footprints. “

Well, CaveGore solved that problem by killing off all the woolly mammoths.

Of course, that destroyed the last of their major food source, and clothing source, so CaveGore and his kind all died off from starvation and freezing.


21 posted on 04/24/2008 3:08:26 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (I reserve the right to misinterpret the comments of any and all posters)
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To: Beelzebubba

I think the selective pressure was more likely geographic than intellectual. It probably reduced our genetic diversity as a species such that many of the genes that could have gone into a ‘super genius’ were lost, but overall the average intelligence of the population was most likely unchanged, just less diverse.

Evolution doesn’t denote advancement just change in response to selective pressure, and the change might be something that is as much a mixed blessing as sickle cell anemia.


22 posted on 04/24/2008 3:09:02 PM PDT by allmendream (Life begins at the moment of contraception. ;))
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To: blam
Paleontologist Meave Leakey, a Genographic adviser, commented: "Who would have thought that as recently as 70,000 years ago, extremes of climate had reduced our population to such small numbers that we were on the very edge of extinction."

This guy is a CERTIFIED idiot. Anyone with half a brain in science knows that a supervolcano erupted right around that time (Tomu) which completely screwed weather patterns for years after it's eruption. It wasn't climate, it was weather caused by a natural event that nearly wiped us out.

23 posted on 04/24/2008 3:12:53 PM PDT by Centurion2000 (Party ahead of principles; eventually you'll be selling out anything to anyone for the right price.)
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To: blam
What is interesting is that the Krakatau volcano between Java and Sumatra islands in Indonesia is capable of a something approaching a supervolcano eruption. Look at what happened when Mt. Tambora on Sumbawa Island erupted in 1815--it spewed 15 cubic miles of ash into the atmosphere and caused worldwide crop failures for two years! If Krakatau erupts again with an eruption that spews out 35-40 cubic miles of ash it would cause crop losses lasting 4-5 years, and that could cause a worldwide famine.
24 posted on 04/24/2008 3:13:12 PM PDT by RayChuang88
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To: UCANSEE2; All

“There may have been others, on other land masses, whose entire civilization disappeared. Died out from drought, from cold, from disease, from whatever.”
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>......................
who can believe this crap? claims made about things that
are so long ago there is no history - claims of DNA
analysis to prove it. Lets just say that suckers are born every minute and lap up this “science”...DNA analysis is the hammer these guys use and so every thing looks like a nail.


25 posted on 04/24/2008 3:16:27 PM PDT by shadowgovernment (From the Ashes of a Republican rout will raise a Conservative Party)
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To: allmendream
If you run the numbers, something interesting pops up...

2,000 people 70,000 years ago to yield a present population of 6.6-billion says that the human population has grown orver that period at the rate of 0.02% per year... (not 2% but 0.02%)

Amazing when you think about it - I suppose all that pestilence, wild animals, wars, and all the rest...

Who was it that said that Somalia is the norm for humanity around the world outside of the Western Civilized aberation?
26 posted on 04/24/2008 3:19:40 PM PDT by Frobenius
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To: blam
Human beings may have had a brush with extinction 70,000 years ago,

Well when the Gorebots with their carbon phobia make the coming Ice Age worse than it otherwise would have been and the resulting troubles end with flying ICBMs. We might get to have another go at it.

27 posted on 04/24/2008 3:26:33 PM PDT by El Gato ("The Second Amendment is the RESET button of the United States Constitution." -- Doug McKay)
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To: wolfcreek
San people? Did they become Arabs?

No. San people are the pastoral relatives of Bushmen. In-San(e) people became Arabs.

28 posted on 04/24/2008 3:26:41 PM PDT by hellbender
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To: Frobenius
You assume that the rate was constant growth over that time period.

Human population increased when we moved from food procurement to a food production lifestyle.

Human population would have risen exponentially from those 2,000 people and then leveled off when they had filled all available livable land and started to compete with other people for resources.

Human population was pretty stable at something less than one billion people for most of human history; until industrial agriculture and modern medicine combined with the subsistence mentality of most the world to produce our worlds six billion people.

29 posted on 04/24/2008 3:26:44 PM PDT by allmendream (Life begins at the moment of contraception. ;))
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To: RayChuang88
"If Krakatau erupts again with an eruption that spews out 35-40 cubic miles of ash it would cause crop losses lasting 4-5 years, and that could cause a worldwide famine."

Yup. That could happen tomorrow, millions and millions would die from starvation and the associated violence.

30 posted on 04/24/2008 3:34:00 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: allmendream
...Human population was pretty stable at something less than one billion people for most of human history; until industrial agriculture and modern medicine combined with the subsistence mentality of most the world to produce our worlds six billion people.

Yes, I understand but 0.02% average growth over that 70,000 year period is about as "stable" as you can get -

E.g., 0.02% growth with a thousand people results in only 1221 people at the end of a thousand years (according to my trusty HP12C :) 0.02% growth is incredibly small.

If the average was 0.02% per year, then there had to be huge time spans of absolute negative growth - entire populations dieing out etc.

Interesting to think about - that's all.
31 posted on 04/24/2008 3:37:41 PM PDT by Frobenius
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To: Centurion2000
It wasn't climate, it was weather caused by a natural event that nearly wiped us out

It may have been weather, the article linked above indicates that the "Volcanic Winter" lasted 6 years, but the Ice Age it kicked off lasted 1,000 years. That's Climate Change with a vengence. Just not man made.

Unless it was those Sumatran religious nuts throwing the virgins into the volcano. :)

32 posted on 04/24/2008 3:38:39 PM PDT by El Gato ("The Second Amendment is the RESET button of the United States Constitution." -- Doug McKay)
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To: Frobenius
"Who was it that said that Somalia is the norm for humanity around the world outside of the Western Civilized aberation? "

I don't know but the world doesn't appreciate the advantages of Western civilization.

33 posted on 04/24/2008 3:40:15 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: Captain Rhino
"The Yellowstone super volcano exploded about 70,000 years ago. Human population crashed about the same time."

Actually it was the Mt. Toba (Indonesia) super volcano that erupted about 75,000 years ago. Yellowstone was more like 2.2 million years ago.

34 posted on 04/24/2008 3:40:34 PM PDT by Natural Law
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To: El Gato
"It may have been weather, the article linked above indicates that the "Volcanic Winter" lasted 6 years, but the Ice Age it kicked off lasted 1,000 years. "

I'm trying to reconcile the Toba event (70-75,000 years ago) and the Hobbits on the nearby island of Flores...the Hobbit skeletons range in age from 80,000 to 12-13,000 years ago. I wonder how their DNA plays into all these DNA analysis's?

35 posted on 04/24/2008 3:45:30 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: Frobenius
But populations do not usually respond like that at all.

2,000 people given the entire earth with no people on it and a robust enough food gathering or producing culture would be 4,000 people in 20 years; 8,000 people in 40 years, 16,000 in 60, 32,000 in 120.

They most certainly wouldn't be only 2,442 people after one thousand years. A single village of 2,000 people, limited to the environs of that single village, might be only 2,442 people after one thousand years; but only if their food production techniques didn't improve much over that thousand years.

36 posted on 04/24/2008 3:46:58 PM PDT by allmendream (Life begins at the moment of contraception. ;))
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To: blam
Actually there were plenty of humans around at that time period, Neanderthals thrived up until about 50,000 years ago and there were plenty of Homo Sapiens right there with them. I will tell you though that Humans are close to extinction now because so many are swallowing the global warming crap and following the left wing idiots. We cannot survive, at least not in any where the numbers we have now, without energy, which the lefties want us to totally disregard and get rid of.

Hard as it is to swallow, there are many people who think we, and the world, would be better off without energy. They are stupid of course and not thinking but there you go. Most of the troubles of the world were caused by a majority of the people being stupid and blindly following along.

Extinction is just around the corner for the human race if we don't do something drastic soon.

37 posted on 04/24/2008 4:37:01 PM PDT by calex59
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To: calex59

The youngest Neanderthal skeleton ever found is 27,500 years old, found in either Spain or Potrugal I believe.


38 posted on 04/24/2008 4:40:25 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: Centurion2000
Paleontologist Meave Leakey, a Genographic adviser, commented: "Who would have thought that as recently as 70,000 years ago, extremes of climate had reduced our population to such small numbers that we were on the very edge of extinction."

This guy is a CERTIFIED idiot. Anyone with half a brain in science knows...

Meave Leakey is the wife of Richard Leakey.

39 posted on 04/24/2008 5:01:06 PM PDT by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: blam
The youngest Neanderthal skeleton ever found is 27,500 years old, found in either Spain or Potrugal I believe.

Right you are, but my point was that if man reached near extinction at 70,000 years ago then why the heck were the Neanderthal and modern man doing running around together 50,000 years ago ,and before that, in quite large numbers.

40 posted on 04/24/2008 5:09:27 PM PDT by calex59
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To: UCANSEE2
Wonder who lived there, in Yellowstone’s caldera, before being buried under tons of lava?

Anyone in the caldera would have been spared the inconvenience of being buried under lava, having been instantly vaporized by the explosion.

41 posted on 04/24/2008 5:11:42 PM PDT by Interesting Times (Swiftboating, you say? Check out ToSetTheRecordStraight.com)
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To: Coyoteman; Centurion2000
Meave Leakey is the wife of Richard Leakey.

Yes, and both of them certified that Lucy was a human but were later proved wrong by the French, Lucy was a Chimpazee and nothing more. Leakey was wrong on many things, he wanted to be right so bad and to find the "missing link" so bad he falsified and lied about information.

42 posted on 04/24/2008 5:12:42 PM PDT by calex59
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To: calex59
Lucy was a Chimpazee and nothing more.

I'm sure the scientific community will be stunned and impressed with your conclusions.

By the way, I've seen Lucy, and she doesn't look like a chimpanzee to me. Not much taller though.

She would have been lousy at basketball.

43 posted on 04/24/2008 5:26:14 PM PDT by Dog Gone
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To: calex59
Meave Leakey is the wife of Richard Leakey.

Yes, and both of them certified that Lucy was a human but were later proved wrong by the French, Lucy was a Chimpazee and nothing more. Leakey was wrong on many things, he wanted to be right so bad and to find the "missing link" so bad he falsified and lied about information.

Lucy was discovered in 1974 by Donald Johanson. Meave Leakey had no role in that whatsoever. You must be thinking of Mary Leakey, wife of Louis Leakey? She suggested that Lucy belonged to genus Homo. (Genus Homo and modern humans are not the same things.)

And your claim that Lucy was nothing more than a chimpanzee is not borne out by the studies that have been conducted. Lucy has a mix of modern and ancient traits, and does fit somewhere between chimpanzee and modern humans.

Perhaps before you lecture us on evolution and the details and personalities involved in these studies, you could learn a little more about them first?

44 posted on 04/24/2008 5:46:34 PM PDT by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: calex59
"Right you are, but my point was that if man reached near extinction at 70,000 years ago then why the heck were the Neanderthal and modern man doing running around together 50,000 years ago ,and before that, in quite large numbers."

I get it now. I agree.

Something seems suspicious about the DNA information..... and, I've thought so for a while now.

45 posted on 04/24/2008 6:42:46 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam

you’ve been beaten to the punch, which does *NOT* happen very often:

Study: Humans Almost Went Extinct 70,000 Years Ago
Fox News | Thursday, April 24, 2008 | AP
Posted on 04/24/2008 12:07:36 PM PDT by Sopater
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/2006457/posts


46 posted on 04/24/2008 11:13:18 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_____________________Profile updated Saturday, March 29, 2008)
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just adding, not pinging.
 
Catastrophism
· join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post new topic ·

47 posted on 04/24/2008 11:14:13 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_____________________Profile updated Saturday, March 29, 2008)
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· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Thanks Blam.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are Blam, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

· Google · Archaeologica · ArchaeoBlog · Archaeology magazine · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Mirabilis · Texas AM Anthropology News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo ·
· History or Science & Nature Podcasts · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·


48 posted on 04/24/2008 11:14:35 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_____________________Profile updated Saturday, March 29, 2008)
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To: calex59
Bravo calex59.
The Neandertal Enigma
by James Shreeve
Frayer's own reading of the record reveals a number of overlooked traits that clearly and specifically link the Neandertals to the Cro-Magnons. One such trait is the shape of the opening of the nerve canal in the lower jaw, a spot where dentists often give a pain-blocking injection. In many Neandertal, the upper portion of the opening is covered by a broad bony ridge, a curious feature also carried by a significant number of Cro-Magnons. But none of the alleged 'ancestors of us all' fossils from Africa have it, and it is extremely rare in modern people outside Europe." [pp 126-127]

49 posted on 04/24/2008 11:16:18 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_____________________Profile updated Saturday, March 29, 2008)
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To: blam
“Something seems suspicious about the DNA information..... and, I've thought so for a while now.”
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>...................
BINGO. estimating population size with this kind of DNA data is
a reflection of hubris on the researchers part..when you only have a hammer everything looks like a nail.
no one can truly claim they know the human population of the earth
20,000 yrs ago much less 70,000 yrs ago br /> a guess backed up by mis- use of data is still a guess.
50 posted on 04/25/2008 4:41:21 AM PDT by shadowgovernment (From the Ashes of a Republican rout will raise a Conservative Party)
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