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First Shoes Worn 40,000 Years Ago
Yahoo News ^ | 6-5-2008 | Maggie Koerth-Baker

Posted on 06/05/2008 8:01:34 PM PDT by blam

First Shoes Worn 40,000 Years Ago

Maggie Koerth-Baker
Special to LiveScience
LiveScience.com
Thu Jun 5, 9:05 AM ET

Humans started wearing shoes about 40,000 years ago, much earlier than previously thought, new anthropological research suggests.

As any good clothes horse knows, the right outfit speaks volumes about the person wearing it. Now, anthropologists are tapping into that knowledge base, looking for the physical changes caused by wearing shoes to figure out when footwear first became fashionable.

Turns out, clothes really do make the man (and the woman), at least when it comes to feet. That's because wearing shoes changes the way humans walk and how their bodies distribute weight. If you wear shoes regularly, as most modern humans do, those changes end up reflected in your bones and ligaments.

Susan Cachel, an anthropologist at Rutgers University in New Jersey, said science has known about the way wearing shoes affects feet since the early 20th century. Researchers have found several differences between feet that regularly wear shoes and those that don't.

For instance, wearing tight shoes can lead to bunions, which are painful enlargements of the bone or tissue in the big toe, she said. People who don't wear shoes have wider feet and bigger gaps between their big toe and the other four. And women who spend a lot of time in high heels wind up with smaller calf muscles.

Erik Trinkaus, an anthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis, was the first person to apply this understanding of how fashion alters physical bodies to anthropology. He found a point in human history where the size of toe bones began to shrink. Combining that data with knowledge of how shoes change the way people walk, Trinkaus reasoned that smaller toe bones meant people had started wearing shoes.

While the oldest surviving shoes are only about 10,000 years old, Trinkaus' discovery pushed the adoption of footwear back to almost 30,000 years ago. He published that research in 2005. Now, thanks to analysis set to be published in the July 2008 issue of the Journal of Archaeological Science, Trinkaus has found that humans were probably wearing shoes even earlier, about 40,000 years ago.

Through thick and thin

Trinkaus' theory is based on a simple fact: Bone size isn't set in stone.

"Bone, at least to a certain extent, responds during a person's lifetime to the mechanical stresses placed on it," said Tim Weaver, a University of California, Davis, anthropologist. "If you work out at the gym, not only will your muscles get bigger, your bones will become thicker."

For most of their history, humans had big, thick toe bones. Trinkaus said this was because they were doing more walking, climbing and carrying than we do today. In fact, he said, all their leg bones were bigger as well, for the same reasons. This is true for both Neanderthals and the earliest modern humans.

But, around 40,000 years ago, that began to change. Trinkaus noticed that skeletons from this time period still had strong, thick leg bones, but their toes had suddenly gotten smaller. "They had wimpy toes," he said. "I tried to figure out what would take away stresses on the toes, but not the legs, and the answer was shoes."

First shoes, first tailors

While Weaver agrees with Trinkaus' theory, Cachel doesn't buy it. She pointed out that, not long after the time period Trinkaus looked at, humans apparently stopped being so active and all their limb bones, not just the toes, started to shrink.

"If the footbones are smaller, this probably reflects less walking and physical activity, rather than the invention of supportive footware," Cachel said.

Both Weaver and Cachel think that it would make sense for shoes to hit it big around the time Trinkaus thinks they did. Around 40,000 and 30,000 years ago, human culture went through a growth spurt.

"The archaeological record shows may changes, including the types of tools people were making and the first definite artwork, and the oldest needles for making clothing appear shortly afterward," Weaver said.

And Cachel said this was probably the time period where a population boom allowed for the first divisions of labor, meaning that, for the the first time, somebody could dedicate all their time to making better, more decorated clothing.

"It seems reasonable that there were changes in footwear around this time too," Weaver said, "But before Erik Trinkaus' study we didn't have any direct evidence."


TOPICS: History
KEYWORDS: 40000yearsago; crevo; freepun; godsgravesglyphs; humans; shoes; worn
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1 posted on 06/05/2008 8:01:34 PM PDT by blam
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To: SunkenCiv

GGG Ping.


2 posted on 06/05/2008 8:02:10 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Maybe primitive men were not so primitive.. i.e. dumb..


3 posted on 06/05/2008 8:04:32 PM PDT by hosepipe (This propaganda has been edited to include some fully orbed hyperbole....)
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To: blam

That would assume that earth was created by God 40,000 years ago.. to which I say NOT -— the earth is only about 6,000 years old folks....


4 posted on 06/05/2008 8:04:44 PM PDT by davidosborne (http://DuncanHunter.meetup.com/1 - GrassRoots Organization(s) to elect Duncan Hunter)
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To: blam
We can't post from IOL, so, I'll link this aricle here:

Little Arrow That Rewrites History Books

"Two researchers from Wits University believe that what they have discovered is a 60 000-year-old arrow that was fired from the earliest known bow. Their discovery has pushed back the origins of bow-and-arrow technology by 20 000 years."

5 posted on 06/05/2008 8:05:47 PM PDT by blam
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To: davidosborne

Amen!


6 posted on 06/05/2008 8:08:29 PM PDT by doc1019 (I was taught to respect my elders, but it's getting harder to find one.)
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To: doc1019

I am so proud of my 11 year old when we go to history museums and he tells my 7 year old all the “wrong” evolution things posted.


7 posted on 06/05/2008 8:09:51 PM PDT by proudtobeanamerican1 (Media -)
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To: blam

“First Shoes Worn 40,000 Years Ago”

They were actually found in my wife’s closet. :^)


8 posted on 06/05/2008 8:11:06 PM PDT by mkmensinger
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To: blam

What culture are they speaking of from 40,000 years ago?


9 posted on 06/05/2008 8:11:11 PM PDT by ConservativeMind
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To: blam

10 posted on 06/05/2008 8:12:10 PM PDT by LucyT (What happens in Denver won't stay in Denver... August 25 - 28, 2008)
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To: davidosborne

Are you attempting to incite debate or are you being sarcastic because the 6000yr theory is not funny and discredits many good Christians by making them look moronic.


11 posted on 06/05/2008 8:13:53 PM PDT by RockyMtnMan
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To: davidosborne

6,000? Dude, I heard it’s more like 6,500+ ! Getcha data strait, George!


12 posted on 06/05/2008 8:16:22 PM PDT by Revolting cat! (Are you ready to pray for Teddy?)
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To: blam
Wouldn't it be a simple matter to go to South America, Africa, Australia, and Asia to look at the feet of primitive and backward cultures that don't wear shoes and measure their toes? Instead we pay big bucks to university professors to speculate and argue about the idea. I thought lawyers were bad I thought politicians were bad. Then I thought psycholgists were bad. Now com the anthropologists. They are really bad.
13 posted on 06/05/2008 8:17:58 PM PDT by LoneRangerMassachusetts
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To: RockyMtnMan

I didn’t know there was a “debate”....... however, stating “40,000” as fact is offensive to ME.... just as much as saying “6,000 THEORY” -— I believe that the earth IS roughly 6,000 years old.... you calling my FACTS a theory is offensive to me... having said that.. no need to debate my FRiend..


14 posted on 06/05/2008 8:18:31 PM PDT by davidosborne (http://DuncanHunter.meetup.com/1 - GrassRoots Organization(s) to elect Duncan Hunter)
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To: Revolting cat!

I take no issue with 6,500 my FRiend :)

David


15 posted on 06/05/2008 8:19:55 PM PDT by davidosborne (http://DuncanHunter.meetup.com/1 - GrassRoots Organization(s) to elect Duncan Hunter)
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To: blam

Having decent footwear would probably decrease morbidity and mortality, IMHO, especially when hygiene was minimal.


16 posted on 06/05/2008 8:20:28 PM PDT by neverdem (I'm praying for a Divine Intervention.)
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To: Allegra

Hosiery followed soon after.

17 posted on 06/05/2008 8:20:40 PM PDT by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: LoneRangerMassachusetts
Then I thought psycholgists were bad. Now com the anthropologists. They are really bad.

Fuzzy "sciences".

18 posted on 06/05/2008 8:21:13 PM PDT by lightman (Waiting for Godot and searching for Avignon)
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To: davidosborne

There is no chance I would argue with you because insanity knows no limits and I’d make more progress arguing with a stone. There are many facts (see hard science) in place to suggest the earth is far older than 6000 yrs but I know from experience you’ll just ignore them because they do not fit your world view.


19 posted on 06/05/2008 8:22:47 PM PDT by RockyMtnMan
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To: davidosborne
"I didn’t know there was a “debate”....... however, stating “40,000” as fact is offensive to ME.... just as much as saying “6,000 THEORY” -— I believe that the earth IS roughly 6,000 years old.... you calling my FACTS a theory is offensive to me... having said that.. no need to debate my FRiend.."

This is an archaeology/antropology thread. Please take your religious comments to a religious thread.

I don't invade your religious threads with my beliefs/opinions, please show me the same respect.

20 posted on 06/05/2008 8:23:17 PM PDT by blam
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To: RockyMtnMan

good choice my FRiend... just be carefull when you call FACTS theory === or theory facts —— then we call all get along just fine..

FReegards,

David


21 posted on 06/05/2008 8:24:50 PM PDT by davidosborne (http://DuncanHunter.meetup.com/1 - GrassRoots Organization(s) to elect Duncan Hunter)
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To: davidosborne
the earth is only about 6,000 years old folks....

How do you figure this?

22 posted on 06/05/2008 8:25:02 PM PDT by LoneRangerMassachusetts
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To: blam

Well said.


23 posted on 06/05/2008 8:25:48 PM PDT by Ken H
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To: blam

blam,

again no debate intended.. or necessary... I just can’t let a “theory” be passed off as fact my FRiend....

David


24 posted on 06/05/2008 8:26:31 PM PDT by davidosborne (http://DuncanHunter.meetup.com/1 - GrassRoots Organization(s) to elect Duncan Hunter)
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To: blam

First woman to have 40 pairs of shoes: 39,999 years ago.


25 posted on 06/05/2008 8:29:26 PM PDT by Rebelbase (McCain: The Third Bush Term ?)
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To: LoneRangerMassachusetts

I will save that answer for another thread or we can take it offline on the grounds that I would be accused of changing of the topic of the thread... my only point was to suggest that the article ASSUMES that earth did in fact EXIST 40,000 years ago.... something that IMHO is NOT a fact -— bur rather a fantasy -— again IMHO


26 posted on 06/05/2008 8:29:42 PM PDT by davidosborne (http://DuncanHunter.meetup.com/1 - GrassRoots Organization(s) to elect Duncan Hunter)
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To: proudtobeanamerican1

And proud you should be … ;-)


27 posted on 06/05/2008 8:31:42 PM PDT by doc1019 (I was taught to respect my elders, but it's getting harder to find one.)
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To: martin_fierro

Socks with red Xs on them? :-)


28 posted on 06/05/2008 8:34:30 PM PDT by Allegra (If you lived here, you'd be home by now.)
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To: proudtobeanamerican1

COOL !!! -— Tell your 11yr old that I am proud of her too !!! my 2 girls 11 and 9 do the same thing :)

David


29 posted on 06/05/2008 8:35:32 PM PDT by davidosborne (http://DuncanHunter.meetup.com/1 - GrassRoots Organization(s) to elect Duncan Hunter)
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To: blam

My bunions thank you for the information.


30 posted on 06/05/2008 8:36:13 PM PDT by lilylangtree (Veni, Vidi, Vici)
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To: davidosborne

Your statement does not register as sane for about 99.9% of the posters on this thread. So given that you are not on the same plane of reason, should you be commenting on a discovery that actually means something to the rest of us?

To us it is a FACT the earth is far older than 6000yrs and no matter what you say that FACT will not change. No offense but these are the FACTs my FRiend.


31 posted on 06/05/2008 8:37:28 PM PDT by RockyMtnMan
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To: davidosborne

Whether I believe the Earth was created billions or thousands of years ago has no affect on my salvation or relationship with God.

I don’t like folks shoving the 6000 year thing down my throat with such impudence. Makes them look foolish to be stuck on such an irrelevant issue.


32 posted on 06/05/2008 8:37:41 PM PDT by Rebelbase (McCain: The Third Bush Term ?)
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To: Allegra

aw p00p


33 posted on 06/05/2008 8:38:55 PM PDT by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: blam

Just after Adam and Eve begot a daughter, Imelda


34 posted on 06/05/2008 8:46:38 PM PDT by black_diamond
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To: black_diamond
"Just after Adam and Eve begot a daughter, Imelda"

Or, maybe Grace.

35 posted on 06/05/2008 8:49:20 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam; Allegra

But what about socks?


36 posted on 06/05/2008 8:50:47 PM PDT by Grizzled Bear ("Does not play well with others.")
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To: blam

btt


37 posted on 06/05/2008 8:53:26 PM PDT by Cacique (quos Deus vult perdere, prius dementat ( Islamia Delenda Est ))
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To: davidosborne
That would assume that earth was created by God 40,000 years ago.. to which I say NOT -— the earth is only about 6,000 years old folks....

According to the late Jimmy Ussher, its 6011th birthday is next October 23.

Of course, the folks who took the above photo were able to do it because they know better.

38 posted on 06/05/2008 8:54:22 PM PDT by cynwoody
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To: davidosborne
Thanks for your service!

How old do you think the universe is?

God makes things pretty interesting alright.

39 posted on 06/05/2008 8:57:21 PM PDT by onedoug
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To: davidosborne
my only point was to suggest that the article ASSUMES that earth did in fact EXIST 40,000 years ago.... something that IMHO is NOT a fact -— bur rather a fantasy -— again IMHO

You have the entire Religion Forum to witness in. Why are you so rude, intruding in a science thread with your own narrow interpretation of one religion? That is about as polite as someone wandering into a church and yelling B...S...

40 posted on 06/05/2008 9:01:54 PM PDT by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: blam

“This is an archaeology/antropology thread. Please take your religious comments to a religious thread.”

Thank you blam. Well said.


41 posted on 06/05/2008 9:14:59 PM PDT by Dudoight
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To: RockyMtnMan

LOL.. I was going to leave it alone.. but I just gotta ask ya.... if 99.9% of folks believe a LIE does that somehow turn the LIE into TRUTH ??? seriously.... even your so-called science would NEVER say that something is true because x numbers of folks believe it to be so..... having said all that... I will leave it alone... at least on this thread.. anyone care to take this discussion offline I will be more than happy to engage..

FReegards,

David


42 posted on 06/05/2008 9:31:25 PM PDT by davidosborne (http://DuncanHunter.meetup.com/1 - GrassRoots Organization(s) to elect Duncan Hunter)
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To: blam

YEC INTREP


43 posted on 06/05/2008 9:38:09 PM PDT by LiteKeeper (Beware the secularization of America; the Islamization of Eurabia)
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To: blam

Imelda Stonecracker


44 posted on 06/05/2008 9:53:01 PM PDT by Rembrandt (We would have won Viet Nam w/o Dim interference.)
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To: blam

Hear hear!


45 posted on 06/05/2008 10:09:49 PM PDT by TigersEye (Berlin 1936. Olympics for murdering regimes. Beijing 2008.)
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To: Coyoteman
You have the entire Religion Forum to witness in. Why are you so rude, intruding in a science thread with your own narrow interpretation of one religion?

Because God who has created this billions-of-years-old universe is more powerful than he can conceive of. That scares him, so he has to try to chop God down to a size he can imagine.

That's really all creationism is. Fear that God is more powerful and his universe grander than the creationists can imagine.

46 posted on 06/05/2008 10:31:37 PM PDT by onewhowatches
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To: blam; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 21twelve; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 49th; ...

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Thanks Blam. I didn't check the topic for "soul/sole" jokes, so I'll refrain. For now.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are Blam, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

· Google · Archaeologica · ArchaeoBlog · Archaeology magazine · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Mirabilis · Texas AM Anthropology News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo ·
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47 posted on 06/05/2008 10:35:34 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_________________________Profile updated Friday, May 30, 2008)
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To: davidosborne

“Usually, even a non-Christian knows something about the earth, the heavens, and the other elements of this world, about the motion and orbit of the stars and even their size and relative positions, about the predictable eclipses of the sun and moon, the cycles of the years and seasons, about the kinds of animals, shrubs, stones, and so forth, and this knowledge he holds to as being certain from reason and experience. Now, it is a disgraceful and dangerous thing for an infidel to hear a Christian, presumably giving the meaning of Holy Scripture, talking nonsense on these topics; and we should take all means to prevent such an embarrassing situation, in which people show up vast ignorance in a Christian and laugh it to scorn. The shame is not so much that an ignorant individual is derided, but that people outside the household of the faith think our sacred writers held such opinions, and, to the great loss of those for whose salvation we toil, the writers of our Scripture are criticized and rejected as unlearned men.... Reckless and incompetent expounders of Holy Scripture bring untold trouble and sorrow on their wiser brethren when they are caught in one of their mischievous false opinions and are taken to task by these who are not bound by the authority of our sacred books. For then, to defend their utterly foolish and obviously untrue statements, they will try to call upon Holy Scripture for proof and even recite from memory many passages which they think support their position, although they understand neither what they say nor the things about which they make assertion.”
-Augustine, On the Literal Interpretation of Genesis


48 posted on 06/05/2008 10:38:05 PM PDT by cacoethes_resipisco
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To: onewhowatches
That's really all creationism is. Fear that God is more powerful and his universe grander than the creationists can imagine.

Wow. You have such deep insight into everything.
49 posted on 06/05/2008 10:47:47 PM PDT by aruanan
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To: davidosborne; proudtobeanamerican1; doc1019

FROM AN EMAIL:

Some tourists in the Chicago Museum of Natural History are marveling at the dinosaur bones. One of them asks the guard, “Can you tell me how old the dinosaur bones are?”

The guard replies, “They are 3 million, four years, and six months old.”

“That’s an awfully exact number,” says the tourist. “How do you know their age so precisely?”

The guard answers, “Well, the dinosaur bones were three million years old when I started working here, and that was four and a half years ago.”


Useful site:
http://www.AnswersInGenesis.org
One of the questions it asks is, if Genesis is not accurate, then is any of the Bible reliable...and then proceeds to provide very interesting arguments for the Bible’s reliability.


50 posted on 06/05/2008 10:58:40 PM PDT by The Spirit Of Allegiance (Public Employees: Honor Your Oaths! Defend the Constitution from Enemies--Foreign and Domestic!)
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