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Transparent lithium ion batteries make electricity generating windows possible
Chemistry World ^ | 26 July 2011 | Kate McAlpine

Posted on 08/03/2011 12:16:01 AM PDT by neverdem

Energy-harvesting windows are a step closer with the development of a transparent lithium ion battery, created by US researchers at Stanford University. The electrodes are confined to a grid 35µm wide, making them too narrow to be perceived by the naked eye.

The electrodes pose the biggest challenge to transparent lithium ion batteries, as both anode and cathode materials are typically opaque. Yi Cui's team solved this problem by making them very thin. They set the electrode materials into a grid of trenches in clear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). By stacking and aligning the grids with additional layers of electrodes, it is possible to increase the battery's energy storage without sacrificing its transparency.  

The Stanford team deposited a 100nm thick gold layer onto the PDMS to collect the current generated. The researchers took advantage of capillary action to pull slurries of water and electrode material - LiMn2O4 nanorods for the cathode and Li4Ti5O12 nanopowder for the anode - through the grids to create the battery's structure.

Lithium battery

By producing extremely fine electrodes researchers were able to produce transparent batteries

© Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA

The team then sandwiched a layer of clear electrolyte between the two electrodes, aligning the grids by hand under an optical microscope. Finally, the whole device was enclosed in a clear polymer bag, with two strips of aluminium for terminals. By varying the spacing between the trenches, the researchers achieved transparencies of 78, 60 and 30 per cent. These yielded energy densities of 5, 10, and 20 Watt hours per litre (Wh/L), respectively.

Jongseung Yoon, a nanoelectronics expert at the University of Southern California, US, says the team's approach 'is particularly attractive as it is scalable to large areas as well as to multiple device stacks'.

This would allow a thin, energy-storing layer to extend all the way across 'smart windows'. According to Luis Sánchez of the University of Córdoba in Spain, whose team made the first transparent electrode, this would be the chief application for transparent batteries. These devices could be combined with transparent solar cells, which have already been developed, to absorb some of the sun's energy as it passes into a building, storing it during the day so that it can be used for low power consumption lighting after dark.

The 60 per cent transparent battery has about one tenth the energy density of the average smart phone battery, which group leader Yi Cui says can get around 100 Wh/L. 'By simple optimisation and utilisation of industrial approaches, 50 Wh/L is achievable at current stages,' he adds.

With advanced electrode materials, he thinks it may be possible reach 150 Wh/L. And because the transparent design allows chemists to watch the reaction taking place inside the battery, studying new electrodes has never been easier.

 

References

Y Yang et al, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 2011, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1102873108

Also of interest

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Multiwalled carbon nanotube

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20 June 2010

Researchers in the US show how the carbon structures can improve the flow of lithium ions


Carbon and sulphur cathode

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Silicon nanowires

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17 December 2007

Nanowire electrode for lithium batteries increases capacity, lifetime and power



TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events; Technical
KEYWORDS: batteries; chemistry; lithiumionbatteries; lithiumionbattery; stringtheory
Transparent lithium-ion batteries

The PDF is open access, i.e. a FReebie.

1 posted on 08/03/2011 12:16:06 AM PDT by neverdem
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To: neverdem

What, innovation taking place in America?

How long till the Chinese buy or seize the patent?

Looks a good argument for “Tinted” glass, the efficiency is higher.


2 posted on 08/03/2011 12:30:51 AM PDT by Loyal Sedition (Loyal Sedition, often described as "To the right of Attila The Hun"!)
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To: SunkenCiv; Kevmo

*ping* to “free” energy.


3 posted on 08/03/2011 12:43:13 AM PDT by ApplegateRanch (ATTN GOVERNMENT: "public service" does NOT mean servicing the people, like a bull among heifers.)
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To: Loyal Sedition

What buy?

We don’t need no stinkin buy!

We make batteries a lot.

No buy.


4 posted on 08/03/2011 12:47:18 AM PDT by Avery Iota Kracker (He hate me)
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To: neverdem

Fascinating.


5 posted on 08/03/2011 12:48:27 AM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: neverdem

Forget about that. Big brother wants us to use windmills and pedal cars.


6 posted on 08/03/2011 12:58:23 AM PDT by Bullish (Recovery won't begin until Obama loses HIS job.)
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To: neverdem

What happens when the battery wears out and each window costs $100,000?


7 posted on 08/03/2011 1:06:04 AM PDT by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: El Gato; Ernest_at_the_Beach; Robert A. Cook, PE; lepton; LadyDoc; jb6; tiamat; PGalt; Dianna; ...
The CDC vs. Life-Saving Vaccines (Looks like Obamacare wants listening tours.)

UNH researchers help find natural products potential of frankia

Why Diets Don't Work: Starved Brain Cells Eat Themselves, Study Finds

Today's playgrounds may be too safe, critics warn Fort Tryon Park was one of my hangouts for decades from the playground to the Cloiters.

FReepmail me if you want on or off my health and science ping list.

8 posted on 08/03/2011 1:12:28 AM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi minh oi)
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To: Moonman62

You use your ‘Carbon Credits” to buy another?

Oh, that probably only applies to big office buildings, so sorry, maybe you can put a claim on your homeowners policy? :-(


9 posted on 08/03/2011 1:14:07 AM PDT by Loyal Sedition (Loyal Sedition, often described as "To the right of Attila The Hun"!)
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To: El Gato; Ernest_at_the_Beach; Robert A. Cook, PE; lepton; LadyDoc; jb6; tiamat; PGalt; Dianna; ...
The CDC vs. Life-Saving Vaccines (Looks like Obamacare wants listening tours.)

UNH researchers help find natural products potential of frankia

Why Diets Don't Work: Starved Brain Cells Eat Themselves, Study Finds

Today's playgrounds may be too safe, critics warn Fort Tryon Park was one of my hangouts for decades from the playground to the Cloiters.

FReepmail me if you want on or off my health and science ping list.

10 posted on 08/03/2011 1:19:22 AM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi minh oi)
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To: Moonman62

Or a rocks hits your window.


11 posted on 08/03/2011 1:21:09 AM PDT by Jonty30
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To: neverdem
This is a plug for research funding which should be provided by the private sector, but will probably come from Obama’s Marxist, John Holdren or useful idiot Chiu, Nobel prize and all. The incident energy on a large window, a meter square on a bright day in the desert with no shade might be as high as one hundred watts, because windows don't track the sun, but that energy is a peak value only possible for for only a few hours. Figure ten percent of that gets converted to electrical energy, which is optimistic. Ten watts per hour for a couple of hours. The cost for connecting windows to a storage facility somewhere in the house is only useful to the union electricians and carpenters who would be required in order for the homeowner to be eligible for the tax subsidy.

Some science is done to learn about the physics or chemistry. This sounds an appeal to the green Marxists currently overseeing the NSF budget to help soak what remains of the private sector and hurry us only on the road to economic disaster and socialist dictatorship. To charge emergency batteries or low power LEDs is a business decision. To really invest in energy why not bribe all the environmental lawyers so that they will have no incentive to obstruct real energy production. Pay them each a million dollars a year to shut up and move to Aspen. Then the talent of our nation can return to what we have taught France, China, Japan, and India to do. Those nations, of course, now own much of our intellectual property in patents and manufacturing expertise, but with a free society we have “The Ultimate Resource” (the name of a study much maligned by Marxists Obama and Ehrlich, written by economist Julian Simon), great minds, whether born here or from China, India or Russia, the ones who chose to become citizens will produce for their chosen nation, unlike Obama, whose goal appears to be to destroy us, and who has never produced anything in his life but a confidence man's hustle.

12 posted on 08/03/2011 2:08:00 AM PDT by Spaulding
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To: Jonty30

Just remember not to use Windex on them!


13 posted on 08/03/2011 3:13:10 AM PDT by mazda77
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To: Spaulding

Even so, it’s still an infant technology.

The biggest step in any new technology has always been the innovations that follow its discovery. After that, things can be improved upon.

For example, the Toyota hybrid technology. When it first came out, Popular Mechanics at the time said that it wasn’t worth buying because it would take 150 000 miles before the savings would pay for the technology. With the price of the technology having probably decreased, because the cost of technology is always decreasing, the improved performance, and the strong increase of the price of gasoline, I’d be willing to bet that it’s nowhere near the 150k miles before the technology has paid for itself now.

Even if the technology won’t be ready for another twenty years, it’s nice to know that they are working on it.


14 posted on 08/03/2011 3:30:48 AM PDT by Jonty30
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To: mazda77

Or spill your juice or coffee onto it, like I’ve done to my keyboard from time to time.


15 posted on 08/03/2011 3:31:56 AM PDT by Jonty30
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To: Spaulding

Yeah. This is neat, geeky stuff. But somebody really serious about solar power in a building is still likely to want to put conventional high efficiency cells on the roof and have them move to track the sun, not goof around with windows.


16 posted on 08/03/2011 3:33:50 AM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (There's gonna be a Redneck Revolution! (See my freep page))
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To: Jonty30

Gotta be a real klutz to do that to a window!


17 posted on 08/03/2011 3:34:32 AM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (There's gonna be a Redneck Revolution! (See my freep page))
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To: mazda77

The window probably would be laminated inside a layer that is safe to clean conventionally.


18 posted on 08/03/2011 3:36:13 AM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (There's gonna be a Redneck Revolution! (See my freep page))
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To: HiTech RedNeck

It’s easy when you have a cat.


19 posted on 08/03/2011 3:39:17 AM PDT by Jonty30
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To: neverdem

I would like to see this come to fruition. According to the designer, if it replaced the current roadways in the US, it would provide three times the electrical energy needed by the country.

It might be pie in the sky, but with that type of surplus, an electric bill might be a thing of the past, and with the advent of electric cars, fuel cost as well. Citizen consumer wins.

http://solarroadways.com/intro.shtml


20 posted on 08/03/2011 3:57:58 AM PDT by Molon Labbie
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To: Molon Labbie

There would still be a bill. Roads would still need to be mailtained and you’d have to pay a much higher wage for people who can fix that road.

But overall, it’s possible that the overall costs could be lower.


21 posted on 08/03/2011 4:05:49 AM PDT by Jonty30
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To: Spaulding
The incident energy on a large window, a meter square on a bright day in the desert with no shade might be as high as one hundred watts,

Your estimate is low.

Note that these are average values from the entire year. Peaks are far higher. Click pic to enlarge.

22 posted on 08/03/2011 5:26:58 AM PDT by thackney (life is fragile, handle with prayer)
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To: Jonty30
Apple peddles a thin-line keyboard that's nearly as robust as early manual typewriters when it comes to juice and sand.

Technology sometimes catches up with itself.

23 posted on 08/03/2011 5:27:10 AM PDT by muawiyah
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To: neverdem
Sigh... Gold film... Well, it's a start, but gold film in windows is a bad sign for obvious economic and quantity issues. I'm sure they'll turn to looking for a replacement. And they should be applauded for their work to date.
24 posted on 08/03/2011 5:29:31 AM PDT by Freeport (The proper application of high explosives will remove all obstacles.)
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To: FReepers
"Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we've been waiting for. We are the change that we seek".

Support Free Republic

25 posted on 08/03/2011 5:36:30 AM PDT by DJ MacWoW (America! The wolves are here! What will you do?)
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To: neverdem
polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

I think my wife gets that sometimes. I just try to avoid her for a few days.

26 posted on 08/03/2011 6:09:08 AM PDT by tnlibertarian (Don't mend SS, end it.)
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To: tnlibertarian

oh yeah, that’s the double dose.


27 posted on 08/03/2011 6:13:59 AM PDT by Balding_Eagle
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To: thackney
Your estimate is low.

While my estimate was “back of the envelope” your map is for a “Two-Axis Tracking Concentrator”. Windows don't track the sun. They don't concentrate the sun's energy. Without tracking, and without even optimal South-facing orientation, my estimate is probably generous. Only one quarter of the windows on a simplified home are South-facing. They will only be roughly oriented toward the sun in the morning and late in the afternoon when light passing through the atmosphere obliquely has already lost much of its energy to atmospheric absorption.

Bottom line: My estimate is high. Take the mid-range of idealized tracking concentrators (these are reflecting windows, not concentrator), 5 KWHrs for about 6 hours giving about 800 watts M-squared (hardly ever happens, but let's use it) divided by 4, assuming a South-facing wall, and, divided by 3 again since less than 2 hours of the 6 are directly incident, giving us about 260 watts, using the cosine of the angle between the sun's elevation to the perpendicular to the window brings you to 130 watts. Then, the reality of atmospheric absorption at low angles, which absorb about half the energy for modest atmospheric water content will bring the real energy available for conversion to electricity to about 65 Watts. Assume ten percent conversion efficiency, which is probably fair - 6.5 watts per square meter.

Without tracking there is little point. But perhaps we could provide tax incentives, or even have the EPA require that all future houses be mounted on gimbals allowing one wall with windows to be moved so to track the sun and our problem is solved!

I had to go through these details to be dissuaded from my idealistic notion of renewable solar energy while in graduate school. I also came to recognize the sad reality of research guided by the latest darling of the political class. Government funding of scientific research has helped to hinder legitimate research in many areas. Just look at climate science. Medicine is a mess. Look at Aids research, and the wonder discovery of the month, which is never heard from again, funded by our tax dollars. Cary Mullis, Nobel for PCR used to detect real virus, discovered that he could be paid for not lecturing about the truth - there is no evidence of a causal relationship between HIV and Aids. But we spend over ten billion a year to keep biochemists busy on what is very likely a wild goose chase. Politicians get plenty of support for their re-election campaigns, and for their compassion. Renewable energy is as good a scam as Aids research, and perhaps better if the can ram cap-and-trade down the throats of the gullible.

The materials science technology does look interesting, but its application is almost worthless. Now if the technology could be used for remote highway emergency phones, or for some other low power, high value application, it could make sense. But as our government's economy is being destroyed our radical left, universities will write proposals the radicals might approve so our grad students have some funding.

Our scientists and engineers are moving back to the countries some of them escaped, and from which some immigrated, Russia, China. I'm urging my children to learn Mandarin or Spanish (Chile), or French (Canada). Those in charge are destroying capitalism by having so many working in the nonproductive sector - government, and so many not working at all. There is no way to support so many non-workers, and no reason to swear allegiance to a country where individual rights are no longer protected by a Constitution.

28 posted on 08/03/2011 6:34:47 AM PDT by Spaulding
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To: Jonty30

Like, you hurl coffee or juice at your cat sitting in the window?


29 posted on 08/03/2011 2:20:51 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (There's gonna be a Redneck Revolution! (See my freep page))
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To: HiTech RedNeck

More like, it likes laying where you’re guarenteed to trip over it.


30 posted on 08/03/2011 2:26:53 PM PDT by Jonty30
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To: neverdem

Wow, first time in a long time I’ve read about Windows technology I could get energized about. :-/


31 posted on 08/03/2011 2:41:05 PM PDT by AFreeBird
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To: ApplegateRanch; AdmSmith; bvw; callisto; ckilmer; dandelion; ganeshpuri89; gobucks; KevinDavis; ...

Thanks ApplegateRanch.

· String Theory Ping List ·
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32 posted on 08/14/2011 4:51:17 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Yes, as a matter of fact, it is that time again -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Avery Iota Kracker
We make batteries a lot.

No buy.

 

"A light generating device utilizes a large centrally located magnet which is mounted to slide past a magnet pickup or current induction wire which may be preferably mounted at a center point of travel in a tubular housing having a tubular chamber through which the magnet travels. A pair of elastomeric bumpers are located each at the end of the tubular chamber which may be inside or outside the flashlight. The result is a device which both facilitates the manual movement of the flashlight body so that the magnet slides past the center magnet pickup or current induction wire, and also conserves the residual momentum of the magnet once it has traveled past the magnet pickup or current induction wire by providing a bumper and spring to conserve some of the mechanical energy going in the other direction. Ninety second of manual activation enables about five minutes of illumination. "

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6729744.html


33 posted on 08/14/2011 5:50:17 PM PDT by LomanBill (Animals! The DemocRats blew up the windmill with an Acorn!)
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