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New paper: Influence of solar cycles on climate change during the Maunder Minimum
wattsupwiththat.com ^ | September 29, 2014 | Anthony Watts

Posted on 09/29/2014 11:20:07 AM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach

Both observational and proxy records of climate change often show quasi periodic variations similar to solar activity cycles over a wide range of time scales. However, the detailed mechanism and the extent of the influence of solar activity on climate change have not been clearly understood. Although the exact role of each of solar parameters on climate change has not been quantitatively clarified, several possible mechanisms are proposed; such as the forcing through total (e.g. Lean et al., 1995) and spectral irradiance (e.g. Haigh 1996; Kodera and Kuroda, 2005), solar wind (e.g. Tinsley, 1996) and the galactic cosmic rays (Friis-Christensen and Svensmark, 1997; Svensmark, 2007). Among these parameters related to solar activity, galactic cosmic rays possess characteristic variations depending on the polarity of solar dipole magnetic filed as shown in Figure 1.

miyahara_fig1

The polarity of solar dipole magnetic field reverses at every maxima of 11-year sunspot activity cycle, and so the polarity reversals of solar magnetic field possess 22-year cycle. The cosmic rays are modulated by solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field and hence the flux of cosmic rays at the earth varies with the 11-year solar activity cycle, while, the polarity of solar dipole magnetic field determines the trajectory of cosmic rays in the heliosphere and thus the flux of cosmic rays at the earth varies depending also on the polarity of solar dipole magnetic field (Kota and Jokipii 2001). As is shown in
Figure 1, the patterns of cosmic ray flux over solar cycles slightly differ depending on the polarity of solar dipole magnetic field, resulting in the component of 22-year cycle in cosmic-ray variation. This feature is very helpful in distinguishing the effect of cosmic rays on climate change from the other effects caused by e.g. irradiative outputs of the Sun.
Extension of the record of cosmic rays back in time enable us to examine if the connection between cosmic rays and climate change suggested by Friis-Christensen and Svensmark (1997) and Svensmark (2007) for the recent two decades had also existed in the past. We had investigated the history of Schwabe and Hale solar and cosmic ray cycles based on the carbon-14 content in tree rings with annual time resolution, originally for understanding the mechanism of multi-decadal to multi-centennial variation of solar activity level. Such record is however also applicable to investigating the Sun-climate relationship at decadal time scale. Carbon-14 is produced by cosmic rays, and circulates in the form of carbon dioxide to be absorbed in trees by photo synthesis. Since the age determination of each annual data is assured in the case of using tree rings, it is possible to determine the history of solar cycles with accurate timing. The beryllium-10 in ice cores from polar region can be also used for the reconstruction of solar cycles in the past.
In the case of using ice cores, it is often difficult to obtain the record with absolute age, while, it is possible to derive much clear signal than carbon-14 due to the difference in the circulation process. The combination of these two nuclides provides clear image of cosmic ray variation with reliable age.

The mechanism of the influence of cosmic rays on the cloud formation is not fully understood, however, our proxy based analyses of cosmic rays and climate change during the Maunder Minimum exhibit the importance of cosmic rays as a medium of solar forcing of climate change at decadal to multi-decadal time scales. The complex features of solar magnetic and cosmic ray cycles, such as the variable length of the “11-year” cycle, the subsequent lengthening/shortening of the “22-year” Hale cycle, the amplification of the 22-year cycle in cosmic rays at grand solar minima, may be able to explain some of the complex features of climate change at this time scale.

Influence of solar cycles on climate change during the Maunder Minimum

Hiroko Miyahara et al., Solar and Stellar Variability: Impact on Earth and Planets

Abstract. We have examined the variation of carbon-14 content in annual tree rings, and investigated the transitions of the characteristics of the Schwabe/Hale (11-year/22-year) solar and cosmic-ray cycles during the last 1200 years, focusing mainly on the Maunder and Spoerer minima and the early Medieval Maximum Period. It has been revealed that the mean length of the Schwabe/Hale cycles changes associated with the centennial-scale variation of solar activity level. The mean length of Schwabe cycle had been ∼14 years during the Maunder Minimum, while it was ∼9 years during the early Medieval Maximum Period. We have also found that climate proxy record shows cyclic variations similar to stretching/shortening Schwabe/Hale solar cycles in time, suggesting that both Schwabe and Hale solar cycles are playing important role in climate change. In this paper, we review the nature of Schwabe and Hale cycles of solar activity and cosmic-ray flux during the Maunder Minimum and their possible influence on climate change. We suggest that the Hale cycle of cosmic rays are amplified during the grand solar minima and thus the influence of cosmic rays on climate change is prominently recognizable during such periods.

Full paper (PDF)


TOPICS: Conspiracy; Science; Weather
KEYWORDS: climatechange; climatechangefraud; godsgravesglyphs; littleiceage; maunderminimum; solarcycles
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1 posted on 09/29/2014 11:20:07 AM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

This is a great site.

Too bad it’s too advanced for a sizable percentage of the Obamadork butt-kissing climate “scientists”.


2 posted on 09/29/2014 11:22:42 AM PDT by Da Coyote
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Give me the Reader’s Digest version of the article ...


3 posted on 09/29/2014 11:23:02 AM PDT by 11th_VA
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To: Da Coyote

Hey, I resemble that comment ...


4 posted on 09/29/2014 11:23:36 AM PDT by 11th_VA
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To: 11th_VA

” Hey, I resemble that comment ...”

Heh, you’re going to that site, so you are most probably one of the good guys!


5 posted on 09/29/2014 11:27:28 AM PDT by Da Coyote
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

I’m not a liberal scientist, but does this mean solar influence has more to do with our climate than man made influences?


6 posted on 09/29/2014 11:29:23 AM PDT by WhyisaTexasgirlinPA (Tactical Firearms,Katy Tx: "the two enemies of guns, rust and politicians")
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To: WhyisaTexasgirlinPA

YES.

Only hand wringers and bed wetters believe in anthropogenic globull warming.

Facts are stubborn things and the facts are that anthropogenic globull warming is a fraud.


7 posted on 09/29/2014 11:33:24 AM PDT by Sequoyah101 (I)
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To: 11th_VA
Basically, solar cycles resulting in decreased sunspot activity = decreased solar irradiance = additional cosmic ray flux.

In brief, a double whammy: as solar irradiance declines, cosmic ray influx increases both absolutely and in terms of its angle of incidence.

This means greater cloud cover as the total solar energy reaching the earth decreases, hence even larger drops in surface temperature.

Finally, large time scale solar cycles are clearly visible in carbon-14 changes in tree rings, so those cycles probably play a greater role in long-term climate change than previously thought.

8 posted on 09/29/2014 11:35:16 AM PDT by pierrem15 ("Massacrez-les, car le seigneur connaƮt les siens")
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
Leftist loons and Socialist politicians will call BS on this article:

“Certainly you cannot possibly believe that a “large ball of fire in the sky” could be made to heat the Earth! That is something that a child would believe.

Everyone knows that driving your car to work (ewwww, how we HATE that four letter word) causes the Earth to heat up...unless there's a Pause....or cooling, but even still, it is the fault of fossil fuels!

Look at our complex graphs and computer models made by only the most scientific of Scientists. We on the Left hold the patent on Science, by the way, you right-wingers who discovered most of it have no say in anything concerning Science. We disqualify you, HA!

Facts are not part of our superior Socialist science! If something does not give more power to the government, take more money from taxpayers, or in someway harm a Christian or a Christian cause, then it is NOT science.

If our fellows in the Left have not voted that something is science, then it is not. It's as simple as that. By the way, you an the Right do not have a vote, we know it all and you know it!”

~Americans for Government Supremacy

9 posted on 09/29/2014 11:37:39 AM PDT by PATRIOT1876
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To: WhyisaTexasgirlinPA
I’m not a liberal scientist, but does this mean solar influence has more to do with our climate than man made influences?

Yes.

10 posted on 09/29/2014 11:38:31 AM PDT by verga (Conservative, leaning libertarian)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

This is really important to understand if you want to understand climate changes..

This has far, far more impact upon climate change than CO2 emissions!


11 posted on 09/29/2014 11:38:44 AM PDT by tired&retired
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

More data refuting anthropogenic globull warming but why do they cut it off in 2000 when we have more than another decade of data? Is it that hard to fill in the updates? Not doing so makes this look deceptive. Why do that? Most papers of this ilk do the same thing, they leave off obvious amounts of data.

Furthermore, why not add some useful data on temperature? Would that be so hard?


12 posted on 09/29/2014 11:38:55 AM PDT by Sequoyah101 (I)
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To: Sequoyah101

My husband’s go to retort to global warming/climate change idiots is: “explain the mini-ice age climate of the middle ages”


13 posted on 09/29/2014 11:39:03 AM PDT by WhyisaTexasgirlinPA (Tactical Firearms,Katy Tx: "the two enemies of guns, rust and politicians")
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To: 11th_VA

More sunspots means more solar magnetic field
More solar magnetic field means cosmic rays are blocked
Fewer cosmic rays means less cloud formation on Earth
Less cloud formation means more sunlight reaches Earth
More sunlight reaching earth means warmer Earth

Thus, more sunspots = warmer Earth
Conversely, less sunspots = cooler Earth

Look at the graph. The peak number of sunspots was low in 1970. The 70’s were especially cold. There was a large peak of sunspots in 1990. The 90’s were especially warm. The solar magnetic field in the past can be determined and it correlates well with long periods of cold and long warm periods.

We are expected to have an especially low peak number of sunspots in the present sunspot cycle. Expect some brutal winters


14 posted on 09/29/2014 11:39:24 AM PDT by kidd
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To: WhyisaTexasgirlinPA

Yes. Mankind can pollute rivers and parts of oceans, but setting the Earth’s temperature is not something we can do.


15 posted on 09/29/2014 11:40:13 AM PDT by SubMareener (Save us from Quarterly Freepathons! Become a MONTHLY DONOR!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
Hang on...is this to say the sun,that huge yellow thing that creates as much energy in a second as 20 billion nuclear explosions,actually influences our climate?
16 posted on 09/29/2014 11:40:29 AM PDT by Gay State Conservative (Islamopobia:The Irrational Fear Of Being Beheaded)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

We’re in-

% Just another mimic Maunder ....
[ooh ah ooh]


17 posted on 09/29/2014 11:55:00 AM PDT by mikrofon (One has gotta wonder...)
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To: pierrem15

Right. What you said! Thank you for distilling that. Much appeciated.


18 posted on 09/29/2014 11:55:28 AM PDT by DariusBane (Liberty and Risk. Flip sides of the same coin. So how much risk will YOU accept? Vive Deo et Vives)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Time to pass laws to ban driving automobiles on the sun. No airplanes or trains either. Forget coal fired power plants.

We must save the planet from global warming!

Fine and imprison anyone that would do such a thing.


19 posted on 09/29/2014 11:56:20 AM PDT by bobo1 (progressives=commies/fascists)
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To: 11th_VA
Al Gore is an idiot...............
20 posted on 09/29/2014 11:57:39 AM PDT by Red Badger (If you compromise with evil, you just get more evil..........................)
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