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Plutonium Shortage Could Stall Space Exploration
NPR ^ | 28 Sep 2009 | Nell Greenfieldboyce

Posted on 09/28/2009 10:29:07 PM PDT by BGHater

NASA is running out of the special kind of plutonium needed to power deep space probes, worrying planetary scientists who say the U. S. urgently needs to restart production of plutonium-238.

But it's unclear whether Congress will provide the $30 million that the administration requested earlier this year for the Department of Energy to get a new program going.

Nuclear weapons use plutonium-239, but NASA depends on something quite different: plutonium-238. A marshmallow-sized pellet of plutonium-238, encased in metal, gives off a lot of heat.

"If you dim the lights a little bit, it glows a little red, because it's very hot," says Stephen Johnson, director of space nuclear systems and technologies at the Idaho National Laboratory.

All that heat can be converted into electricity. "And this electricity is very, very useful, when you're in a remote or a hostile environment," says Johnson, "such as when you're in space and when you're too far away from sun to use solar power."

Supplies Are Dwindling

Nearly two dozen space missions have been powered by plutonium-238, including famous ones such as the Voyager probes in the 1970s, the Galileo probe that orbited Jupiter, and the Cassini spacecraft that is currently sending back images of Saturn's rings and moons. Spacecraft powered by plutonium-238 have revealed odd wonders of the solar system, like volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io and methane lakes on Saturn's moon Titan.

But stores of plutonium-238 are running low, because the production of this man-made material was a byproduct of Cold War activities, and the U.S. has not made any new supplies since the 1980s.

"We've been living off of the material that we had produced up until that time, and if you keep using material and you have a finite supply, eventually you run out, and that's where we are right now," says Ralph McNutt, a planetary scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

For a while, the U.S. purchased plutonium-238 from Russia. But Russia's production facilities were also shut down long ago, and now Russia has run out, too.

According to McNutt, NASA has enough plutonium-238 for its next Mars rover, called the Mars Science Laboratory, and the next planned major mission to the outer planets.

The agency could also potentially have a relatively low-cost, Discovery-class mission that would use only a small amount of the stuff, to test a new power-generation technology that could more efficiently convert the heat of plutonium-238 to electricity.

But that's about it, and after that, NASA would be stuck, McNutt says. "It's kind of like having a car, and if all the gasoline stations are closed and are out of gasoline, and you're out of gas," he says, "you're not going to go anywhere."

Without This Plutonium, Expect Delays

NASA could still explore places close enough to the sun for solar power to work. But for going far out into space, there is no substitute for plutonium-238, because of its unique properties.

"There isn't any other option," says McNutt, who was co-chairman of a National Research Council committee that released a report on this issue in May. That report said the shortage has already forced NASA to delay some missions and limit others.

And even if the Department of Energy restarts production now, it would still take about eight years to ramp up to making the 11 pounds or so needed by NASA each year.

Restarting production would be expensive, the report said — likely in excess of $150 million — but unless action is taken, NASA could find itself without needed supplies a decade from now.

This report seemed to get people's attention. The administration's budget request for the Department of Energy for fiscal year 2010 included $30 million to move toward new production.

"For us, that was a major step forward. A very positive thing, for both NASA and Department of Energy," says Hal Bell, director for the advanced planning and analysis division in the Office of the Chief Engineer at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C. "Previously, we had not seen that level of commitment."

Waiting For Congress To Decide

But as an appropriations bill made its way through Congress over the summer, the Senate knocked the amount to zero. And the House lowered it to just $10 million.

The White House issued a "statement of administration policy" in July urging Congress to give the requested funds for restarting domestic production, saying it's "essential" for planned NASA missions as well as national security applications.

Planetary scientists can now only wait to see what happens. Less money would mean more delay. "It really is the kind of thing where people will wake up 10 years from now and say, 'What were they thinking?' " says Alan Stern, a planetary scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in Colorado and chief scientist for NASA's New Horizons probe.

Right now, the New Horizons spacecraft is out past Saturn, headed to Pluto. "Our mission is a good example," Stern says. "We are going to Pluto in the Kuiper belt, where the sunlight is a thousand times lower and the temperatures are close to absolute zero."

He says this mission would simply not be possible without plutonium-238.


A pellet of plutonium-238 dioxide glows red because of heat generated by the radioactive decay of the material.


TOPICS: Astronomy; Science
KEYWORDS: astronomy; doe; nasa; plutonium; radiation; science; space; spaceexploration; spaceprogram

1 posted on 09/28/2009 10:29:07 PM PDT by BGHater
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To: BGHater

2 posted on 09/28/2009 10:35:31 PM PDT by ErnstStavroBlofeld ("We will either find a way, or make one."Hannibal/Carthaginian Military Commander)
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To: BGHater

The country is bankrupt and NASA is talking about going to Pluto.


3 posted on 09/28/2009 10:35:37 PM PDT by Frantzie (Do we want ACORN running America's healthcare?)
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To: Frantzie

They are already on their way. The Pluto Express.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pluto_Kuiper_Express


4 posted on 09/28/2009 10:37:00 PM PDT by ErnstStavroBlofeld ("We will either find a way, or make one."Hannibal/Carthaginian Military Commander)
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To: BGHater

‘Plutonium Shortage Could Stall Space Exploration’

Worse still, a surplus of Green Kryptonite has sent crime rates soaring.


5 posted on 09/28/2009 10:39:21 PM PDT by Jack Hammer (w)
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To: sonofstrangelove

They will get there right about the time the economy goes into it’s final dying gasp like a super nova to black hole.

Black hole? That’s racist!


6 posted on 09/28/2009 10:40:56 PM PDT by Frantzie (Do we want ACORN running America's healthcare?)
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To: BGHater
" . . . if you keep using material and you have a finite supply, eventually you run out . . ." says Ralph McNutt, a planetary scientist.

These eggheads think they know everything.

7 posted on 09/28/2009 10:42:09 PM PDT by Brugmansian
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To: BGHater

Why not use the Plutonium “pits” from nuclear warheads being “retired”?


8 posted on 09/28/2009 10:48:23 PM PDT by ErnstStavroBlofeld ("We will either find a way, or make one."Hannibal/Carthaginian Military Commander)
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To: BGHater
But it's unclear whether Congress will provide the $30 million that the administration requested earlier this year for the Department of Energy to get a new program going.

They should have partnered with ACORN. It would have been easier to get the cash.

9 posted on 09/28/2009 10:55:27 PM PDT by umgud (Look to gov't to solve your everday problems and they'll control your everday life.)
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To: BGHater

Sen John Testor has a bill to make more land in MT off limits under the guise of protection.

Some residents are saying that there are minerals and energy that can be mined for the country (jobs, energy independence and security).

Government Motors (ne GM) ended their contract with a Montana mining company for metals used in catalytic converters. They chose to buy from cheaper foreign sources.

The Pres__ent who said he wouldn’t get involved, is allowing the Senate to call in GuvMot to be asked why they aren’t buying more expensive minerals from Montana!

Land with precious metals, oil and coal is off limits for even exploration (heck, we can’t even cut down bark beetle infested trees to prevent fires.)

[Some will recall that land allowed to be explored for oil, will not be allowed to have that oil pumped]


10 posted on 09/28/2009 10:59:02 PM PDT by This_far (Mandatory health insurance? I thought it was about health care!)
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To: BGHater

Don’t see any reason we need to produce our own. We can always buy from Iran.


11 posted on 09/28/2009 11:04:32 PM PDT by newguy357
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To: sonofstrangelove
238 not 239. There might be some if they repross used fuel rods.
12 posted on 09/28/2009 11:10:00 PM PDT by Domangart (editor and publisher)
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To: newguy357

Iran might deliver it for free.


13 posted on 09/28/2009 11:14:24 PM PDT by Brugmansian
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To: Jack Hammer

>>Worse still, a surplus of Green Kryptonite has sent crime rates soaring.<<

Worse still, the Prime Directive keeps us from using Dilithium.


14 posted on 09/28/2009 11:14:38 PM PDT by freedumb2003 (Communism comes to America: 1/20/2009. Keep your powder dry, folks. Sic semper tyrannis)
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To: Domangart

I agree with that. There are plenty of them sitting in pools and caskets around the country.


15 posted on 09/28/2009 11:40:41 PM PDT by ErnstStavroBlofeld ("We will either find a way, or make one."Hannibal/Carthaginian Military Commander)
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To: BGHater

bump


16 posted on 09/28/2009 11:43:42 PM PDT by Captain Beyond (The Hammer of the gods! (Just a cool line from a Led Zep song))
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To: Domangart

I do not understand why NASA did not forsee this.


17 posted on 09/28/2009 11:56:09 PM PDT by ErnstStavroBlofeld ("We will either find a way, or make one."Hannibal/Carthaginian Military Commander)
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To: This_far; sionnsar; cogitator

Just a coincidence here, surely The Zero would never strand technology and energy sources out in the cold like this, would he? He would never suspend technology and exloration just because it needed plutonium, would he?

/sarchasm


18 posted on 09/28/2009 11:58:43 PM PDT by Robert A. Cook, PE (I can only donate monthly, but socialists' ABBCNNBCBS continue to lie every day!)
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To: Robert A. Cook, PE
...surely The Zero would never strand technology and energy sources...

Sarc noted. But what does it matter to him?

I don't think he has even seen the vast expanse of this country. Consider the 'road trip' vacations that he has recently taken (within our countries borders... not to Alaska though?)

As an aside, I'll note that John F Kerry (at least) had a cookie business in his resume. (he sold out to his partner)

19 posted on 09/29/2009 12:17:00 AM PDT by This_far (u)
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To: sonofstrangelove
I do not understand why NASA did not forsee this.

Of course they saw it coming. It is not like they could do anything about it. No senators were going to come to their aid (and that is what it will take) until they were nearly out. And there really aren't good alternatives. RTGs are the way to go in a deep space probe.
20 posted on 09/29/2009 5:52:50 AM PDT by TalonDJ
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To: Frantzie

Better that than Barney Frank mounting an expedition to Uranus.


21 posted on 09/29/2009 8:20:35 AM PDT by fieldmarshaldj (~"This is what happens when you find a stranger in the Alps !"~~)
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