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SHIP-SINKING MONSTER WAVES REVEALED BY ESA SATELLITES
European Space Agency.<ul> ^ | 21 July 2004

Posted on 07/25/2004 12:36:29 AM PDT by Yosemitest


Ship-sinking monster waves revealed by ESA satellites


 
Rare photo of a rogue wave
 
 
21 July 2004
 
Once dismissed as a nautical myth, freakish ocean waves that rise as tall as ten-storey apartment blocks have been accepted as a leading cause of large ship sinkings. Results from ESA's ERS satellites helped establish the widespread existence of these 'rogue' waves and are now being used to study their origins.
 
Severe weather has sunk more than 200 supertankers and container ships exceeding 200 metres in length during the last two decades. Rogue waves are believed to be the major cause in many such cases.

Mariners who survived similar encounters have had remarkable stories to tell. In February 1995 the cruiser liner Queen Elizabeth II met a 29-metre high rogue wave during a hurricane in the North Atlantic that Captain Ronald Warwick described as "a great wall of water… it looked as if we were going into the White Cliffs of Dover."

And within the week between February and March 2001 two hardened tourist cruisers – the Bremen and the Caledonian Star – had their bridge windows smashed by 30-metre rogue waves in the South Atlantic, the former ship left drifting without navigation or propulsion for a period of two hours.


 
 

 
Damage done by a rogue wave
 
 
"The incidents occurred less than a thousand kilometres apart from each other," said Wolfgang Rosenthal - Senior Scientist with the GKSS Forschungszentrum GmbH research centre, located in Geesthacht in Germany - who has studied rogue waves for years. "All the electronics were switched off on the Bremen as they drifted parallel to the waves, and until they were turned on again the crew were thinking it could have been their last day alive.

"The same phenomenon could have sunk many less lucky vessels: two large ships sink every week on average, but the cause is never studied to the same detail as an air crash. It simply gets put down to 'bad weather'."

Offshore platforms have also been struck: on 1 January 1995 the Draupner oil rig in the North Sea was hit by a wave whose height was measured by an onboard laser device at 26 metres, with the highest waves around it reaching 12 metres.


 
 

Merchant ship
 
Giant wave in Bay of Biscay
 
 
Objective radar evidence from this and other platforms – radar data from the North Sea's Goma oilfield recorded 466 rogue wave encounters in 12 years - helped convert previously sceptical scientists, whose statistics showed such large deviations from the surrounding sea state should occur only once every 10000 years.

The fact that rogue waves actually take place relatively frequently had major safety and economic implications, since current ships and offshore platforms are built to withstand maximum wave heights of only 15 metres.

In December 2000 the European Union initiated a scientific project called MaxWave to confirm the widespread occurrence of rogue waves, model how they occur and consider their implications for ship and offshore structure design criteria. And as part of MaxWave, data from ESA's ERS radar satellites were first used to carry out a global rogue wave census.
 
 

ERS-1 and 2
 
ERS satellite
 
 
"Without aerial coverage from radar sensors we had no chance of finding anything," added Rosenthal, who headed the three-year MaxWave project. "All we had to go on was radar data collected from oil platforms. So we were interested in using ERS from the start."

ESA's twin spacecraft ERS-1 and 2 – launched in July 1991 and April 1995 respectively – both have a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) as their main instrument.

The SAR works in several different modes; while over the ocean it works in wave mode, acquiring 10 by 5 km 'imagettes' of the sea surface every 200 km.


 
 

 
Example of an imagette from ERS-2
 
 
These small imagettes are then mathematically transformed into averaged-out breakdowns of wave energy and direction, called ocean-wave spectra. ESA makes these spectra publicly available; they are useful for weather centres to improve the accuracy of their sea forecast models.

"The raw imagettes are not made available, but with their resolution of ten metres we believed they contained a wealth of useful information by themselves," said Rosenthal. "Ocean wave spectra provide mean sea state data but imagettes depict the individual wave heights including the extremes we were interested in.

"ESA provided us with three weeks' worth of data – around 30,000 separate imagettes – selected around the time that the Bremen and Caledonian Star were struck. The images were processed and automatically searched for extreme waves at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR)."


 
 

 
Giant wave detected in ERS-2 imagette data
 
 
Despite the relatively brief length of time the data covered, the MaxWave team identified more than ten individual giant waves around the globe above 25 metres in height.

"Having proved they existed, in higher numbers than anyone expected, the next step is to analyse if they can be forecasted," Rosenthal added. "MaxWave formally concluded at the end of last year although two lines of work are carrying on from it – one is to improve ship design by learning how ships are sunk, and the other is to examine more satellite data with a view to analysing if forecasting is possible."

A new research project called WaveAtlas will use two years worth of ERS imagettes to create a worldwide atlas of rogue wave events and carry out statistical analyses. The Principal Investigator is Susanne Lehner, Associate Professor in the Division of Applied Marine Physics at the University of Miami, who also worked on MaxWave while at DLR, with Rosental a co-investigator on the project.


 
 
"Looking through the imagettes ends up feeling like flying, because you can follow the sea state along the track of the satellite," Lehner said. "Other features like ice floes, oil slicks and ships are also visible on them, and so there's interest in using them for additional fields of study.

"Only radar satellites can provide the truly global data sampling needed for statistical analysis of the oceans, because they can see through clouds and darkness, unlike their optical counterparts. In stormy weather, radar images are thus the only relevant information available."

So far some patterns have already been found. Rogue waves are often associated with sites where ordinary waves encounter ocean currents and eddies. The strength of the current concentrates the wave energy, forming larger waves – Lehner compares it to an optical lens, concentrating energy in a small area.
 
 

 
Giant wave in a wave tank
 
 
This is especially true in the case of the notoriously dangerous Agulhas current off the east coast of South Africa, but rogue wave associations are also found with other currents such as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic, interacting with waves coming down from the Labrador Sea.

However the data show rogue waves also occur well away from currents, often occurring in the vicinity of weather fronts and lows. Sustained winds from long-lived storms exceeding 12 hours may enlarge waves moving at an optimum speed in sync with the wind – too quickly and they'd move ahead of the storm and dissipate, too slowly and they would fall behind.

"We know some of the reasons for the rogue waves, but we do not know them all," Rosenthal concluded. The WaveAtlas project is scheduled to continue until the first quarter of 2005.

 
 

Related news

 
 

ERS-2 has new role 'nowcasting' Europe's weather

ESA's orbiting hurricane hunter back in action


In depth
Wave Atlas on ESA's EO PI Portal


Related links

MaxWave


 



TOPICS: Business/Economy; Extended News; Miscellaneous; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: archaeology; bermuda; boat; catastrophism; corliss; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; history; monsternotmonstor; monstor; perfectwave; satellite; science; ship; tidalwave; tsunami; waves; weather
Sorry for the odd spaces in the article. It took a while to dress up this post.

I think this will answer some questions about "unexplained disappearances of ships" and I hope other freepers also find this "very interesting".

1 posted on 07/25/2004 12:36:30 AM PDT by Yosemitest
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To: Yosemitest
Sorry for the odd spaces in the article. It took a while to dress up this post.

Tell me about it.

2 posted on 07/25/2004 12:40:15 AM PDT by uglybiker (Those are not classified documents inadvertently shoved down my pants. I'm just happy to see you.)
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To: Yosemitest
'Rogue waves' reported by mariners get scientific backing
      Posted by Rebelbase
On News/Activism 07/23/2004 3:25:25 AM CDT with 16 comments


yahoo news ^ | 7/21/04 | unknown
PARIS (AFP) - European satellites have given confirmation to terrified mariners who describe seeing freak waves as tall as 10-storey buildings, the European Space Agency (ESA) said. "Rogue waves" have been the anecdotal cause behind scores of sinkings of vessels as large as container ships and supertankers over the past two decades. But evidence to support this has been sketchy, and many marine scientists have clung to statistical models that say monstrous deviations from the normal sea state only occur once every thousand years. Testing this promise, ESA tasked two of its Earth-scanning satellites, ERS-1 and ERS-2, to monitor the...
     
 
Ship-sinking monster waves revealed by ESA satellites
      Posted by uglybiker
On News/Activism 07/23/2004 12:25:27 AM CDT with 42 comments


European Space Agency ^ | 7/21/04
Rare photo of a rogue wave Ship-sinking monster waves revealed by ESA satellites 21 July 2004Once dismissed as a nautical myth, freakish ocean waves that rise as tall as ten-storey apartment blocks have been accepted as a leading cause of large ship sinkings. Results from ESA's ERS satellites helped establish the widespread existence of these 'rogue' waves and are now being used to study their origins.   Severe weather has sunk more than 200 supertankers and container ships exceeding 200 metres in length during the last two decades. Rogue waves are believed to be the major cause in many such...
 

3 posted on 07/25/2004 12:41:19 AM PDT by Keith in Iowa (Michael Moore has made "documentary" a 1-word oxymoron.)
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To: Yosemitest
No reason anymore to cry surprise in case of the these waves visits Murmansk and Petropavlovsk soon ...
4 posted on 07/25/2004 1:00:10 AM PDT by Truth666
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To: Yosemitest
"We know some of the reasons for the rogue waves, but we do not know them all," Rosenthal concluded.

You know, but you aren't telling until the grant money runs out. It's GLOBAL WARMING!! Art Bell told me so.

5 posted on 07/25/2004 1:12:47 AM PDT by Fresh Wind (Uday is DU in Pig Latin)
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To: Yosemitest

First it was hugh, then came series, and now we must add monstor to the Freeper lexicon.


6 posted on 07/25/2004 1:50:49 AM PDT by ijcr (Age and treachery will always overcome youth and ability.)
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To: Yosemitest

Nessie? That you?


7 posted on 07/25/2004 2:32:57 AM PDT by Jaysun (Let me take yet another opportunity to tell the "moderates" to shove it ....... then twist it.)
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To: Fresh Wind; ijcr; Jaysun; Keith in Iowa; Truth666; uglybiker; ValerieUSA; Yosemitest
Many of these links may be dead by now, and last I knew the book was out of print by a mile:
Lanai Tsunami Deposit
by Volcano World
This is the deposit left by a giant tsunami as it washed up the south coast of Lana'i. The deposit consists of beach boulders plus coral fragments and sand, and extends to about 100 meters above sea level. Here it is about 4 meters thick.
The Hilina Slump a.k.a. "The Big Crack"
by Wiliam Corliss
A 4,760 cubic mile chunk of the Big Island (Hawaii) is breaking away at the rate of 4 inches per year. This is the Hilina Slump, and it is said to be "the most rapidly moving tract of ground on Earth for its size." The Hilina Slump can move much faster. At 4:48 AM, November 29, 1975, a 37-mile-wide section suddenly dropped 11* feet and slid seaward 26 feet. The result was a magnitude-7.2 quake and a 48-foot-high tsunami. This was a minor of the slump. If the entire 4,760-cubic-mile block decided to break off, it would probably create a magnitude-9 quake and a tsunami 1,000-feet high. All the coast-hugging cities of the Hawaiian Islands would be swept away. And LOOK OUT Australia, Japan, and California.
Japan faces tidal wave threat
Scientists in Japan have discovered a fault in the seabed off the country's coast with the potential to unleash a giant "tsunami" tidal wave. The newly-detected fault lies off the south-eastern coast of Japan and may have been responsible for the magnitude 8.1 earthquake which struck the country in 1944, they say... The fault is close enough to the Japanese coast for there to be only minutes between a substantial earthquake along it and the tsunami reaching land... Jin-Oh Park and his colleagues believe that the fault they have found may have been responsible not just for a magnitude 8.1 quake in 1944, but a nearby magnitude 8.3 quake two years later.
Giant Tsunami Would Follow Predicted Canary Isles Eruption
The computer model, compiled in collaboration with Steven Ward of the University of California, Santa Cruz, predicts that the tsunami will have a height of 100 metres (330ft) from crest to trough when it crashes into the shores of nearby north-west Africa. By the time it reached its final destination, the east coast of Florida and the Caribbean islands, the tsunami would still be up to 50 metres high.
The drowning wave
by Tristan Marshall
Any day now, a gargantuan wave could sweep westwards across the Atlantic towards the coast of North America. A mighty wall of water 50 metres high would hit the Caribbean islands, Florida and the rest of the eastern seaboard, surging up to 20 kilometres inland and engulfing everything in its path. If you thought the tsunamis that periodically terrorise the Pacific Ocean were big, consider this: the Atlantic wave will be five times bigger. It will start its journey 6000 kilometres away, when half an island crashes into the sea.
Landslide
by Jonathan Knight
7 August 1999
Everyone realised that dropping something the size of New York City into the ocean would kick up a big wave, but it was only when Moore returned to Hawaii to explore the island of Lanai that he realised just how big. On the south side of the island, limestone boulders were scattered, some as much as 100 metres above sea level. Since the island itself is made of volcanic rock, the limestone could only have come from coral reefs beneath the sea surface. Moore also found fields of coral and seashells as high as 120 metres. The piece of mountain that is shifting is much larger than the slide that soaked Lanai. It's more on the scale of the "Nuuanu" collapse that spun the New York-sized chunk of rock off Oahu more than 1 million years ago, says Julia Morgan, a geologist at the University of Hawaii's Manoa campus on Oahu, who has been watching the mountain closely.
Could sea slides occur off N.J. coast?
A computer simulation of the continental shelf 100 miles off the coast of New Jersey suggests that there may be pockets of water trapped under great pressure deep beneath the ocean floor. The study concluded that if such pressurized deposits of water exist, they could pose a threat of sudden undersea landslides. Peter B. Flemings and Brandon Dugan of Pennsylvania State University said even a small shaking of a mild earthquake could be enough for a sudden release of the water. That could cause undersea landslides down the side of the continental shelf. Such slides, involving many tons of sediment falling like an undersea avalanche down the side of a submerged mountain, have been known to cause tsunami waves.
Mt Pinatubo's brimming lake threatens thousands
by Joanna Marchant
25 July 01
This year has been particularly wet, and since the rainy season began in June the water level has been rising by up to a metre each week. The last time Rodolfo and Alonso flew over the lake in a military helicopter, they estimated that the water was only four metres from the lowest point of the crater wall, a V-shaped cleft called the Maraunot notch. Rodolfo and Alonso estimate that if the notch eroded down 10 metres, 30 million cubic metres of water would spill out. The water would probably mix with loose volcanic sediment on the way, hugely increasing its volume and creating a cement-like mixture knows as a "lahar". Rodolfo has seen fast-flowing lahars in action before. "It is a horrendous sight - horrifying and exceedingly beautiful." Engineering solutions to the threat include reinforcing the notch, or boring a tunnel into the crater to drain the lake. But the government says it is too late for such action now the rainy season has started. Rodolfo and Alonso believe this complacency could be disastrous and are now working with Oxfam to reach local agencies and people directly.
Asteroids and Tsunamis
by Michael Paine
5 November 1999
Tsunami can travel at around 400 mph in deep water. When they reach shallow water they slow down, and that's when the real danger begins. The front of the wave slows first and the effect is like a pile-up on a freeway, with the rear of the wave catching up to the front. The wave increases in height from this bunching effect. The final height of the wave depends on several factors, but the shape of the sea floor has the greatest impact.
Out There
by Louis A. Frank
and Patrick Huyghe
In the spring of 1986, I published my explanation of the black spots in a scientific journal: The Earth's atmosphere was being bombarded by house-sized, water-bearing objects traveling at 25,000 mph, one every three seconds or so. That's 20 a minute, 1,200 an hour, 28,800 a day, 864,000 a month and more than 10 million a year. These objects, which I call "small comets," disintegrate high above the Earth and deposit huge clouds of water vapor into the upper atmosphere. Over the history of this planet, the small comets may have dumped enough water to fill the oceans and may have even provided the organic ingredients necessary for life on Earth.

Scientists reacted to my announcement as if I had plowed through the sacred field of established science with a bulldozer. I had. If the small comets were real, one scientist commented, textbooks in a dozen sciences would have to be rewritten... I spent more than a year answering the objections of critics. But I didn't convince them. It was 10,000 to 1 -- actually 2, myself and John Sigwarth, whose task as my graduate student assistant had been to help me resolve this black-spot mystery. "We have taken a representative poll of current opinion in this field," an editor at Nature wrote in rejecting a small-comet paper we submitted to them in 1988, "and the verdict goes against you." It was my first encounter with taking polls as a way of doing science.

The Big Splash: A Scientific Discovery That Revolutionizes the Way We View the Origin of Life, the Water We Drink, the Death of the Dinosaurs, the Creation of the Oceans, the Nature of the Cosmos, and the Very Future of the Earth Itself The Big Splash:
A Scientific Discovery
That Revolutionizes
the Way We View the Origin of Life,
the Water We Drink,
the Death of the Dinosaurs,
the Creation of the Oceans,
the Nature of the Cosmos,
and the Very Future
of the Earth Itself

by Louis A. Frank
and Patrick Huyghe


8 posted on 07/25/2004 3:44:16 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Unlike some people, I have a profile. Okay, maybe it's a little large...)
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To: blam
Sorry, I forgot ya in the previous post/bump.
9 posted on 07/25/2004 3:45:02 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Unlike some people, I have a profile. Okay, maybe it's a little large...)
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To: Yosemitest

Note that the pictures on the MaxWave site are of the parties not of the waves. European science at its best.


10 posted on 07/25/2004 3:52:17 AM PDT by sguthery
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To: Yosemitest
"....The same phenomenon could have sunk many less lucky vessels: two large ships sink every week on average,...."

Whoa....never heard THAT statistic before. Two ships a week??

Gives me pause about taking my next cruise LOL.

11 posted on 07/25/2004 5:11:53 AM PDT by Victor
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To: ijcr

The waves are monstors of seriesly hugh proportions!


12 posted on 07/25/2004 5:17:16 AM PDT by LanPB01
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To: SunkenCiv

Wow!


13 posted on 07/25/2004 5:36:43 AM PDT by RAY (They that do right are all heroes!)
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To: Yosemitest

I bet the crew isn't thinking very interstering but W.T.F.


14 posted on 07/25/2004 6:26:31 AM PDT by Vaduz (and just think how clean the cities would become again.)
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To: Yosemitest
I am thinking of the Biblical prophecies in Revelations about the sinking of ships.
15 posted on 07/25/2004 6:27:01 AM PDT by Mark in the Old South
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To: Yosemitest

Bump!


16 posted on 07/25/2004 6:28:55 AM PDT by RudeJude
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To: Yosemitest
I think this will answer some questions about "unexplained disappearances of ships" ...

So, you're saying the aliens are causing these waves to happen. Make sense. ;->

17 posted on 07/25/2004 6:33:10 AM PDT by Jalapeno
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To: RAY
:') Thanks for the "wow'. :'D
18 posted on 07/25/2004 6:37:23 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Unlike some people, I have a profile. Okay, maybe it's a little large...)
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To: SunkenCiv
a 29-metre high rogue wave

There's some confusion about measuring waves.  Scientists measure wave height like circuit geeks measure signal amplitude - peak minus no wave level.   Reporters, surfers, and normal people look and a wave and think of the height as being from the top to the bottom -- makes sense but that can turn a '29-metre' wave into a '58-metre' wave.

It would have been good of them to clarify what they meant.

19 posted on 07/25/2004 7:47:47 AM PDT by expat_panama
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To: ijcr
"First it was hugh, then came series, and now we must add monstor to the Freeper lexicon."

I got one:

Remonstrate: to convert someone into a monster twice.

--Boris

20 posted on 07/25/2004 10:19:29 AM PDT by boris (The deadliest weapon of mass destruction in history is a Leftist with a word processor)
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To: Yosemitest
See Seich Wave Calculator

Seiching is the formation of standing waves in water body, due to wave formation and subsequent reflections from the ends. These waves may be incited by earthquake motions (similar to the motions caused by shaking a glass of water), impulsive winds over the surface, or due to wave motions entering the basin. The various modes of seiching correspond to the natural frequency reponse of the water body.

In this example, a rectangular basin (of infinite width) with given length and depth is seiching in accordance with the mode that you specified (greater than zero). The period of seiching (T) is determined by finding the correct length wave that will fit in the basin for the given water depth (based on linear water wave theory). The percent refers to the difference between the seiching period predicted by the dispersion relationship versus that usually used: shallow water theory.

(For shallow water theory, the seiching period is given by twice the basin length (l) divided by the modal number (n) and the speed of a shallow water wave (which depends on the water depth h)

As an example, try a basin of length 100 m, a depth of 20 m, and a mode number of two. Note that the water surface motion is out of phase with the velocities (shown with white lines). Also notice that the water motions do not have the elliptical orbits as progressive waves do (as in the Linear Kinematics applet). Under a node (no displacement of the water surface), the velocity is always horizontal, while under an antinode (max. displacement), the velocity is vertical. Further, this example (with quite a large water depth) gives quite a discrepancy between the linear theory result of the applet and the shallow water theory.

In the figure, you will notice that the number of modes corresponds to the number of nodal points (points of no motion of the water surface).

There are an infinite number of seiching modes possible, from the lowest (mode 1) to infinity. The period of oscillation decreases with mode number. Realistically, the lower modes probably occur in nature, as frictional damping affects the higher modes preferentially (higher frequency).

The seiching calculations for linear theory are given in Chapter 4 and 5 of Dean and Dalrymple, Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists, World Scientific Press.)

21 posted on 07/25/2004 10:23:42 AM PDT by boris (The deadliest weapon of mass destruction in history is a Leftist with a word processor)
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To: boris

But you would have to spell it:-Remonstorate.


22 posted on 07/25/2004 10:42:02 AM PDT by ijcr (Age and treachery will always overcome youth and ability.)
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To: SunkenCiv

wow


23 posted on 07/25/2004 11:10:17 AM PDT by y2k_free_radical (ESSE QUAM VIDERA-to be rather than to seem)
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To: expat_panama

"Reporters, surfers, and normal people look and a wave and think of the height as being from the top to the bottom -- makes sense but that can turn a '29-metre' wave into a '58-metre' wave."

Missleading at it's best!

I brought nback a 38' sailboat from the Istmus of Catalina to San Pedro in a whole gale that had been blowing for 3 days and the trough to peak of the waves was 50-70' which in a storm isn't that unusual in the Catalina channel.

It was a pretty exciting trip, the 25 miles was covered in an hour and 46 minutes, almost power boat speed.


24 posted on 07/25/2004 11:16:42 AM PDT by dalereed
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To: Yosemitest

Shackleton survived such a massive wave on his small boat trip to S. Georgia. Damage from a 1400 foot splash, after a landslide in Alaska, was reported on the Mega-Tsunami TV show on (?) Discovery channel.


25 posted on 07/25/2004 1:55:58 PM PDT by JohnBovenmyer (I)
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To: Yosemitest

bump


26 posted on 07/25/2004 2:04:45 PM PDT by VOA
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To: y2k_free_radical
:') Thanks for the "wow'. :'D
see Civ's favorites incl Books, Magazines, Movies, Music

27 posted on 07/25/2004 5:13:39 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Unlike some people, I have a profile. Okay, maybe it's a little large...)
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To: Yosemitest

"King" waves we call them... known to pluck fishermen off high cliffs on the west coast of Australia. They even have signs posted..."Beware of King Waves".


28 posted on 07/25/2004 5:19:24 PM PDT by Principled
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To: Yosemitest

If Bush had supported the Kyoto Treaty, these waves would never happen. /sarcasm


29 posted on 07/25/2004 5:22:20 PM PDT by rintense (Free the Soxdox!)
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To: Yosemitest
two large ships sink every week on average

If I owned one of those two ships I would just beach it and try to sell it for scrap. Every week? That has to be beyond annoying.

30 posted on 07/25/2004 5:23:59 PM PDT by RightWhale (Withdraw from the 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty and establish property rights)
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To: ijcr; Yosemitest
I can't spell either

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1177972/posts

goon = gonna

31 posted on 07/25/2004 8:07:40 PM PDT by dc27
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To: SunkenCiv; Grampa Dave; SierraWasp; Carry_Okie; Boot Hill; SoCal Pubbie
I need to think about moving from the Beach, 25 feet above Sea Level is only about 8 meters..
32 posted on 07/25/2004 9:16:35 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
Or, jack up the house a little and put it on an old barge...
33 posted on 07/25/2004 9:55:18 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Unlike some people, I have a profile. Okay, maybe it's a little large...)
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To: Yosemitest

Ship-sinking monster waves revealed by ESA satellites
European Space Agency | 7/21/04

Posted on 07/22/2004 10:25:27 PM PDT by uglybiker
Hollywood fantasy? Tidal wave disaster is just waiting to happen
The Guardian Unlimited | August 10, 2004 | Ian Sample

Posted on 08/11/2004 5:57:52 PM PDT by pepsi_junkie

34 posted on 08/12/2004 9:13:37 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Unlike some people, I have a profile. Okay, maybe it's a little large...)
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To: Principled
They even have signs posted..."Beware of King Waves".

How can they beware of them? By the time they see one coming, it's probably too late to run very far.

35 posted on 08/12/2004 9:20:54 AM PDT by Mr. Jeeves
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To: Mr. Jeeves

right- beware of standing too near the edge of the cliffs... just in case ya know!


36 posted on 08/15/2004 4:19:49 PM PDT by Principled
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Not a ping, just a catastrophism topic added to the catalog.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on, off, or alter the "Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list --
Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
The GGG Digest
-- Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

37 posted on 04/16/2005 10:06:46 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (FR profiled updated Monday, April 11, 2005. Fewer graphics, faster loading.)
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Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
 

· History topic · history keyword · archaeology keyword · paleontology keyword ·
· Science topic · science keyword · Books/Literature topic · pages keyword ·


38 posted on 06/24/2011 3:34:29 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
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Note: this topic is from 7/22/2004.



39 posted on 06/24/2011 3:36:18 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
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· GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach ·
· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic · subscribe ·

 
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 Excerpt, or Link only?
 


Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
 

· History topic · history keyword · archaeology keyword · paleontology keyword ·
· Science topic · science keyword · Books/Literature topic · pages keyword ·


40 posted on 06/24/2011 3:39:57 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
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To: Yosemitest

Interesting read. Thanks.


41 posted on 06/24/2011 3:42:19 PM PDT by EternalVigilance (Hey Republicans, get back to me if you ever decide to become republicans.)
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To: EternalVigilance

You’re welcome.


42 posted on 06/24/2011 5:18:00 PM PDT by Yosemitest (It's simple, fight or die.)
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