Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Far More Than A Meteor Killed Dinos, Evidence Suggests
Science Daily ^ | 10-24-2006 | GSA

Posted on 10/25/2006 3:33:16 PM PDT by blam

Source: Geological Society of America
Date: October 24, 2006

Far More Than A Meteor Killed Dinos, Evidence Suggests

There's growing evidence that the dinosaurs and most their contemporaries were not wiped out by the famed Chicxulub meteor impact, according to a paleontologist who says multiple meteor impacts, massive volcanism in India, and climate changes culminated in the end of the Cretaceous Period.

Cottonmouth Creek waterfall over the event deposit with reworked Chicxulub impact spherules. The original Chicxulub ejecta layer was discovered in a yellow clay layer 45 cm below the base of the event deposit. The yellow clay represents a cheto smectite clay consisting of altered Chicxulub impact glass spherules. (Image courtesy of Geological Society of America)

The Chicxulub impact may, in fact, have been the lesser and earlier of a series of meteors and volcanic eruptions that pounded life on Earth for more than 500,000 years, say Princeton University paleontologist Gerta Keller and her collaborators Thierry Adatte from the University of Neuchatel, Switzerland, and Zsolt Berner and Doris Stueben from Karlsruhe University in Germany. A final, much larger and still unidentified impact 65.5 million years ago appears to have been the last straw, exterminating two thirds of all species in one of the largest mass extinction events in the history of life. It's that impact -- not Chicxulub -- which left the famous extraterrestrial iridium layer found in rocks worldwide that marks the impact that finally ended the Age of Reptiles.

"The Chicxulub impact could not have caused the mass extinction," says Princeton University paleontologist Gerta Keller, "because this impact predates the mass extinction and apparently didn't cause any extinctions."

Keller is scheduled to present that evidence at the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Philadelphia, 22-25 October. The results of her research, which was funded by the National Science Foundation, will be discussed in two technical sessions and a public lecture sponsored by the Philadelphia Geological Survey.

Marine sediments drilled from the Chicxulub crater itself, as well as from a site in Texas along the Brazos River, and from outcrops in northeastern Mexico reveal that Chicxulub hit Earth 300,000 years before the mass extinction. Small marine animal microfossils were left virtually unscathed, says Keller.

"In all these localities we can analyze the marine microfossils in the sediments directly above and below the Chicxulub impact layer and cannot find any significant biotic effect," said Keller. "We cannot attribute any specific extinctions to this impact." No one has ever published this critical survival story before, she said. Keller's research was funded by the National Science Foundation.

The story that seems to be taking shape is that Chicxulub, though violent, actually conspired with the prolonged and gigantic eruptions of the Deccan Flood Basalts in India, as well as with climate change, to nudge species towards the brink. They were then shoved over with a second large impact.

The Deccan volcanism did the nudging by releasing vast amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere over a period of more than a million years leading up tothe mass extinction. By the time Chicxulub struck, the oceans were already 3-4 degrees warmer, even at the bottom, she says.

"On land it must have been 7-8 degrees warmer," says Keller. "This greenhouse warming is well documented. The temperature rise was rapid, over about 20,000 years, and it stayed warm for about100,000 years, then cooled back to normal well before the mass extinction."

Marine species at the time suffered from the heat. Most adapted to the stress conditions by dwarfing, growing less than half their normal size and reproducing rapidly with many offspring to increase the chances for survival. The Chicxulub impact coincided with this time. By the time climate cooled back to normal, most tropical species were on the brink of extinction. Then the second large impact hit and pushed them over the brink -- many straight to extinction.

As for how the dinosaurs were affected, that's a bit harder to say specifically, since dinosaurs did not leave a lot of fossils behind to tell the tale.

"Dinosaur fossils are few and far between," Keller said. "People love the dinosaurs but we can only really study what happened to them by looking at microfossils because these little critters are everywhere at all times. In just a pinch of sediment we can tell you the age, the prevailing climate, the environment in which it was deposited and what happened. It's remarkable."

What the microfossils are saying is that Chicxulub probably aided the demise of the dinosaurs, but so did Deccan trap volcanism's greenhouse warming effect and finally a second huge impact that finished them off. So where's the crater?

"I wish I knew," said Keller. "There is some evidence that it may have hit in India, where a crater of about 500 kilometers in diameter is estimated and named Shiva by paleontologist Sankar Chatterjee from the Museum of Texas Tech University in Lubbock. The evidence for it, however, is not very compelling at this time."


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: catastrophism; crevolist; deccantraps; dinos; dinosaur; dinosaurs; fallscounty; gertakeller; killed; meteor; paleontology; sciencewrongagain; volcanism
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-95 next last

1 posted on 10/25/2006 3:33:17 PM PDT by blam
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv

GGG Ping?


2 posted on 10/25/2006 3:34:09 PM PDT by blam
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam

I'm sticking with the flood idea...hehehe


3 posted on 10/25/2006 3:35:03 PM PDT by DonaldC
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam

I always thought it was Doug McClure with a spear.


4 posted on 10/25/2006 3:35:37 PM PDT by pissant
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam

it was emission from pre-historic SUV's (known as mammoths and the large amounts of methane they released, as well as they took up the da*n smokin habit)...


5 posted on 10/25/2006 3:35:43 PM PDT by GeorgiaDawg32 (At 53, I'm the life of every party I go to, even if it lasts till 8 p.m...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: DonaldC

Agree, why more people can't take the Bible literally and come to the conclusion that a world-wide flood killed the dinosaurs is beyond me.


6 posted on 10/25/2006 3:37:01 PM PDT by pctech
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: pissant

nah, it was rachal..she made them stop in their tracks so the hunter/gatherers could get to them..

one dino to another: DAMMIT, WHY can't OUR females look like that??


7 posted on 10/25/2006 3:37:04 PM PDT by GeorgiaDawg32 (At 53, I'm the life of every party I go to, even if it lasts till 8 p.m...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: blam

Makes sense. Any one event is probably not enough to cause a worldwide mass extinction -- unless it comes at just the worst possible time because of other events which happen to be taking place at the same time and already putting a strain on the ecosystems. In that situation, it'd be the last straw, but all the events would be contributing factors.


8 posted on 10/25/2006 3:37:07 PM PDT by Ichneumon (Ignorance is curable, but the afflicted has to want to be cured.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam

hi


9 posted on 10/25/2006 3:37:45 PM PDT by CHICAGOFARMER (12 TH GENERATION PATRIOT.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: pctech
Agree, why more people can't take the Bible literally and come to the conclusion that a world-wide flood killed the dinosaurs is beyond me.

Because all the real-world evidence contradicts that hypothesis.

10 posted on 10/25/2006 3:37:51 PM PDT by Ichneumon (Ignorance is curable, but the afflicted has to want to be cured.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: blam

Global warming; who would have guessed?


11 posted on 10/25/2006 3:40:08 PM PDT by Old Professer (The critic writes with rapier pen, dips it twice, and writes again.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam
There's growing evidence that the dinosaurs and most their contemporaries were not wiped out by the famed Chicxulub meteor impact, according to a paleontologist who says multiple meteor impacts, massive volcanism in India, and climate changes culminated in the end of the Cretaceous Period.

(Gen 7:10 KJV) And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.

(Gen 7:11 KJV) In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.

12 posted on 10/25/2006 3:41:00 PM PDT by RaceBannon (Innocent until proven guilty: The Pendleton 8)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: GeorgiaDawg32

We know it wasn't Ringo Starr.


13 posted on 10/25/2006 3:41:19 PM PDT by pissant
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: blam
For the real reason dinosaurs became extinct, click here....
14 posted on 10/25/2006 3:41:20 PM PDT by mewzilla (Property must be secured or liberty cannot exist. John Adams)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Old Professer

You mean it wasn't from smoking?


15 posted on 10/25/2006 3:41:20 PM PDT by dfwgator
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: dfwgator

Hee hee, great minds....


16 posted on 10/25/2006 3:42:04 PM PDT by mewzilla (Property must be secured or liberty cannot exist. John Adams)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: blam

I know I'm beat BUT
.
.
.
BLAME BUSH


17 posted on 10/25/2006 3:42:53 PM PDT by IrishMike (Democrats .... Stuck on Stupid, RINO's ...the most vicious judas goats)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: dfwgator

Maybe the secondhand smoke from the volcano...


18 posted on 10/25/2006 3:43:04 PM PDT by Old Professer (The critic writes with rapier pen, dips it twice, and writes again.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: GeorgiaDawg32

19 posted on 10/25/2006 3:44:12 PM PDT by magslinger (If at first you don't succeed, squeeze, squeeze again.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: magslinger

Thank you!!!


20 posted on 10/25/2006 3:44:39 PM PDT by dfwgator
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: magslinger

my point precisely..


21 posted on 10/25/2006 3:45:18 PM PDT by GeorgiaDawg32 (At 53, I'm the life of every party I go to, even if it lasts till 8 p.m...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: pissant
I always thought it was Doug McClure with a spear.

Didn't he use a big rock and a catapult?
22 posted on 10/25/2006 3:48:47 PM PDT by rottndog (WOOF!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: rottndog

LOL. You could be right. A little dicey going after T-Rex with a spear.


23 posted on 10/25/2006 3:51:12 PM PDT by pissant
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 22 | View Replies]

To: GeorgiaDawg32

1 picture=1000 words


24 posted on 10/25/2006 3:51:58 PM PDT by magslinger (If at first you don't succeed, squeeze, squeeze again.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: pctech
Agree, why more people can't take the Bible literally and come to the conclusion that a world-wide flood killed the dinosaurs is beyond me.

The fact that there isn't the remotest scrap of evidence that a world-wide simultaneous flood ever occured at any point in the history of the earth might have something to do with it.

BTW, where in the Bible was the "except the dinosaurs" clause from God to Noah?

25 posted on 10/25/2006 3:52:35 PM PDT by Strategerist (Those who know what's best for us must rise and save us from ourselves)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: blam

Try 40 days and nights of rain and floods!


26 posted on 10/25/2006 3:53:57 PM PDT by US Navy guy
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam

I get tired of all this bickering over how many million years ago something happened. I say let's just build the time machine and go back and settle this once and for all.


27 posted on 10/25/2006 3:55:11 PM PDT by BipolarBob
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Strategerist
BTW, where in the Bible was the "except the dinosaurs" clause from God to Noah?

It wasn't in there because most of them had already been exterminated bt the time of Noah. Where was Greenpeace and PETA then when they were really needed?

28 posted on 10/25/2006 3:57:35 PM PDT by BipolarBob
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: blam

maybe the work of a serial killer?


29 posted on 10/25/2006 4:06:09 PM PDT by isom35
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: dfwgator

30 posted on 10/25/2006 4:06:39 PM PDT by southernnorthcarolina (Some people are like Slinkies: totally useless, but fun to throw down a stair.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: BipolarBob

It was Bush's fault, just get with it, alright!


31 posted on 10/25/2006 4:09:38 PM PDT by observer5 (It's not a War on Terror - it's a WAR ON STUPIDITY)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: blam

bttt


32 posted on 10/25/2006 4:12:09 PM PDT by dennisw (Life is a tragedy for those who feel, and a comedy for those who think.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam
In other words, they don't know WTF killed the dinos. And the don't really know when they lived, but they're sure they did. They think.

ML/NJ

33 posted on 10/25/2006 4:13:18 PM PDT by ml/nj
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: pctech
Agree, why more people can't take the Bible literally and come to the conclusion that a world-wide flood killed the dinosaurs is beyond me.

The timing is off by about 65 million years.

34 posted on 10/25/2006 4:15:07 PM PDT by Coyoteman (I love the sound of beta decay in the morning!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: IrishMike
BLAME BUSH

Bush and those damned SUVs.

Women and minorities hardest hit.

35 posted on 10/25/2006 4:15:17 PM PDT by Bubba_Leroy (What did Rather know and when did he know it?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: magslinger

They just don't make cave women like that any more.


36 posted on 10/25/2006 4:17:29 PM PDT by tet68 ( " We would not die in that man's company, that fears his fellowship to die with us...." Henry V.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: blam

Wasn't Chicxulub that annoying little guy who used to mess with Superman - the guy you had to say his name backwards to make him go away?


37 posted on 10/25/2006 4:20:00 PM PDT by 2 Kool 2 Be 4-Gotten
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: cogitator

Info.


38 posted on 10/25/2006 4:20:30 PM PDT by Robert A. Cook, PE (I can only donate monthly, but Hillary's ABBCNNBCBS continue to lie every day!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Strategerist

"The fact that there isn't the remotest scrap of evidence that a world-wide simultaneous flood ever occured at any point in the history of the earth might have something to do with it.


BTW, where in the Bible was the "except the dinosaurs" clause from God to Noah?"

Couple things. The Grand Canyon is a pretty good indication of a world wide flood. I can't recall where I read it but there have been many instances of fossils of sea creatures in mountain ranges throughout the earth. How did they get there? Almost every religion on earth makes mention of a deluge that destroyed entire cultures. Just a few "scraps of evidence" of a world-wide flood.

Also, the Bible doesn't say "except the dinosaurs". Perhpas Noah put them on (the smaller versions as our modern day dinosaurs - alligators et al - continue to grow for life) and perhaps they couldn't survive as well in the post-flood earth - what with no water vapor canopy and all. I don't know as I wasn't there. However, God said there was a flood that reached over the mountaintops so I believe there was. I don't have all the details but that's what makes faith so beautiful. You don't need to have everything explained in detail or human logic (otherwise it isn't faith). Some things just don't make a lot of sense right now.
Not unlike rooting for a football team. You have all the faith in the world that your team will make it to and win the super bowl. Why? You just do - a matter of faith.


39 posted on 10/25/2006 4:25:58 PM PDT by 1forall (America - my home, my land, my country.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: pctech
Agree, why more people can't take the Bible literally and come to the conclusion that a world-wide flood killed the dinosaurs is beyond me.

That's a very honest admission.

40 posted on 10/25/2006 4:26:04 PM PDT by mc6809e
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: pctech
Agree, why more people can't take the Bible literally and come to the conclusion that a world-wide flood killed the dinosaurs is beyond me.

That's a very honest admission.

41 posted on 10/25/2006 4:26:10 PM PDT by mc6809e
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: blam

Vindicating Gore and increasing his chances for a 2nd presidential nomination...
He was right, he was there!


42 posted on 10/25/2006 4:27:38 PM PDT by citizencon
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: ml/nj

"In other words, they don't know WTF killed the dinos. And the don't really know when they lived, but they're sure they did. They think."

Yup. And after many more decades that will still be the situation because no one was there to see it for themselves.


43 posted on 10/25/2006 4:28:45 PM PDT by Scotswife
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: pissant

44 posted on 10/25/2006 4:29:23 PM PDT by Westlander (Unleash the Neutron Bomb)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: blam
Well what do you know. Climate change took place on earth without any assistance from man.

Perhaps its a fact of life on an ever-changing planet.

Regards, Ivan

45 posted on 10/25/2006 4:29:37 PM PDT by MadIvan (I aim to misbehave.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam

I would go with the simple notion that a meteor that large could have created a caldera where it hit. Then, in a relatively short period of time the caldera would have erupted in a supervolcano, wiping out all nearby traces of the meteor hit.

The location of that crater could be narrowed down by the only places on Earth without an Iridium layer attributed to that meteor.


46 posted on 10/25/2006 4:31:21 PM PDT by Popocatapetl
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Scotswife
And after many more decades that will still be the situation because no one was there to see it for themselves.

There are lots of things I didn't see for myself. I never saw Thomas Jefferson. I've never seen the pyramids of Egypt, nor heard a single shot fired in the War Between the States. But I have no doubt that those things are/were real.

ML/NJ

47 posted on 10/25/2006 4:34:03 PM PDT by ml/nj
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

To: pctech
Big Flood.
Maybe some meteoric and volcanic action stirred into the mix ('windows of heaven being opened, and fountains of the great deep broken up') ...Some heavy duty stuff was going on.

Genesis 7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
12And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.

48 posted on 10/25/2006 4:34:46 PM PDT by El Cid
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: blam

Was the Deccan event an asteroid impact? There was another massive lava event in Siberia. Was that also an asteroid impact?


49 posted on 10/25/2006 4:35:43 PM PDT by RightWhale (Repeal the law of the excluded middle)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: RaceBannon
Re: 12

eh, I should have read further down ... you beat my post (#48).

50 posted on 10/25/2006 4:36:02 PM PDT by El Cid
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-95 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson