Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Last glimpse inside ancient enigma[UK][Silbury Hill]
BBC ^ | Stephen Smith

Posted on 01/31/2008 8:31:26 AM PST by BGHater


Silbury Hill

Silbury Hill remains an enigma despite extensive excavations

Inside Silbury Hill

You're in your jouncing people-carrier, taking in the agreeable but unremarkable view, and then suddenly it's upon you; a pointy attention-grabber at the side of the road, towering street furniture in the shape of a hazard-warning equilateral. This is crushing historical time expressed in trigonometry.

Old Egypt hands could be forgiven for thinking that the terrible shark's fin that I'm talking about is the sort of thing that looms in your windshield as you're driving through the suburbs of Cairo.

But they'd be wrong. Or they'd be half-right. Silbury Hill is a pile of chalk just off the A4 in Wiltshire but it's been called "Europe's answer to the pyramids".

There's its silhouette, for a start. Then there's the fact that the tons of calcium carbonate which went to make it were being quarried at about the same time as the pharaonic tombs were going up.

Perhaps the most pertinent similarity is that no one knows exactly how Silbury was built.

Indeed, as you round a bend out of Marlborough and come face to face with the hill, the thought that our distant kin are credited with building something so utterly alien is what immediately connects it with the ziggurats of the Nile delta.

Silbury Hill

Silbury Hill

130ft mound

completed about 2350 BC

excavated in 1776, 1849, 1968


No wonder that it's said to have been a clod of earth which fell from the Devil's foot as he flew over the Wessex plains, or a landing beacon for UFOs.

Others maintain that it's the mausoleum of a long-lost monarch. King Sil (hence 'Sil-bury') and that he's interred with a statue of his faithful steed, cast entirely from gold.

In fact, no one's sure what they got up to at Silbury as much as 4,400 years ago, though the latest dig has come out strongly in favour of singing and against sacrifices.

On a bright morning not so long ago, motorists may have seen adepts of early music ascending the 40 metre hill with their horns and their fifes, their skins and their bladders, in order to establish that sound carried from the summit to the plains below.

The hill was a bandstand, at least for some of the time. Later, under Norman rule, it was a lookout post.

Graphic showing routes and dimensions of Silbury Hill tunnels


There are no signifiers of ritual killings, apparently. Silbury is a very clean site, in the jargon, though not as a clean as it must have been before turf grew over the chalk, when it might have looked from a distance like a mammoth's tusk.

Such are the results of the painstaking proddings and scrapings of English Heritage, who are responsible for the hill.

Earlier prospectors weren't so kid-gloved, sinking a mineshaft into the crown and hacking into the flanks. Locals piled in, hopeful of stumbling upon King Sil's 24-carat nag.

The effects of those clumsy fumblings became apparent a few years ago when a hole opened at the apex of the hill. The tunnelers had disturbed the chalk, creating voids or air holes.

Enigmatic silence

Inside the hill

We were the last civilians to walk inside the hill

A great English monument was in danger of falling in on itself like a sagging Yorkshire pudding.

One last excavation was sanctioned and a team from Newsnight joined it in its final stages.

The historians have uncovered arrowheads, and dense, stony antlers which were used as tools.

They now know that Silbury didn't go up all at once but in three stages. Deep inside the hill, beneath up to half a million tonnes of ever so slightly unstable chalk, we goggled at the perfectly preserved fronds of moss which had grown four millennia ago on the slopes of the original mound.

We were the last civilians to walk inside the hill, along its tunnels, beneath groaning beams that wouldn't have been out of place in a gold mine.

That's what impressionable or avaricious people thought Silbury was, of course, though the gilded gee-gee was never recovered, and the latest technology has failed to find any human remains, royal or otherwise.

English Heritage believe that the only way to conserve the hill is to close it up. Miners now labour below ground to pack the chalk and seal it with a special paste. In a few days or weeks, the grail of thousands of years will be beyond reach and Silbury - the great tepee, the big tent, of our woad-striped forefathers - will be restored to enigmatic silence.


TOPICS: Miscellaneous; United Kingdom
KEYWORDS: archaeoastronomy; godsgravesglyphs; marlboroughmound; megaliths; mound; silburyhill; tomb; wessex; wiltshire

1 posted on 01/31/2008 8:31:29 AM PST by BGHater
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv; blam

One for you guys?


2 posted on 01/31/2008 8:33:12 AM PST by dynachrome (Immigration without assimilation means the death of this nation~Captainpaintball)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: dynachrome

Fascinating.


3 posted on 01/31/2008 8:56:44 AM PST by EggsAckley
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: BGHater

Look! A pile of dirt!


4 posted on 01/31/2008 9:47:20 AM PST by Phantom Lord (Fall on to your knees for the Phantom Lord)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

Roman clues found at ancient hill (UK).
BBC | Saturday, March 10, 2007
Posted on 03/10/2007 10:42:54 AM EST by Jedi Master Pikachu
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1798602/posts

Work Begins To Uncover Secrets Of Silbury Hill
The Telegraph (UK) | 5-12-2007 | Richard Savill
Posted on 05/12/2007 1:43:08 PM EDT by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1832542/posts

In pictures: Inside Silbury Hill
BBC | Wednesday, October 24, 2007 | unattributed
Posted on 11/03/2007 1:05:42 PM EDT by SunkenCiv
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1920515/posts

related / also of interest:

Buried Megaliths Discovered At Stone Circle Site (Avebury)
Ananova | 12-2-2003
Posted on 12/02/2003 8:34:50 PM EST by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1032670/posts

Stonehenge Didn’t Stand Alone, Excavations Show
National Geographic | 1-12-2007 | James Owen
Posted on 01/13/2007 6:00:37 PM EST by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1767225/posts


5 posted on 01/31/2008 10:16:05 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__________________Profile updated Wednesday, January 16, 2008)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: dynachrome; blam; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 49th; ...

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Thanks dynachrome.
no one's sure what they got up to at Silbury as much as 4,400 years ago
Not long after the Giza pyramids.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are Blam, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

· Google · Archaeologica · ArchaeoBlog · Archaeology magazine · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Mirabilis · Texas AM Anthropology News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo ·
· History or Science & Nature Podcasts · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·


6 posted on 01/31/2008 10:17:32 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__________________Profile updated Wednesday, January 16, 2008)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: BGHater; dynachrome
It's those darn R1b Haplogroupies again.

"The members of R1b are believed to be the descendants of the first modern humans who entered Europe about 35,000-40,000 years ago ( Aurignacian culture). Those R1b forebearers were the people who painted the beautiful art in the caves in Spain and France. They were the contemporaries (and perhaps exterminators) of the European Neanderthals.

BTW, I'm R1b.

7 posted on 01/31/2008 10:32:44 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam

12,000 Years Ago. (After the Ice Age)

8 posted on 01/31/2008 10:34:44 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Phantom Lord
Look! A pile of dirt!

Dude! It's a pile of rocks covered with dirt. Don't dis the pile!

9 posted on 01/31/2008 10:38:07 AM PST by rogue yam
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: blam

So YOU did in the neanderthals!

Where is the endangered species act when ya need it?


10 posted on 01/31/2008 10:46:19 AM PST by dynachrome (Immigration without assimilation means the death of this nation~Captainpaintball)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: dynachrome
"So YOU did in the neanderthals!"

Nah. All their women ran off with boys from our clan. Those are the red headed amoungst us.

Redheads 'Are Neanderthals'

11 posted on 01/31/2008 10:49:40 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: blam

I’m probably R1b too. My people have been painting themselves blue and running naked into battle since before Stonehenge was built.

Painting themselves blue and running naked, huh? Kinda reminds me of college.


12 posted on 01/31/2008 10:55:48 AM PST by CholeraJoe ("A dead whale or a stove boat!")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: CholeraJoe
"I’m probably R1b too."

My mtDNA is 'V'. A Skolt Sami of all things.

13 posted on 01/31/2008 11:04:39 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: blam

I’ve not been tested but with 3 of 4 grandparents with Welsh surnames, and my brown hair and green eyes, chances are pretty good I’m R1b. You don’t get much more Welsh than being named Diones (Jones), Mwr (Moore), and Powys (Powers.)


14 posted on 01/31/2008 11:12:22 AM PST by CholeraJoe ("A dead whale or a stove boat!")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: CholeraJoe
I've read that the % of 'O' type blood behind Offa's Dyke is the highest in the world. Do you have 'O' type blood?


15 posted on 01/31/2008 11:17:01 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: blam

Of course I do. Both my parents and all my aunts and uncles did, too.

Powis (Powys) Castle on your map is our ancestral home. Not that I could just walk in and plop down in front of the fire, mind you.


16 posted on 01/31/2008 11:25:53 AM PST by CholeraJoe ("A dead whale or a stove boat!")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: CholeraJoe
"Powis (Powys) Castle on your map is our ancestral home."

Neat. ( Atlantic Modal Haplotype)

My R1b, DYS390 is 23, which indicates a Nordic ancestry and we (probably) arrived in the Isles as one of the invading forces, Saxons, Danes or Vikings. My BIL is, R1b, DYS390-24...definately Irish.

17 posted on 01/31/2008 11:37:47 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: blam
Powis Castle, Welshpool, Powys, Wales.

They'd probably let me muck out the stables when I visit. If my relatives had been important, they never would have left.

18 posted on 01/31/2008 11:45:16 AM PST by CholeraJoe ("A dead whale or a stove boat!")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: CholeraJoe
" If my relatives had been important, they never would have left."

I have the same 'feeling' about mine.

19 posted on 01/31/2008 11:50:19 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: blam

I looked into getting my blood tested a while ago, but can no longer find the link where I read the information... Do you by chance know the link I’m speaking of — it was to participate in some genetic study and I think I ran across the information here at FR?

Anyway, I was born with red hair which I was told fell out and then grew back in blondish as a young child and then has gotten progressively darker as time goes by, all with red highlights underneath though... Also, fair-skinned, freckled, short, and a wee bit stocky (I easily gain muscle-mass when working at it at all). My eldest daughter who looks the most like me has even more red in her hair than I. So, I’m guessing my ancestors were R1b somewhere along the line (I’m adopted, so I don’t know what nationality my ancestors are/were). This stuff is always so fascinating to me.


20 posted on 01/31/2008 12:14:32 PM PST by LibertyRocks ("Islam - The Religion of Pieces" -- quote from LR's "Infidel & Proud" Daughter)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: LibertyRocks
"I looked into getting my blood tested a while ago, but can no longer find the link where I read the information... Do you by chance know the link I’m speaking of — it was to participate in some genetic study and I think I ran across the information here at FR?"

Probably here.

"So, I’m guessing my ancestors were R1b somewhere along the line (I’m adopted, so I don’t know what nationality my ancestors are/were). "

Red hair is not exclusive to R1b. My neighbor is haplogroup I1a and he and his brother are red haired.

21 posted on 01/31/2008 2:03:38 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: blam

Very cool! Thank you so much for the link/ping(s). :)


22 posted on 01/31/2008 2:25:11 PM PST by LibertyRocks ("Islam - The Religion of Pieces" -- quote from LR's "Infidel & Proud" Daughter)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: blam

That is Arthur’s hood.


23 posted on 01/31/2008 2:27:45 PM PST by RightWhale (oil--the world currency)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: BGHater

Oh woad, woad is me!


24 posted on 01/31/2008 2:38:41 PM PST by tet68 ( " We would not die in that man's company, that fears his fellowship to die with us...." Henry V.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: BGHater
Cool.

Folks who get a chance to see it should also check out nearby Avebury.

25 posted on 01/31/2008 2:44:17 PM PST by mewzilla (In politics the middle way is none at all. John Adams)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv

26 posted on 01/31/2008 3:17:53 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: blam

I’ve been thinking about getting one of those cheek swabs...I’ll freak out, though, if it unexpectedly shows French ancestry.


27 posted on 01/31/2008 3:29:32 PM PST by Sam Cree (absolute reality)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv; blam; ForGod'sSake; mewzilla

This aerial view of the Avebury stone circle shows the circle enclosing the village. In 2003 missing stones forming part of the great stone circle were discovered underground using computer equipment during surveys conducted by the National Trust. Avebury Circle, built 2800-2700 bc is a Bronze Age causewayed camp—a circular structure with an entrance at the four cardinal points. The circle of sarsen stones just inside the earth rampart encloses two further stone circles.

Firuzabad, Iran.

28 posted on 01/31/2008 3:46:50 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

Whoa....


29 posted on 01/31/2008 4:04:24 PM PST by mewzilla (In politics the middle way is none at all. John Adams)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: mewzilla

Whoa...methinks while we dig inside the mounds, we miss the bigger picture. What did the ancients see that gave rise to this symbolism?

http://i7.photobucket.com/albums/y258/FredNerks/Stonehenge.jpg

http://i7.photobucket.com/albums/y258/FredNerks/AlgerianSahara-1.jpg

http://i7.photobucket.com/albums/y258/FredNerks/cuicuilco001.jpg

http://i7.photobucket.com/albums/y258/FredNerks/GilgalRefaim.jpg

http://i7.photobucket.com/albums/y258/FredNerks/Orkney12-1.jpg

http://i7.photobucket.com/albums/y258/FredNerks/orkney1-1.jpg


30 posted on 01/31/2008 4:30:57 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 29 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks
Wow. Awesome pics, Fred.

What did the ancients see that gave rise to this symbolism?

That is a darn good question...

31 posted on 01/31/2008 4:36:37 PM PST by mewzilla (In politics the middle way is none at all. John Adams)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

To: mewzilla

CARAL.

32 posted on 01/31/2008 4:48:48 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 31 | View Replies]

To: LibertyRocks

My mother’s family (Colman) has a history going back to the 1700s, and their wives’ families are equally interesting. The family name Williams is Welsh, I am told. We also have a strong concentration of Dutch ancestry, with some Belgian connections. I should get my brother to be tested... as I remember, it was for male descendants, wasn’t it?


33 posted on 01/31/2008 4:49:26 PM PST by TenthAmendmentChampion (Global warming is to Revelations as the theory of evolution is to Genesis.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: CholeraJoe

One of my wife’s ancestors was an upper class English lady. She fell in love with one of the hired hands and they ran off to America.


34 posted on 01/31/2008 5:03:04 PM PST by colorado tanker
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: TenthAmendmentChampion

Actually, this particular project is for both females and males. :) You can read more about it at the link blam shared here: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1423472/posts

I’m thinking of asking my husband to get tested as well. His family is Polish on both sides as far back as we have been able to trace thus far. It would be interesting to see from his DNA if there was indeed a migration or intermarriage, or if they had always lived in that area (at least as far back as scientists could tell from this! LOL).


35 posted on 01/31/2008 5:30:31 PM PST by LibertyRocks ("Islam - The Religion of Pieces" -- quote from LR's "Infidel & Proud" Daughter)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: TenthAmendmentChampion
"I should get my brother to be tested... as I remember, it was for male descendants, wasn’t it?"

You have the same DNA as your brother.

The only difference is that he will pass on his Y-Chromosome (male) DNA to his children but not his Mitochondral(female) (mtDNA) DNA. If you are a female, you will pass on your mtDNA(female) but not your yDNA(male) DNA to your children. You (and your brother) have your mother's mtDNA and your father's yDNA.

My father and his mother are both dead. I was able to test my dad's mothers DNA by checking his sisters daughter...my cousin. BTW, my dad's mother was a Smith and she had DNA haplogroup U5a1a. Her relatives were from Scotland when it was still possible to walk (no North Sea) and visit her relatives who are still in Finland.

36 posted on 01/31/2008 5:33:06 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks
Very cool pictures, thank you for sharing them.

The overall design of some of those places are very reminiscent of the description of Atlantis by Plato...

Atlantis Plato
37 posted on 01/31/2008 5:37:46 PM PST by LibertyRocks ("Islam - The Religion of Pieces" -- quote from LR's "Infidel & Proud" Daughter)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

To: LibertyRocks
"His family is Polish on both sides as far back as we have been able to trace thus far."

Probably R1a(see post #8), maybe 'I'. See here for some info.

38 posted on 01/31/2008 5:38:23 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: LibertyRocks

As above, so below?

Living in Paradise
In summary, for a thousand years during the “Age of the Gods,” from about 4200 BC to 3100 BC, it was Paradise on Earth. The climate in the Middle East was mild and wet. With Earth in an orbit below Saturn, the Sun would not have been at the center of the orbit. The northern hemisphere would have faced the Sun year-round, and there would not have been the drastic changes in seasons we experience today. Mankind lived in harmony with the Gods, who supplied the techniques of agricultural cultivation, the plans for cities and temples, and the knowledge of the wheel, writing, and music. And for a thousand years the images in the sky provided a spectacular show.

http://www.saturniancosmology.org/polar.php#h15


39 posted on 01/31/2008 8:09:04 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

To: LibertyRocks

http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2004/arch/040923saturn-ancient.htm

“Worldwide drawings and symbols of the once-dominant luminary show a disc with rays, a disc with spokes, a disc with a central orb or eye, a disc with a crescent upon it”


40 posted on 01/31/2008 8:17:30 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

To: BGHater
Damn shame to close the mound up, IMO.
41 posted on 01/31/2008 9:34:20 PM PST by Ciexyz
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

It’s been quite a month for this kind of thing, no?


42 posted on 01/31/2008 10:48:10 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__________________Profile updated Wednesday, January 16, 2008)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv

just add water and there you have it...the legendary Atlantis, possibly constructed according to a celestial phenomenon.

43 posted on 02/01/2008 1:51:38 AM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 42 | View Replies]

To: blam

I see they have a White Castle At the southern end. I love those Burgers!


44 posted on 02/01/2008 7:05:48 AM PST by ABN 505
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: ABN 505
"I see they have a White Castle At the southern end."

Yup, it's a shame...many have begun living off their royalties.

45 posted on 02/01/2008 7:12:26 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 44 | View Replies]

To: CholeraJoe

Those boxwoods are HUGE! Must be hundreds of years old.


46 posted on 02/01/2008 7:15:28 AM PST by Rb ver. 2.0 (Global warming is the new Marxism.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

:’)


47 posted on 02/01/2008 7:51:08 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__________________Profile updated Wednesday, January 16, 2008)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

Very interesting! Thank you so much for the links. I find it fascinating that such diverse cultures/areas/civilizations have so much in common in ancient times. One can even draw parallels between some of the mythology and Biblical history as well. Fascinating stuff indeed!


48 posted on 02/01/2008 1:18:05 PM PST by LibertyRocks ("Islam - The Religion of Pieces" -- quote from LR's "Infidel & Proud" Daughter)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 40 | View Replies]

To: LibertyRocks
"I was born with red hair (fire engine, not orange) which I was told fell out (at 6 months) and then grew back in blondish (white) as a young child and then has gotten progressively darker as time goes by, all with red highlights underneath though (only in my beard)... Also, fair-skinned, freckled, short, and a wee bit stocky (unusually stocky) (I easily gain muscle-mass when working at it at all).

FWIW, my family claims German but as far as I can guess is more "Prussian" as the greatest concentration of my rather rare last name is from the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg. I have no idea where they came from before that.

When you arent fixed up for a night out do you have something of a...um...unusually youthful, almost childlike appearance?(rhetorical)

Despite middle age, without my beard, when going out I would get carded.

Somewhere along the line I read an account written by someone facing Prussian troops who described the ones he was facing as unusually stout and boyish in appearance...now I wish I knew where I had read that...

49 posted on 02/02/2008 9:15:14 AM PST by gnarledmaw (It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: CholeraJoe

Ya’all perhaps claimin’ to be related to Commander Butt Naked?

Just wonderin”

;-)


50 posted on 02/02/2008 9:24:05 AM PST by GladesGuru (In a society predicated upon freedom, it is essential to examine principle)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson