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Way Under the Sea, Violent Eruptions From Volcanoes
NY Times ^ | July 8, 2008 | HENRY FOUNTAIN

Posted on 07/12/2008 8:51:22 PM PDT by neverdem

In 1999, seismographs detected a swarm of earthquakes at a spot on the Gakkel ridge, a midocean ridge that traverses the Arctic. A few expeditions to the area, north of Siberia about 350 miles from the pole, produced indirect evidence of explosive eruptions deep on the seafloor.

Explosive volcanism at such depths would be very unusual, said Robert A. Sohn of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts. “People had been afraid to even suggest it, because it seemed so ludicrous.”

Seafloor volcanoes do erupt violently, but in relatively shallow water. The Gakkel ridge spot is 13,000 feet down, and at such great depths it had been thought that explosive eruptions could not occur because there is not enough gas in magma to overcome the immense pressure.

So in 2007 Dr. Sohn led another expedition to the area, sending a homemade contraption down to the seafloor with high-definition video cameras and a sampling device. His team’s findings, reported in Nature, show conclusively that explosive eruptions occurred.

The evidence came in the form of fresh pyroclastic deposits, small bits of volcanic rock, spread over an area greater than four square miles. The researchers even found evidence of Limu o Pele, fragments of the wall of an exploding bubble of magma. A map of the area created using sonar showed what appeared to be cratered volcanoes that probably were the focus points of the explosions...

--snip--

Dr. Sohn said the work showed how much there is to be learned about what goes on along deep midocean ridges. For one thing, explosive volcanism like this involving the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide may not be so rare. “Our community is going to embrace this pretty quickly as a research topic,” he said.

(Excerpt) Read more at nytimes.com ...


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: arctic; arcticregions; catastrophism; climatechange; environment; globalwarming; oceans; science; volcanoes
These glassy granular fragments of basalt are eruption evidence. (Credit: Adam Soule and Claire Willis)

Explosive volcanism on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean

Roughly 60% of the Earth's outer surface is composed of oceanic crust formed by volcanic processes at mid-ocean ridges. Although only a small fraction of this vast volcanic terrain has been visually surveyed or sampled, the available evidence suggests that explosive eruptions are rare on mid-ocean ridges, particularly at depths below the critical point for seawater (3,000 m)1. A pyroclastic deposit has never been observed on the sea floor below 3,000 m, presumably because the volatile content of mid-ocean-ridge basalts is generally too low to produce the gas fractions required for fragmenting a magma at such high hydrostatic pressure. We employed new deep submergence technologies during an International Polar Year expedition to the Gakkel ridge in the Arctic Basin at 85° E, to acquire photographic and video images of 'zero-age' volcanic terrain on this remote, ice-covered ridge. Here we present images revealing that the axial valley at 4,000 m water depth is blanketed with unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits, including bubble wall fragments (limu o Pele)2, covering a large (>10 km2) area. At least 13.5 wt% CO2 is necessary to fragment magma at these depths3, which is about tenfold the highest values previously measured in a mid-ocean-ridge basalt4. These observations raise important questions about the accumulation and discharge of magmatic volatiles at ultraslow spreading rates on the Gakkel ridge5 and demonstrate that large-scale pyroclastic activity is possible along even the deepest portions of the global mid-ocean ridge volcanic system.

You can access linked abstracts of references from that link.

1 posted on 07/12/2008 8:51:22 PM PDT by neverdem
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To: neverdem

I am going to get flamed for this sarcastic comment..... but here it goes....

It is all global warmings fault isn’t.... :)


2 posted on 07/12/2008 8:52:49 PM PDT by Americanwolf (Don't Think a cop will help? Try calling a crack head next time......!! Thanks Thorin!)
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To: SunkenCiv; blam

Ping.


3 posted on 07/12/2008 8:55:29 PM PDT by FrogMom
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To: neverdem

I saw some pretty incredible footage on one of the “educational” channels a number of years ago of a volcano erupting under the ocean. After seeing that, it was a lot easier from me to understand things like El Nino and what the jugheads call “global warming.” I may be wrong but that molten lava spewing out into the ocean like that has to do something to the temperature of the water. Imagine what it would do to the ice above it.


4 posted on 07/12/2008 8:58:13 PM PDT by FlingWingFlyer (The U.S. Constitution was not written to protect those who want to destroy America.)
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To: Americanwolf
,i>It is all global warmings fault isn’t.... :)

Nope, its Global Warming the way Mother Nature intended it.

5 posted on 07/12/2008 8:58:21 PM PDT by lightman (Waiting for Godot and searching for Avignon)
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To: Americanwolf
It is all global warmings fault isn’t.... :)

No, it's Bush's fault! /sarc

6 posted on 07/12/2008 8:59:02 PM PDT by rabscuttle385 (Off balance sheet liabilities...they're not just for Enron anymore!)
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To: lightman
"Nope, its Global Warming the way Mother Nature intended it." best qoute of the day... :)
7 posted on 07/12/2008 9:01:45 PM PDT by Americanwolf (Don't Think a cop will help? Try calling a crack head next time......!! Thanks Thorin!)
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To: lightman

Calling AlGore. Calling AlGore. You have a phone call from 20,000 leagues under the sea Please go answer it! Oh, that’s right, your full of hot air and would rise. ;-)


8 posted on 07/12/2008 9:01:52 PM PDT by K-oneTexas (I'm not a judge and there ain't enough of me to be a jury. (Zell Miller, A National Party No More))
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To: neverdem

>>
...For one thing, explosive volcanism like this involving the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide may not be so rare. “Our community is going to embrace this pretty quickly as a research topic,” he said...
<<

The velocity of the embrace is proportional to how well it agrees with the Current Wisdom.


9 posted on 07/12/2008 9:02:11 PM PDT by theBuckwheat
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To: Americanwolf
I am going to get flamed for this sarcastic comment..... but here it goes....

It is all global warmings fault isn’t.... :)

You bet your sweet bippy it is or Geo. W's fault.

10 posted on 07/12/2008 9:04:56 PM PDT by Dustbunny (Freedom prospers when religion is vibrant and the rule of law under God is acknowledged. The Gipper)
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To: Americanwolf
Actually, the carbon gases emitted seems from this article to be the cause, not the result of global warming. If such huge amts. are emitted frequently from these seismic events, then our carbon emissions are negligible.

However, since there is no such thing as "global warming" except in the fertile minds of the Algores of the world---this article is interesting and a matter of oceanographic research; but in the day to day mindlessness of the Chicken Littles of GW persuasion---so what!

vaudine

11 posted on 07/12/2008 9:05:26 PM PDT by vaudine (RO)
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To: FlingWingFlyer

“I may be wrong but that molten lava spewing out into the ocean like that has to do something to the temperature of the water. “

Just like a giant aquarium heater.


12 posted on 07/12/2008 9:07:01 PM PDT by UCANSEE2
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To: UCANSEE2

So now we know why the ice is melting in some areas. (while increasing in others)


13 posted on 07/12/2008 9:18:45 PM PDT by icwhatudo
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To: El Gato; Ernest_at_the_Beach; Robert A. Cook, PE; lepton; LadyDoc; jb6; tiamat; PGalt; Dianna; ...
Catholic University professor pioneers lunar telescope-making method

Arsenic risk high in Sumatra, Myanmar, Cambodia: study (ground water contamination)

Human embryonic stem cells developed from 4-cell embryo; world first may lessen ethical concerns

FReepmail me if you want on or off my health and science ping list.

14 posted on 07/12/2008 9:27:07 PM PDT by neverdem (I'm praying for a Divine Intervention.)
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To: neverdem

The shocking thing about this article is that it is in the NY Times. One would expect that liberal rag to bury any reporting explaining the true cause of the Arctic ice melting.


15 posted on 07/12/2008 9:37:41 PM PDT by chopperman
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To: neverdem

Very interesting ,,,thanks.,


16 posted on 07/12/2008 9:40:29 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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To: neverdem
New picture just released


17 posted on 07/12/2008 9:44:59 PM PDT by Pylon (Remember boys, flies spread disease, so keep yours closed.)
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To: neverdem

But what about the Gorwellian Concensus on CO2?


18 posted on 07/12/2008 9:55:36 PM PDT by PeaceBeWithYou (De Oppresso Liber! (50 million and counting in Afganistan and Iraq))
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To: neverdem

The carbon budget changed,

Human contribution to co2 increased levels are now substantially reduced with this finding.

Time to DRILL DRILL DRILL!


19 posted on 07/12/2008 10:41:58 PM PDT by dila813
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To: theBuckwheat
The velocity of the embrace is proportional to how well it agrees with the Current Wisdom.

I'm not so sure. I think there are a lot of embarrassed scientists who are looking for an objective way to change their minds about global warming.

20 posted on 07/12/2008 11:05:08 PM PDT by Chaguito
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To: Chaguito; All

Dont forget too, that the temp of the water directly affects the amount of CO2 it can hold in solution. its an inverse relationship, the colder the water the more it holds. The warmer the water, the more it releases, and it wont absorb as much. As that water moves south, and warms up, the Co2 entrained will begin to come out of solution and back into the atmosphere. Id love to see the volumes of Co2 in THAT particular water sample, I bet its almost fizzy like beer!


21 posted on 07/12/2008 11:11:41 PM PDT by intenseracer (Beauty is in the eye of the beerholder)
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To: neverdem
Refueling accident at the UFO base?
22 posted on 07/12/2008 11:53:56 PM PDT by SeaWolf (Orwell must have foreseen the 21st Century US Congress when he wrote 1984)
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To: neverdem; Defendingliberty; Genesis defender; WL-law; Normandy; TenthAmendmentChampion; FrPR; ...
Thanx !

 



Beam Me to Planet Gore !

23 posted on 07/13/2008 5:00:07 AM PDT by steelyourfaith
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To: lightman
Nope, its Global Warming the way Mother Nature intended it.

But it is actually global cooling... the heat is being transferred from within to the outside, where it will dissipate.

24 posted on 07/13/2008 5:43:20 AM PDT by Smokin' Joe (How often God must weep at humans' folly.)
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To: Chaguito
>>
I think there are a lot of embarrassed scientists who are looking for an objective way to change their minds about global warming.
<<

We can only hope they find a way to work up the courage to join the popular crowd that is hell-bent on proving AGW no matter what and follow where the facts have always pointed, no matter what the professional consequences.

Because liberals (even liberal scientists) lack principles, their decision-making processes don't have a “tipping point” as much as they they have a “flipping point”, where they suddenly feel compelled to support something they previously had worked against.

25 posted on 07/13/2008 6:03:15 AM PDT by theBuckwheat
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To: icwhatudo

I know what you are saying, and you are exactly correct.

But, I also think it is like everything else.
earthquakes
global warming
sunspots

There is not just one factor. There are many. So many it is very hard to predict, almost impossible, one might say.


26 posted on 07/13/2008 7:59:23 AM PDT by UCANSEE2
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To: neverdem


Do shallow (1500 meters) eruptions count too? Loihi has been active for at least twelve years. Of course Kilauea has been erupting for the last 25 years and pouring lava into the ocean and creating a nuisance with noxious vog. Wait......we have no precious ice cap here so it's like tossing a match into the sea.

27 posted on 07/13/2008 3:27:49 PM PDT by BIGLOOK (Keelhaul Congress! It's the sensible solution to restore Command to the People.)
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To: neverdem
Making the estimate that the ice is about 3 meters thick in the arctic. (Of course, it is much thicker some places and much thinner in others.) Then the energy of Mount St. Helens would melt about 100 square kilometers of ice in the Arctic. (Assuming the energy were transmitted straight to the ice, without heating the water.)

The bottom line
The Arctic goes through some serious changes in sea ice extent every year as the season change. The sea ice extent changes by about 10 million square kilometers every year. 100 square kilometers is about one hundred thousandth of that. It would take a thousand volcanos the size of Mount St. Helens every year to account for just 1% of the yearly Arctic ice loss.

The numbers for the above conclusion are worked out here

Best Regards,
ClimateSanity
28 posted on 07/13/2008 9:08:05 PM PDT by ClimateSanity
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To: neverdem

thanks neverdem for both:

Arsenic risk high in Sumatra, Myanmar, Cambodia: study
(ground water contamination)
AFP | 07/11/08
Posted on 07/12/2008 12:14:22 AM PDT by TigerLikesRooster
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/2044328/posts


29 posted on 07/13/2008 10:08:22 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_________________________Profile updated Friday, May 30, 2008)
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To: FrogMom; 75thOVI; aimhigh; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aristotleman; Avoiding_Sulla; BenLurkin; ..
Thanks FrogMom.
 
Catastrophism
· join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post new topic ·

30 posted on 07/13/2008 10:08:37 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_________________________Profile updated Friday, May 30, 2008)
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To: ClimateSanity

Let me be the first to welcome you to FreeRepublic.com, and thank you for the link.

I didn’t post the article for any particular reason, i.e. melting of the Arctic Ocean’s Icesheet. I’m a science junky, and vulcanism and its effect on ocean pH, coral reefs and atmospheric carbon dioxide are other interesting phenomena off the top of my head.

I checked out your link and some of your website. Is 1.0E+6 a standard exponential notation for 10 to the 6th power now? It’s been quite a while since I got my B.S. Physicians usually don’t have deal with exponential notation.


31 posted on 07/14/2008 12:01:41 AM PDT by neverdem (I'm praying for a Divine Intervention.)
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To: SunkenCiv; LucyT

thanks for the ping Civ.

LucyT, this topic may be of interest to you.


32 posted on 07/14/2008 2:57:25 AM PDT by Fred Nerks ( IT'S A HOOT IT'S A TOOT!)
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