Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

New World post-pandemic reforestation helped start Little Ice Age, say Stanford scientists
www.physorg.com ^ | 12-18-2008 | Source: Stanford University

Posted on 12/18/2008 8:57:54 AM PST by Red Badger

The power of viruses is well documented in human history. Swarms of little viral Davids have repeatedly laid low the great Goliaths of human civilization, most famously in the devastating pandemics that swept the New World during European conquest and settlement.

In recent years, there has been growing evidence for the hypothesis that the effect of the pandemics in the Americas wasn't confined to killing indigenous peoples. Global climate appears to have been altered as well.

Stanford University researchers have conducted a comprehensive analysis of data detailing the amount of charcoal contained in soils and lake sediments at the sites of both pre-Columbian population centers in the Americas and in sparsely populated surrounding regions. They concluded that reforestation of agricultural lands-abandoned as the population collapsed-pulled so much carbon out of the atmosphere that it helped trigger a period of global cooling, at its most intense from approximately 1500 to 1750, known as the Little Ice Age.

"We estimate that the amount of carbon sequestered in the growing forests was about 10 to 50 percent of the total carbon that would have needed to come out of the atmosphere and oceans at that time to account for the observed changes in carbon dioxide concentrations," said Richard Nevle, visiting scholar in the Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences at Stanford. Nevle and Dennis Bird, professor in geological and environmental sciences, presented their study at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union on Dec. 17, 2008.

Nevle and Bird synthesized published data from charcoal records from 15 sediment cores extracted from lakes, soil samples from 17 population centers and 18 sites from the surrounding areas in Central and South America. They examined samples dating back 5,000 years.

What they found was a record of slowly increasing charcoal deposits, indicating increasing burning of forestland to convert it to cropland, as agricultural practices spread among the human population-until around 500 years ago: At that point, there was a precipitous drop in the amount of charcoal in the samples, coinciding with the precipitous drop in the human population in the Americas.

To verify their results, they checked their fire histories based on the charcoal data against records of carbon dioxide concentrations and carbon isotope ratios that were available.

"We looked at ice cores and tropical sponge records, which give us reliable proxies for the carbon isotope composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide. And it jumped out at us right away," Nevle said. "We saw a conspicuous increase in the isotope ratio of heavy carbon to light carbon. That gave us a sense that maybe we were looking at the right thing, because that is exactly what you would expect from reforestation."

During photosynthesis, plants prefer carbon dioxide containing the lighter isotope of carbon. Thus a massive reforestation event would not only decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but would also leave carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that was enriched in the heavy carbon isotope.

Other theories have been proposed to account for the cooling at the time of the Little Ice Age, as well as the anomalies in the concentration and carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with that period.

Variations in the amount of sunlight striking the Earth, caused by a drop in sunspot activity, could also be a factor in cooling down the globe, as could a flurry of volcanic activity in the late 16th century.

But the timing of these events doesn't fit with the observed onset of the carbon dioxide drop. These events don't begin until at least a century after carbon dioxide in the atmosphere began to decline and the ratio of heavy to light carbon isotopes in atmospheric carbon dioxide begins to increase.

Nevle and Bird don't attribute all of the cooling during the Little Ice Age to reforestation in the Americas.

"There are other causes at play," Nevle said. "But reforestation is certainly a first-order contributor."


TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: agw; catastrophism; cooling; globalwarming; godsgravesglyphs; science; scientists; stanford; trees
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-81 next last
So, if we plat too many trees we'll all freeze to death?...................
1 posted on 12/18/2008 8:57:55 AM PST by Red Badger
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: xcamel

Too many trees bad ping............


2 posted on 12/18/2008 8:58:31 AM PST by Red Badger (I was sad because I had no shoes to throw, until I met a reporter who had no feet.....)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

so the cure for global warming is pandemic?


3 posted on 12/18/2008 8:59:05 AM PST by the invisib1e hand (appeasement is collaboration.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

To paraphrase Sarah Palin: “Log, baby, log!”


4 posted on 12/18/2008 8:59:13 AM PST by ZirconEncrustedTweezers (God helps those who help themselves. The government helps those who don't.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger
Photobucket
5 posted on 12/18/2008 9:00:02 AM PST by IrishPennant (Patriotism is strongest when accompanied by bad politics, loyal FRiends and great whiskey)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: the invisib1e hand

It would seem so.......Now everything is clear...........


6 posted on 12/18/2008 9:00:28 AM PST by Red Badger (I was sad because I had no shoes to throw, until I met a reporter who had no feet.....)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

It’s because South Korea reforested after most of its trees were taken during Japanese occupation.


7 posted on 12/18/2008 9:00:45 AM PST by Loud Mime ("Only the dead have seen the end of war" Plato)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Loud Mime

Haiti is safe.........


8 posted on 12/18/2008 9:01:14 AM PST by Red Badger (I was sad because I had no shoes to throw, until I met a reporter who had no feet.....)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

Fire good. Trees bad.


9 posted on 12/18/2008 9:01:45 AM PST by null and void (Hey 0bama? There will be a pop quiz every day for the next four years...miss a question, people die.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: the invisib1e hand
A large number of warmists, and their ilk, would welcome something like a global pandemic that would wipe out most of humanity (themselves excepted, of course).
10 posted on 12/18/2008 9:03:27 AM PST by USFRIENDINVICTORIA
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: null and void

“Fire good. Trees bad.”

Trees wood. Wood burn. Circle of life. Life good.


11 posted on 12/18/2008 9:04:05 AM PST by shoutingandpointing
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger
Nevle and Bird synthesized published data from charcoal records from 15 sediment cores extracted from lakes, soil samples from 17 population centers and 18 sites from the surrounding areas in Central and South America.

Jeez, how low have academic standards gone? The numbers of data points (15, 17, 18) seem, IMHO, too low for defensible statistical accuracy.

12 posted on 12/18/2008 9:06:08 AM PST by rfp1234 (Phodopus campbelli: household ruler since July 2007.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: shoutingandpointing
Sooooo....if the trees sucked all the CO2 out of the air...the oxygen content would go up and the earth would spontaneously combust?
13 posted on 12/18/2008 9:07:54 AM PST by spokeshave (0bambi wants to kill babies and raise taxes, Sarah wants to raise babies and kill taxes)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger
"There are other causes at play," Nevle said. "But reforestation is certainly a first-order contributor."
He continued by stating "The prime contributer though, is the Bush Regime.
14 posted on 12/18/2008 9:08:36 AM PST by An.American.Expatriate (Here's my strategy on the War against Terrorism: We win, they lose. - with apologies to R.R.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: the invisib1e hand

It seems to me that the ultimate goal of the far left is a massive reduction of human population, by whatever means necessary.

Abortion is one vector.

The promotion of homosexuality is another.


15 posted on 12/18/2008 9:09:05 AM PST by Pox
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

*sigh*

/facepalm


16 posted on 12/18/2008 9:09:20 AM PST by RushIsMyTeddyBear
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

Seriously though...

are these “scientists” suggeting that the way to stop global warming is to reduce population?


17 posted on 12/18/2008 9:11:21 AM PST by An.American.Expatriate (Here's my strategy on the War against Terrorism: We win, they lose. - with apologies to R.R.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger; Killing Time; Beowulf; Mr. Peabody; RW_Whacko; honolulugal; SideoutFred; Ole Okie; ...


FReepmail me to get on or off
Click on POGW graphic for full GW rundown
Dr. John Ray's
GREENIE WATCH



18 posted on 12/18/2008 9:16:30 AM PST by xcamel (The urge to save humanity is always a false front for the urge to rule it. - H. L. Mencken)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: spokeshave

Apollo 1 all over again, I’m afraid. :(

(God rest Gus, Ed, and Roger.)


19 posted on 12/18/2008 9:16:37 AM PST by shoutingandpointing
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: the invisib1e hand

Now you are on to something. All environmental wacko theory is built on the idea that there are too many people. The craziest is the idea that the earth can only support 1M people. Do the math on how many of us need to go to make that a reality.


20 posted on 12/18/2008 9:18:09 AM PST by redangus
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

Start by killing more Christmas trees today!


21 posted on 12/18/2008 9:19:43 AM PST by bmwcyle (McCain had no honor when he failed to defend Sarah Palin, Leno was not enough)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

Split atoms, not wood.


22 posted on 12/18/2008 9:19:45 AM PST by sionnsar (Iran Azadi|5yst3m 0wn3d-it's N0t Y0ur5 (SONY)|http://trad-anglican.faithweb.com/|RCongressIn2Years)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger
Barry's FaultTM
23 posted on 12/18/2008 9:20:25 AM PST by sionnsar (Iran Azadi|5yst3m 0wn3d-it's N0t Y0ur5 (SONY)|http://trad-anglican.faithweb.com/|RCongressIn2Years)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

Except...didn’t the little Ice Age start in the 1200s? Wasn’t that why the Vikings had to abandon Greenland?


24 posted on 12/18/2008 9:21:43 AM PST by Defiant (I for one welcome our new Obama Overlords.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

Theories based on conjecture based on broken models. Why is this superstitious faith-based articled called “science”?


25 posted on 12/18/2008 9:23:05 AM PST by Seruzawa (Obamalama lied, the republic died.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Defiant
Except...didn’t the little Ice Age start in the 1200s?

Correct. The Little Ice Age started circa 1270 - 1300, and lasted until 1850.

26 posted on 12/18/2008 9:32:13 AM PST by sima_yi ( Palin / Jindal 2012)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger
"Stanford University researchers have conducted a comprehensive analysis of data detailing the amount of charcoal contained in soils and lake sediments at the sites of both pre-Columbian population centers in the Americas and in sparsely populated surrounding regions. They concluded that reforestation of agricultural lands-abandoned as the population collapsed-pulled so much carbon out of the atmosphere that it helped trigger a period of global cooling, at its most intense from approximately 1500 to 1750, known as the Little Ice Age."

Damn that Al Gore and his "carbon credit" idiocy.

Look what he's done. It's - 40 out when it should be only -11. He and his tree planting enviro geeks have brought on an ice age...

As for these so called "Scientists", it's a JOKE to consider that all the "reforested land" was somehow "aboriginal farmland". How about reforestation after recession of the great ice age? Carbon in lakes and sub souls? How about thousands of years of forest fires burning out of control year after year?
Or did Aboriginals have giant flying pelicans that they used for water bombers?

27 posted on 12/18/2008 9:34:17 AM PST by Nathan Zachary
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: sima_yi

Don’t let facts get in the way of hysteria.


28 posted on 12/18/2008 9:37:23 AM PST by milwguy (........)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 26 | View Replies]

To: milwguy
...devastating pandemics that swept the New World during European conquest and settlement.

Also notice the attempt to blame the Little Ice Age on the evil white man!

29 posted on 12/18/2008 9:41:11 AM PST by sima_yi ( Palin / Jindal 2012)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: milwguy
"Don’t let facts get in the way of hysteria."

These so called 'enviro-mental "scientists" have seen how easy it was to make the sheeple believe in "Gore-bull warming", that they now feel they can say anything, no matter how ridiculous, and it will be accepted without question.

30 posted on 12/18/2008 9:42:21 AM PST by Nathan Zachary
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: Seruzawa
I enjoyed reading this one:

http://www.marshall.org/pdf/materials/268.pdf

In case you do not like to read scientific stuff, I can give you a synopsis:

“I heat up; I cool down . . . I got the music in me.”

OR, “Hey, we can be no more certain about any of this than anyone else can.”

I also heard something on the radio today that heating causes water vapor to rise, which then turns into ice crystals which then form clouds, which then block the sunlight, which then cause cooling, which then causes a decrease in rising water vapor, which then causes fewer clouds, which then causes more sunlight to reach the Earth's surface, which then causes heating, which then causes water vapor to rise. . . .”

It's weird! Creepy even. It's like there is this CYCLE thing that is going on with the weather.

I guess no one can control the Sun, water, air, Earth, so they better control the people? Makes perfect sense to me.

31 posted on 12/18/2008 9:44:39 AM PST by shoutingandpointing
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger
They concluded that reforestation of agricultural lands-abandoned as the population collapsed-pulled so much carbon out of the atmosphere that it helped trigger a period of global cooling, at its most intense from approximately 1500 to 1750, known as the Little Ice Age.

OK, let me understand this: Columbus discovers some Caribbean islands in 1492. This causes a massive pandemic which in eight years kills off enough people to allow massive reforestation of abandoned farms and causes the Little Ice Age.

They should cut to the chase and just blame it on Karl Rove.

32 posted on 12/18/2008 9:51:03 AM PST by Tribune7 (Obama wants to put the same crowd that ran Fannie Mae in charge of health care)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: shoutingandpointing
"I also heard something on the radio today that heating causes water vapor to rise, which then turns into ice crystals which then form clouds, which then block the sunlight, which then cause cooling,"

Actually, increased cloud cover causes "global warming" especially in regions north and south of the equator(where "scientists" are crying about arctic ice melting when it's -50 outside). Water vapor (cloud cover) traps heat and prevents it from radiating out into space as fast as it does on clear cloudless days. In the arctic, it's always warmer during overcast days and especially nights, while a clear sky always results lower daytime temperatures, and rapid temperature drops when the sun dips below the horizon. You'd think this simple to see radiant loss of heat would be proof enough to these "scientists" that co2 does NOT cause global warming, that the strength of solar radiation does. The earth looses heat rapidly to space, and that the only "greenhouse gas" out there is water vapor, which is ironically an element "missing" from their computer models.

33 posted on 12/18/2008 10:02:01 AM PST by Nathan Zachary
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 31 | View Replies]

To: xcamel

But, but, I thought trees are good and noble and must be planted and preserved, above human life!

Yet another pseudo-scientific theory that further muddies the clarity of the debate, I’m afraid.


34 posted on 12/18/2008 10:04:50 AM PST by alwaysconservative (We have a President-elect who believes that AGW is worse than a nuclear Iran, for heaven's sake!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: An.American.Expatriate
are these “scientists” suggeting that the way to stop global warming is to reduce population?

Nearly every environmentalist is a Luddite and a Malthusian............

35 posted on 12/18/2008 10:13:02 AM PST by Red Badger (I was sad because I had no shoes to throw, until I met a reporter who had no feet.....)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: alwaysconservative

Here’s some more disturbing news: recycling plants are among the largest generators of pollution.


36 posted on 12/18/2008 10:20:01 AM PST by Interesting Times (For the truth about "swift boating" see ToSetTheRecordStraight.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger
Reforestation takes place.

It gets cold

I cut down trees, build fires to stay warm

Deforestation takes place

It gets warm

I don't cut down trees to stay warm

Reforestation takes place..........

37 posted on 12/18/2008 10:20:31 AM PST by TYVets
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: TYVets

Just like we’ve always said, it’s cyclic!............


38 posted on 12/18/2008 10:23:13 AM PST by Red Badger (I was sad because I had no shoes to throw, until I met a reporter who had no feet.....)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

To: redangus
“All environmental wacko theory is built on the idea that there are too many people.”

I think you are making a too logical assumption. :)

It should be “All environmental wacko theory is built on the idea that there are too many OF YOU people.”

The ones stating the theory don't factor themselves into what they are saying

39 posted on 12/18/2008 10:23:49 AM PST by Polynikes (Yo, homie. Is that my briefcase?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: alwaysconservative
"But, but, I thought trees are good and noble and must be planted and preserved, above human life!"

What do you stand unter to get out of the sun on a hot sunny day? A tree! Isn't the sand cooler o your feet under the shade of a palm tree than the sand in the direct sun?

Therefore, trees cause global cooling. All that forest cover prevents rocks from warming up during the day and radiating their heat at night, keeping cavemen warm.

Here's a better theory. Aboriginals caused the massive deforestation spoken of in this article. they chopped down all the trees so that their caves would stay warmer.

When white man came, they planted trees around their homes they made out of all that lumber the aboriginals left laying around, plus the white man burnt it in wood stoves inside their wooden homes. The caves become cooler because of all the trees white man planted, causing aboriginals to make wig-wams and tee-pees and make fires of their own inside them to keep warm.
The first aboriginal "sweat lodge" was discovered after an aboriginal pee'd on the hot rocks around his fire because it was too hot in his wig-wam. He created a "sauna" and had "spiritual dreams" as he slept in that urine steam.

See how easy it is to create a plausible theory?

40 posted on 12/18/2008 10:28:20 AM PST by Nathan Zachary
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]

To: sima_yi
The cooling temperatures doomed the Norse-speaking Greenlanders. They were probably extinct before 1500 (the last contact with them was somewhat before then), so "the Little Ice Age" must have started well before 1500.

A date of ca. 1270-1300 sounds right--clearly caused by the Sicilian Vespers (1282), the revolt against the rule of Charles of Anjou. Charles was a white man (younger brother of St. Louis IX), so the evil white man is still to blame.

41 posted on 12/18/2008 10:32:48 AM PST by Verginius Rufus
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 26 | View Replies]

To: Nathan Zachary

I can do better than that. The first Ice Age is tied directly to the evolving of the first white tribe from the other ethnic tribes that existed then. This white tribe cut down trees for heat and cooking and this made the earth too warm, and then when they didn’t have to burn trees anymore for warmth and could cook their food off of hot rocks heated by the sun, the trees all grew back and caused the first known Ice Age, all attributable to the first white tribe. Neat huh?(Don’t bother to ask me why there wasn’t an Ice Age before the white tribe cut down the trees for fire wood, logic is no good here)


42 posted on 12/18/2008 10:41:42 AM PST by calex59
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 40 | View Replies]

To: Nathan Zachary
Not so sure about “causes” global warming.
“Always” is one of those slippry-slope fatal flaw absolutes I “never” use when talking science. lol

I'll give you the impact/effect of clouds forming after and above a surface that is heated/warmed PRIOR to the formation of said clouds. This is not a “cause” of warming anymore than insulating a house causes warming or cooling. Heating and cooling have to come from somewhere—that is, they are a result, not a cause in and of themselves. Unless those clouds are so moisture laden as to generate that heat at such a rate as to create a surplus (moisture-laden air being more dense/heavier and able to hold more heat than drier/less dense air) necessary to perpetuate the cycle there is no cycle, no heating, no cooling, no clouds, nothing. Wobbling axial tilt, ecliptics, the Earth as a heat sink—periods of coolest and warmest temps lag weeks behind the respective solstices—and a zillion other factors are in play.

Ebb and flow. A flat line has no life.

Point being that the Earth will regulate itself as it always has done. Mass extinctions, “nuclear winters,” the effects of super-volcano eruptions, forest fires . . . herds of bison, elk, deer, vs herds of cattle belching away. . . . Yawns and sneezes at worst.

We heat the place up enough the Earth will sweat itself cool again. It gets too hot, it will again do what it needs to do to maintain homeostasis. None of this was intended to last forever. Big bang, single strand, whatever works for each of us. Doesn't matter in the end. Some run with “God made it and God said he'll destroy it, and He will”; others see the inherent flaws and cracks in the system's design and use science to map the self-destruct mechanisms in play courtesy of simple laws of physics. Still others believe in neither and delude themselves and each other into believing they can “so order the universe.” What were those laws pertaining to matter and energy? Something about created or destroyed? Or was it transferred?

God invented the Havens and the Earth and all the rest, and then He gave us just enough knowledge of physics so we could see but not understand the way it works. He has a sense of humor.

43 posted on 12/18/2008 10:51:53 AM PST by shoutingandpointing
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

As far as I know this is a novel theory since it relies on manmade activity at a time when there were very few people to account for a significant change; worldwide population in 1600 was maybe 70-75 million while in the Americas there were maybe 5 million since no census was ever done of native Americans.

The real point of this report is likely to be to establish a direct correlation to changes in CO2 content and climate, which is rather like untying one’s shoes to learn how to tie them again.


44 posted on 12/18/2008 10:58:33 AM PST by Old Professer (The critic writes with rapier pen, dips it twice, then writes again.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Old Professer

Deconstructive climatology.........the new way to predict Global war...,,,,,er, uh... Climate Change...8^)


45 posted on 12/18/2008 11:01:33 AM PST by Red Badger (I was sad because I had no shoes to throw, until I met a reporter who had no feet.....)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 44 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger; Old Professer; Black Agnes
Take a look at the non-European induced pandemics:

Historical Review: Megadrought And Megadeath In 16th Century Mexico (Hemorrhagic Fever)

"The epidemic of cocoliztli from 1545 to 1548 killed an estimated 5 million to 15 million people, or up to 80% of the native population of Mexico (Figure 1). In absolute and relative terms the 1545 epidemic was one of the worst demographic catastrophes in human history, approaching even the Black Death of bubonic plague, which killed approximately 25 million in western Europe from 1347 to 1351 or about 50% of the regional population.

"The cocoliztli epidemic from 1576 to 1578 cocoliztli epidemic killed an additional 2 to 2.5 million people, or about 50% of the remaining native population. Newly introduced European and African diseases such as smallpox, measles, and typhus have long been the suspected cause of the population collapse in both 1545 and 1576 because both epidemics preferentially killed native people. But careful reanalysis of the 1545 and 1576 epidemics now indicates that they were probably hemorrhagic fevers, likely caused by an indigenous virus and carried by a rodent host."

(You've probaly never seen or heard of this study because it doesn't blame the evil White people.)

46 posted on 12/18/2008 11:12:16 AM PST by blam
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 44 | View Replies]

To: Polynikes

Good point


47 posted on 12/18/2008 4:04:04 PM PST by redangus
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 39 | View Replies]

To: Genesis defender; proud_yank; FrPR; enough_idiocy; Desdemona; rdl6989; Little Bill; ...
 


Beam me to Planet Gore !

48 posted on 12/18/2008 4:25:53 PM PST by steelyourfaith
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red Badger

thanks, bfl


49 posted on 12/18/2008 6:23:18 PM PST by neverdem (Xin loi min oi)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: rfp1234
Do you like it? Try reading this article and look at that last sentence...

Cheers!

50 posted on 12/19/2008 4:29:55 AM PST by grey_whiskers (The opinions are solely those of the author and are subject to change without notice.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-81 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson