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Ancient Volcano's Devastating Effects Confirmed (Toba eruption and the following Ice Age)
LiveScience.com ^ | 12/4/09 | LiveScience Staff

Posted on 12/04/2009 3:08:19 PM PST by NormsRevenge

A massive volcanic eruption that occurred in the distant past killed off much of central India's forests and may have pushed humans to the brink of extinction, according to a new study that adds evidence to a controversial topic.

The Toba eruption, which took place on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia about 73,000 years ago, released an estimated 800 cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere that blanketed the skies and blocked out sunlight for six years. In the aftermath, global temperatures dropped by as much as 16 degrees centigrade (28 degrees Fahrenheit) and life on Earth plunged deeper into an ice age that lasted around 1,800 years.

In 1998, Stanley Ambrose, an anthropology professor at the University of Illinois, proposed in the Journal of Human Evolution that the effects of the Toba eruption and the Ice Age that followed could explain the apparent bottleneck in human populations that geneticists believe occurred between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. The lack of genetic diversity among humans alive today suggests that during this time period humans came very close to becoming extinct.

To test his theory, Ambrose and his research team analyzed pollen from a marine core in the Bay of Bengal that had a layer of ash from the Toba eruption. The researchers also compared carbon isotope ratios in fossil soil taken from directly above and below the Toba ash in three locations in central India — some 3,000 miles from the volcano — to pinpoint the type of vegetation that existed at various locations and time periods.

Heavily forested regions leave carbon isotope fingerprints that are distinct from those of grasses or grassy woodlands.

The tests revealed a distinct change in the type of vegetation in India immediately after the Toba eruption...

(Excerpt) Read more at livescience.com ...


TOPICS: Culture/Society
KEYWORDS: ancient; catastrophism; confirmed; devastating; effects; globalcooling; godsgravesglyphs; iceage; toba; volcano

1 posted on 12/04/2009 3:08:19 PM PST by NormsRevenge
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This satellite image shows smoldering underground fires that took place at Toba in 1997.
A devastating volcanic eruption occurred at the site roughly 73,000 years ago.
Credit: NASA

2 posted on 12/04/2009 3:10:42 PM PST by NormsRevenge (Semper Fi ... Godspeed .. Monthly Donor Onboard .. May yur bandwidth exceed your girth)
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To: NormsRevenge

Archeologists and anthropologists agree that women and minorities were hardest hit.


3 posted on 12/04/2009 3:10:48 PM PST by freedumb2003 (Communism comes to America: 1/20/2009. Keep your powder dry, folks. Sic semper tyrannis)
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To: NormsRevenge

“released an estimated 800 cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere that blanketed the skies and blocked out sunlight for six years.”

Six years??? I rather doubt that.


4 posted on 12/04/2009 3:15:29 PM PST by TexasRepublic (Socialism is the gospel of envy and the religion of thieves)
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To: NormsRevenge

So this was before the Flood right? :-)


5 posted on 12/04/2009 3:16:03 PM PST by mgstarr ("Some of us drink because we're not poets." Arthur (1981))
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To: freedumb2003; Lazamataz

If Laz were there he’d have hit it...


6 posted on 12/04/2009 3:16:03 PM PST by null and void (We are now in day 317 of our national holiday from reality. - 0bama really isn't one of US.)
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To: SunkenCiv
Ping
7 posted on 12/04/2009 3:16:09 PM PST by colorado tanker (What's it all about, Barrrrry? Is it just for the power, you live?)
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To: null and void; Lazamataz
Photobucket
8 posted on 12/04/2009 3:19:42 PM PST by freedumb2003 (Communism comes to America: 1/20/2009. Keep your powder dry, folks. Sic semper tyrannis)
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To: NormsRevenge

If Yellowstone blows...we are all toast!


9 posted on 12/04/2009 3:22:11 PM PST by Don Corleone ("Oil the gun..eat the cannolis. Take it to the Mattress.")
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To: freedumb2003
Just so.


10 posted on 12/04/2009 3:22:32 PM PST by null and void (We are now in day 317 of our national holiday from reality. - 0bama really isn't one of US.)
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To: NormsRevenge

RaCiST VoLcAnO!!!


11 posted on 12/04/2009 3:22:33 PM PST by Dallas59 (No To O -Time is going by really really really really slow.)
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To: NormsRevenge
Doug Neidermeyer: And most recently of all, a "Toba Party" was held from which we have received more than two dozen reports of individual acts of perversion SO profound and disgusting that decorum prohibits listing them here.

Hey, Neidermeyer, that's a "toga" party, not a "toba" party. Sheesh.

12 posted on 12/04/2009 3:22:37 PM PST by colorado tanker (What's it all about, Barrrrry? Is it just for the power, you live?)
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To: null and void

Your god has a much bigger fist than mine!

That is, until I stole your graphic...


13 posted on 12/04/2009 3:23:36 PM PST by freedumb2003 (Communism comes to America: 1/20/2009. Keep your powder dry, folks. Sic semper tyrannis)
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To: freedumb2003

14 posted on 12/04/2009 3:25:15 PM PST by null and void (We are now in day 317 of our national holiday from reality. - 0bama really isn't one of US.)
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To: NormsRevenge
released an estimated 800 cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere that blanketed the skies and blocked out sunlight for six years.

Is a cubic km of ash figured as ash that has settled out of the atmosphere or atmosphere containing ash at an arbitrary percentage?
15 posted on 12/04/2009 3:26:48 PM PST by aruanan
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To: aruanan

That is ash pain to the Nth
Homo Sapiens or perhaps Neanderthals must have done this... Gaia would never allow such a thing without Algore knowing via his internet.

Beware Denmark or it will all make sense to you.


16 posted on 12/04/2009 3:34:13 PM PST by colonialhk (Elect Veterans not Lawyers)
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To: null and void

No mention of how much CO2 was pumped out or what
effect it had?


17 posted on 12/04/2009 3:34:15 PM PST by tet68 ( " We would not die in that man's company, that fears his fellowship to die with us...." Henry V.)
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To: NormsRevenge

To-ba! To-ba! To-ba!


18 posted on 12/04/2009 3:36:47 PM PST by DTogo (High time to bring back the Sons of Liberty !!)
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To: NormsRevenge
The lack of genetic diversity among humans alive today suggests that during this time period humans came very close to becoming extinct.

Nova suggested it was down to 600 individuals during a program last month.

19 posted on 12/04/2009 3:40:18 PM PST by EVO X
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To: NormsRevenge

This article proves just how helpless man is in controlling climate.


20 posted on 12/04/2009 3:53:03 PM PST by Circle_Hook (Rage against the Machine!)
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To: colonialhk

>> That is ash pain to the Nth
Homo Sapiens or perhaps Neanderthals must have done this... Gaia would never allow such a thing without Algore knowing via his internet.

Beware Denmark or it will all make sense to you. <<

Them Damned Neanderthals and their mining operations in Toba nearly doomed us all.....


21 posted on 12/04/2009 3:56:42 PM PST by GraceG
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To: mgstarr

>> So this was before the Flood right? :-) <<

It was AFTER the flood as this was the volcano which rained down the brimstone down on Sodom and Gomorrah.

Get the story right darn it.


22 posted on 12/04/2009 3:57:53 PM PST by GraceG
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To: GraceG

Thanks for setting me straight Grace.


23 posted on 12/04/2009 4:18:37 PM PST by mgstarr ("Some of us drink because we're not poets." Arthur (1981))
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To: TexasRepublic
Actually they are being very concervative in their estimates. It was the largest volcanic eruption in 450 million years.

This is a Super Volcano not your garden variety Mt St. Helens (explosive index=5) or (explosive index=6) or 1991 Mt Pinatubo eruption (explosive index=6 - 5 cubic kilometres of rock and 15-30 million tons of sulfur dioxide gas.

The Toba eruption was the largest disturbance of the stratosphere since the eruption of Krakatau in 1883. The average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere was reduced 0.5 to 0.6C (degrees) and the entire planet was cooled 0.4 to 0.5C (degrees). The maximum reduction in global temperature occurred in August 1992 with a reduction of 0.73 (degrees).

Toba was a 10 or better on the index. The crater is 60 X 100 km. The ash total is part of the larger 3,000 cu/km of ejected material.

1815 Tambora (explosive index=7 - "the year without a summer") 150 cu/km of rock, 200 million tons of aerosols.

1983 Mt St Helens eruption (.02 cu/km ).

Toba's plume is estimated to have reached 34 km high and 1 trillion tons of aerosols (including 200,000,000 tons of sulfur dioxide - SO2). The ash covered India between 1 and 6 meters deep. 6 year period during which the largest amount of volcanic sulphur was deposited in the past 110,000 years. Sea level was 160 feet below current.

There was also a 1000 year ice age right after - temps fell 12 degrees C. world wide.

If you are young enough, maybe you will have the misfortune to hear the overdue Yellowstone Super Volcano go off - won't matter where in the world you are - you will hear it. And that will make Toba look like a firecracker. And once again the human genome will be reduced - if any survive at all...

24 posted on 12/04/2009 4:45:02 PM PST by PIF
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To: PIF
The Toba eruption was the largest disturbance of the stratosphere since the eruption of Krakatau in 1883.

Do you mean, "The eruption of Krakatau in 1883 was the largest disturbance of the stratosphere since the Toba eruption"? After all, 1883 was more recent than something that happened during the last ice age.
25 posted on 12/04/2009 5:08:04 PM PST by aruanan
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To: NormsRevenge

Now, that’s climate change!


26 posted on 12/04/2009 6:13:01 PM PST by rejoicing
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To: null and void; freedumb2003
I'd hit it, whip it, and make it bleed.

Not sure what I'm talking about, but I would.

27 posted on 12/05/2009 6:36:26 AM PST by Lazamataz (DEFINITION: rac-ist (rA'sis't) 1. Anyone who disagrees with a liberal about any topic.)
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To: NormsRevenge

Throw ALGORE into the volcano to please the Gods.


28 posted on 12/05/2009 6:40:39 AM PST by bmwcyle (When do they collect and jail the homeless when they don't buy their health care?)
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To: NormsRevenge

bump


29 posted on 12/05/2009 7:06:04 AM PST by VOA (I)
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To: colorado tanker
Note: this topic is from 12/04/2009. Thanks colorado tanker.



30 posted on 11/08/2012 6:14:44 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks colorado tanker.

Note: this topic is from 12/04/2009.

Blast from the Past.

Just adding to the catalog, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


31 posted on 11/08/2012 6:14:57 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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