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Cherokees Spoke Greek and Came from East Mediterranean
DNA Consultants ^ | 17 June 2010 | Donald N. Yates

Posted on 07/07/2010 6:22:09 AM PDT by Palter

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to Eastern Mediterranean Origins

In memoriam Gloria Farley

Donald N. Yates

DNA Consultants

Keynote address for Ancient American History and Archeology Conference, Sandy, Utah, April 2, 2010

SUMMARY  Three examples of North American rock art are discussed and placed in the context of ancient Greek and Hebrew civilization. The Red Bird Petroglyphs are compared with Greek and Hebrew coins and the Bat Creek Stone. The Possum Creek Stone discovered by Gloria Farley is identified as a Greek athlete’s victory pedestal. The Thruston Stone is interpreted as a record of the blending of Greek, Cherokee, Native American, Egyptian and Hebrew civilization. Keetoowah Society traditions, as captured in The Vision of Eloh’, are adduced to confirm a general outline of the origins of the Cherokee people in a Ptolemaic Greek trans-Pacific expedition joining pre-arriving Greeks, Jews and Phoenicians in the Ohio Valley around 100 c.e.  Recent DNA investigations showing Egyptian, Jewish and Phoenician female lineages and the Y chromosome of Old Testament Priests among the Cherokee are also touched upon. Greek words and customs in the Cherokee are reviewed as time permits. Slide projector requested.

A cave entrance overlooking the Redbird River, a tributary of the South Fork of the Kentucky River in Clay County, Kentucky in the Daniel Boone National Forest, has inscriptions which according to Kenneth B. Tankersley of the University of Cincinnati display a nineteenth-century example of writing in the Cherokee syllabary. A local resident (Burchell) recognizes Greek writing in one inscription (called Christian Monogram #2) but his reading is unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. Evaluation by experts in Greek and Semitic epigraphy identifies two distinct inscriptions, one in Greek and one in Hebrew.  They appear to be contemporaneous with the Bat Creek Stone unearthed in the 1889 excavation of a tomb in East Tennessee by Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Institution.

Another record of Greek-speaking people in ancient America is the Possum Creek Stone, discovered by Gloria Farley in Oklahoma in the 1970s. It is discussed by her in Volume 2 of In Plain Sight as proof that the man history knows as Sequoyah did not invent the Cherokee syllabary.  The inscription can be read as Greek, HO-NI-KA-SA or ‘o nikasa, i.e. “This is the one who takes the prize of victory,” a common inscription for the pedestal upon which victors were crowned at athletic games.  The use is Homeric, and the spelling Doric.

A third piece of evidence helps fill in the background of the arrival of Greeks and their intermarriage with Asiatic and other Indians in North America. In 1870, an engraved 19 x 15 inch limestone tablet was uncovered in a mound excavation on Rocky Creek near Castalian Springs in Sumner County, Tennessee (see Ancient American, vol. 12, no. 77). Dating to an earlier time than its Mississipian Period context, it commemorates a peace treaty between the Cherokee and Shawnee. The Cherokee chief wears a horse-hair crested helmet and carries the spear and shield of a Greek hoplite. His Shawnee adversary clasps hands in a wedding ceremony with a Cherokee woman who bears wampum belts as a pledge of peace, has her hair in a maidenly bun, wears a Middle Eastern-style plaid kilt, and displays a large star of David. In the Red Record or Walam Olum, we learn that before crossing the Mississippi, somewhere along the south bank of the Missouri, the Algonquians or Lenni Lenape (Delaware Indians), who are later allied with the Cherokee, encounter a foreign tribe they call the Stonys. Cherokee legends about Stone-coat demonstrate that the original Cherokee had metal armor and weapons. DNA studies confirm a mixture of “anomalous” East Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages such as Egyptian T, Greek U and Phoenician X with “standard” American Indian haplogroups A, B, C and D in the Cherokee and certain other Eastern Woodlands Indians.

To sum up, the Red Bird Petroglyph is a Greek inscription from the 2nd to 3rd century c.e., not a crude Cherokee scratching of around 1800 as announced recently by the Archeological Institute of America and the New York Times. It occurs above what is, in all likelihood, an inscription in Maccabean-era Hebrew. The Sequoyan syllabary for which these Greek and Hebrew inscriptions were mistaken originated in the Greek world of the Bronze Age along with other syllabaries like Linear A, Linear B and Cypro-Minoan. The Cherokee language, which today is Iroquoian, is the result of a relexification process in the distant past. It contains many relics of words of Greek origin, especially in the area of government, military terminology, mythology, athletics and ritual. Cherokee music also reflects Greek origins.  The Cherokee Indians are, quite literally, the Greeks of Native America.

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to East Mediterranean Origins (PPT)

Greek Words and Customs in Cherokee

Greek

Meaning
Cherokee
Meaning

alomenoi
dakos
dasis

tynchana
etheloikeoi*
gennadas
huios Dios
illo, illas*
kakotechneo

kanon
karanos
kateis*
kerux
mona*
neika*

Ogyges
ouktenna
oulountata
skia
stix
tanawa*

(hoi en) telei
theatas*
theatron
Thrax
typho

wanderers (in a hopeless sense)
noxious, devouring beast, whale
hairy, shaggy like a beast
things that befall
volunteer settlers

noble
Son of Zeus (title of Herakles)
wrap, twist; rope
base arts, perjury, fraud
straight-edge used by athletes
a chief

assembly
herald
stopping place, way-station
contest
titan of Greek mythology
one not killed

declared healthy
ghost, shade
abominable
astronomical instrument
those in authority
spectator in a play

theater, assembly
 Thracian
raise a smoke, make sacrifice

eloh’; elohi

dakwa
dachi
tikano
eshelokee
kanat(i)
Su-too Jee

kilohi
kaktunta
kanuga
Koranu**
cahtiyis
skarirosken**

mona
anetcha
Ootschaye
Uktena
oolungtsata
atchina

Stichi
Tchlanua
tilihi
tetchata
tetchanun
tchaskiri**

Tathtowe,
  Tistoe
migrants, wanderers; earth
mythic great fish

hairy water monster
history
Cherokee; original people
doctor, hunter
mythic strong man
twisted hair clan (cf. Hawaiian hilo)

taboo regulation
scraper used by ballplayers
war chief title
assembly house
speaker, herald
land where the Elohi tarried

ballplay
rival of Sutoo Jee (Herakles)
name of a dragon or serpent
divining crystal for health
ghost; cedar
name of dangerous serpent

Great Hawk
brave, warrior
Playful Cherokee fairy
ceremonial enclosure
sorcerer, Stoneclad
ceremonial title; firecracker  (smoke) bringer (Santa Claus)


TOPICS: History
KEYWORDS: cherokee; clovis; cloviscomet; decalogue; dna; epigraphyandlanguage; godsgravesglyphs; greek; inman; israel; kennethtankersley; lds; loslunas; mormon; preclovis; tencommandments
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Donald N. Yates is a Georgia native of Choctaw-Cherokee and Sephardic Jewish descent. He earned a Ph.D. in classical studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill before teaching at the University of Notre Dame and elsewhere. In 2003, he founded DNA Testing Systems. His latest book, Old Souls in a New World, is about an expedition of Greeks, Jews and Egyptians that inadvertently founded the Cherokee Indian nation in the third century B.C. He lives in Phoenix.

1 posted on 07/07/2010 6:22:17 AM PDT by Palter
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To: SunkenCiv
Always interesting. Article has a nice Power Point Slide.

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to East Mediterranean Origins (PPT)

2 posted on 07/07/2010 6:23:09 AM PDT by Palter (Kilroy was here.)
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To: Palter

Huh. Now I know I’m right when I say “It’s all Greek to me”.


3 posted on 07/07/2010 6:26:29 AM PDT by bcsco (First there was Slick Willie. Now there's "Oil Slick" Barry...)
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To: zot

ping


4 posted on 07/07/2010 6:29:00 AM PDT by GreyFriar (Spearhead - 3rd Armored Division 75-78 & 83-87)
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To: Palter

From Utah with love. More LDS wishful thinking.


5 posted on 07/07/2010 6:30:49 AM PDT by fidelis (Zonie and USAF Cold Warrior)
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To: bcsco
Keynote address for Ancient American History and Archeology Conference, Sandy, Utah, April 2, 2010

I'm guessing there is a Moromon connection behind the scenes pushing this somewhere.

The Book of Mormon says that a group of ancient people came to the America's from the middle east. The fact that zero middle eastern DNA evidence has been found in ancient Americans is a huge hole in Moromon history. All of the DNA evidence shows that ancient Americans came from the far eastern pacific rim.

6 posted on 07/07/2010 6:33:45 AM PDT by Brookhaven (The next step for the Tea Party--The Conservative Hand--is available at Amazon.com)
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To: Palter

Lots of stretching and leaps in logic here! I know everyone wishes they were Cherokee, this guy wants us to adopt the Greeks.


7 posted on 07/07/2010 6:40:05 AM PDT by SWAMPSNIPER (The Second Amendment, A Matter Of Fact, Not A Matter Of Opinion)
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To: Brookhaven

Huh. I skipped over that line about Keynote Address. If I’d noticed that I’d have been suspicious as well. We lived in Sandy, UT for 4 years. Good catch...


8 posted on 07/07/2010 6:40:53 AM PDT by bcsco (First there was Slick Willie. Now there's "Oil Slick" Barry...)
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To: Palter

Of course they were Greek.

9 posted on 07/07/2010 6:41:57 AM PDT by bmwcyle (Communism has arrived in Washington)
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To: fidelis

On the plus side, when you die you become a god and get your own planet. You just have to hope your planet is in a good neighborhood. Stay away from the south side of the galaxy - bad schools, crime, etc.

Unless you were black before 1978. Then blacks couldn’t be a Mormon and get their own planet. Or a Mormon at all.

But, suddenly, and without warning - ta-dah! A new revelation. It’s OK to be black after all.

Isn’t that special?


10 posted on 07/07/2010 6:43:32 AM PDT by stinkerpot65 (Global warming is a Marxist lie.)
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To: Palter

A lotta wishful thinking there, and little science.


11 posted on 07/07/2010 6:52:22 AM PDT by Leftism is Mentally Deranged (leftism: uncurable mental detioration)
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To: Palter
TOGA, TOGA, TOGA

Seriously, and with no offense to the LDS Freepers, I put my trust in the historians and ethnographers who agree that Linguistically, they are part of the Iroquoian-language family and are thought to have migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were located.

12 posted on 07/07/2010 6:56:30 AM PDT by NavyCanDo
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To: Palter

Who - besides a Mormon zealot - would take this seriously?


13 posted on 07/07/2010 7:10:29 AM PDT by Titus Quinctius Cincinnatus (Whoever disagrees with me at any point is a RINO)
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To: Palter

Opa! (how do you say that in Cherokee?)


14 posted on 07/07/2010 7:12:11 AM PDT by VRW Conspirator (George W. Bush was the last conservative democrat)
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To: NavyCanDo
Actaully, everyone came from the Caucasus Mountains at one time. Isn't that where Mt. Ararat is located (where Noah's Ark landed)?

So does that make us all caucasians?

15 posted on 07/07/2010 7:15:15 AM PDT by Vigilanteman (Obama: Fake black man. Fake Messiah. Fake American. How many fakes can you fit in one Zer0?)
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To: NavyCanDo
Seriously, and with no offense to the LDS Freepers, I put my trust in the historians and ethnographers who agree that Linguistically, they are part of the Iroquoian-language family and are thought to have migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were located.

Language is not a reliable marker of ethnic origin, since a new language is easily learned, and an old language forgotten within two or three generations. Think of all the American immigrant families and their grandchildren and great-grandchildren, who couldn't speak more than a word or two of the “old” language if a gun was held to their heads, having learned only English.
16 posted on 07/07/2010 7:15:25 AM PDT by Cheburashka (Stephen Decatur: you want barrels of gunpowder as tribute, you must expect cannonballs with it.)
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To: Palter
>>> "Cherokees Spoke Greek and Came from East Mediterranean." This newly discovered portrait of Pocahontas indicates they may be on to something here.
17 posted on 07/07/2010 7:16:54 AM PDT by tlb
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To: SWAMPSNIPER
Meet my great, great, great, great grandfather, Chief Grand Cherokee.


18 posted on 07/07/2010 7:17:06 AM PDT by Larry Lucido (You can evade reality, but you cannot evade the consequences of evading reality. ~Ayn Rand)
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To: Titus Quinctius Cincinnatus

Apparently, a handful of anti-Mormon zealots are taking this VERY seriously. :-)

I’m not Mormon so I don’t care. Personally, I think Phoenix was settled by Phoenicians. And they invented phoenics.


19 posted on 07/07/2010 7:20:24 AM PDT by Larry Lucido (You can evade reality, but you cannot evade the consequences of evading reality. ~Ayn Rand)
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To: Palter
LOL, its all in who translates the spelling of the language, whether the Cherokee had a word they used years and years ago makes no difference gotta write that book!!! LOL
20 posted on 07/07/2010 7:23:20 AM PDT by org.whodat
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