Skip to comments.Sea Peoples invade: 1192–1190 BC
Posted on 06/16/2011 8:17:31 AM PDT by Palter
Modern methods are slowly helping us build a history of the Heroic Age. The exploits of the Sea Peoples are perhaps not as distinctly preserved in the Greek tradition as those of the Achaeans who sacked Troy, probably sometime during the 1180s BC, with the nostos of Odysseus recently dated to 1,178BC.
By contrasting historical-archaeological and radiocarbon-based data sets, the best candidate for the destruction date of the harbour town is the Sea People invasion. Their presence immediately after the destruction of Gibala is indicated by the material culture of the new settlements on the Tell namely the appearance of Aegean-type architecture, locally-made Mycenaean IIIC Early pottery, hand-made burnished pottery, and Aegean-type loam-weights. These materials, also known from Philistine settlements , are cultural markers of foreign settlers, most probably the Sea Peoples.The half millennium between the eruption of Thera in 1,613BC (probably the cause of the Flood tradition of Greek mythology) and the return of the Heraclids to the Peloponnese in 1,104BC (according to Eratosthenes) must have been a remarkable period of change. It truly deserved the special place accorded to it by Hesiod, interjected between the Bronze and Iron Ages. Hopefully, we will have more ancient DNA from this period, from sites around the Eastern Mediterranean, to help better piece together the tumultuous events that so inspired later generations.
Civ. ebb and flow. ping.
I thought they were called Atlantians?
Sea People>Phoenicians>Philistines ?
sea>phil>phoe much overlap. origins are still debatable
Very interesting; thanks for posting this. It’s the first time I can remember seeing a map presented so concisely. I wonder if there was some natural impetus behind this, what must have seemed so sudden to those invaded, far from the Sea Peoples’ original home. A famine year in the Balkans or the northern Black Sea steppe (it’s clear I don’t really know where they came from, just guessing); pushed out of their own land by people like the Scythians; a dynastic civil war?
When the sea people attacked Ancient Egypt they got their butt kicked—Even though they had iron weapons, and the Egyptians has bronze—they Egyptians could marshal large armies and fleets of ships. If you have inferior weapons—go with superior numbers and organization. One thing you got to give to the Egyptians—they were good at organization skills. They were also defending their homeland from invaders—that also gave them an edge. After this—Egypt went to Iron Weapons.
Interesting. I vaguely recall their being repulsed by the Egyptians, but wasn’t that just initially - didn’t they come back and at least force tribute from them?
Thanks, I’d heard of that, but only in relation to Atlantis. For that, I actually favour the Black Sea Flood theory, though there could of course be overlap in flood tales.
What was interesting for me about the map was that it was showing the Balkans and Thracian (?) Black Sea area as the areas the Sea Peoples at least passed through on their way into the Eastern Mediterranean - I’d only associated them with places of origin like Cyprus without ever having an answer to the question of where they had come from to get to Cyprus. If the map is true, or close to it, it’s hard to see how Santorini would have been motivating their migrations and raids, although it surely would have affected them and the peoples they came into contact with. Maybe its ash caused their distant crops or food sources to fail?
Theses For The Reconstruction Of Ancient History
99. The name of the city Ugarit (Ras Shamra) is probably the equivalent of Euagoras, the Carian-Ionian name of a number of Cyprian kings.
100. The name Nikmed of the Ras Shamra texts is the Ionian-Carian name Nikomed(es).
101. The city of Ras Shamra was destroyed in the days of the King Nikmed by Shalmanassar (in 856 B. C. E). Its destruction is recorded by Shalmanassar and the city is called “the city of Nikdem”. A proclamation telling about the expulsion of Nikmed, found in the city, refers to the same event.
102. It is highly probable that King Nikmed (Nikdem) fled to Greece, and that this man of learning there introduced alphabetic writing. Therefore, he might have been Cadmos of the Greek tradition.
103. Minoan inscriptions of the Mycenaean Age may comprise alphabetic writings following in principle the cuneiform alphabet of Ras Shamra Hebrew.
104. The vaults of the necropolis of Ras Shamra and similar vaults in Cyprus are contemporaneous, and not separated by six centuries.
105. The tombs of Enkomi on Cyprus, excavated by A. S. Murray in 1896, were correctly assigned by him to the eighth-seventh century.
106. The time table of the Minoan and Mycenean culture is distorted by almost six hundred years, because it is dependent upon the wrong Egyptian chronology.
107. No “Dark Age” of six centuries duration intervened in Greece between the Mycenaean Age and the Ionian Age of the seventh century.
108. The large buildings and fortifications of Mycenae and Tiryns in the Argive Plain date from the time of the Argive Tyrants, who lived in the eighth century.
109. The Heraion of Olympia was built in the “Mycenaean” age, in the first millennium
110. The so-called Mycenaean ware was mainly of Cypriote (Phoenician) manufacture. It dates from the tenth to the sixth century.
111. The so-called Geometric ware is not a later product than the Mycenaean ware; they were products of the same age.
112. The entire archaeology of the eastern Mediterranean, based upon the assumption that the Mycenaean culture belongs to the fifteenth-thirteenth centuries, is built upon a misleading principle.
258. Ramses III is identical with Nectanebo I of the Greek authors. He lived not in the twelfth but in the fourth century.
259. In Herodotus there can be no reference to Ramses III, because the historian lived before the pharaoh. The history of Egypt by Herodotus, though defective in details, is more nearly accurate than that of the later and modern historians, because he placed the history of the Eighteenth, the Ethiopian, and the Nineteenth Dynasties in fairly accurate order.
260. “Invasion of Egypt by the archaic Greeks” in the twelfth century is a fallacy. The Greeks who participated in the wars of Ramses III and who are shown as changing sides, were at first soldiers of Chabrias, assisting Egypt, and then troops of Iphicrates, opposing Ramses III.
261. Agesilaus, the King of Sparta, had already arrived in Egypt in the days of Nectanebo I (Ramses III), [Tachos (Ramses IV)] and Ramses III, who referred to his arrival, mentioned also his notably small stature.
262. The Pereset, with whom Ramses III was at war, were the Persians of Artaxerxes II under the satrap Pharnambazus, and not the Philistines.
263. The war described by Ramses III, and by Diodorus and other classical authors (the war of Nectanebo 1), is one and the same war of 374 BCE
264. A camp was set up by Pharnambazus in Acco in preparation for an attack against the Egypt of Ramses III.
265. A naval invasion against Egypt was undertaken by forcing the Mendesian mouth of the Nile, fortified by Ramses III.
266. Flame throwers were used on the Persian ships forty years before their use by the Tyrians at the siege of Tyre by Alexander.
267. The Egyptian bas-reliefs of the temple at Medinet Habu show Sidonian ships and Persian carriages comparable to the pictures of ships and carriages on the Sidonian coins minted during the years of the invasion.
268. The bas-reliefs of Medinet Habu show the reform of Iphicrates in lengthening the swords and spears and reducing the armor intended for defense.
269. The Jewish military colony at Elephantine still existed in 374 BCE and participated in the defense of the eastern border of Egypt. These professional soldiers were called Marienu by Ramses III, which is the Aramaic Marenu.
270. Semitic languages and the Palestinian cult of Baal made headway in Egypt at the time of Ramses III.
271. The Greek letters of classical form incised on the tiles of Ramses III during the process of manufacture (found at Tell-el-Yahudieh in the Delta) present no problem. They are Greek letters of the fourth century.
272. The inlay work and glazing of the tiles of Ramses III are innovations introduced from Persia.
273. The hunting motifs in the art of Ramses III were inspired by Assyrian and Persian bas-reliefs; some motifs of the Greek art also made their influence felt in the murals of Ramses III.
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New Ice-Core Evidence Challenges the 1620s age for the Santorini (Minoan) Eruption
Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 25, Issue 3, March 1998
Pages 279-289 | 13 July 1997 | Gregory A. Zielinski, Mark S. Germani
Posted on 07/29/2004 12:25:45 AM PDT by SunkenCiv
A serving of Philistine culture: Boar, dog and fine wine
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Ethnic Groups in Philistia
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Special Report: Ekron Identity Confirmed [ from 1998 ]
Archaeologists say the Urartians failed to overcome harsh winter
I’m surprised to find the Egyptians stopped an army of Minotaurs.
I thought the Ancient Egyptians got Iron Weapons from the Hittites and chariots and horses from the Hyksos.
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