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Research Team Says Extraterrestrial Impact To Blame For Ice Age Extinctions (More)
Eureka Alert ^ | Northern Arizona University - Lisa Nelson

Posted on 09/25/2007 12:58:19 PM PDT by blam

Contact: Lisa Nelson
Lisa.Nelson@nau.edu
928-523-6123
Northern Arizona University

Research team says extraterrestrial impact to blame for Ice Age extinctions

A colorized scanning electron microscope image of a glassy carbon sphere that contains evidence of extraterrestrial impact. The sphere measures about .012 inches in width.

What caused the extinction of mammoths and the decline of Stone Age people about 13,000 years ago remains hotly debated. Overhunting by Paleoindians, climate change and disease lead the list of probable causes. But an idea once considered a little out there is now hitting closer to home.

A team of international researchers, including two Northern Arizona University geologists, reports evidence that a comet or low-density object barreling toward Earth exploded in the upper atmosphere and triggered a devastating swath of destruction that wiped out most of the large animals, their habitat and humans of that period.

“The detonation either fried them or compressed them because of the shock wave,” said Ted Bunch, NAU adjunct professor of geology and former NASA researcher who specializes in impact craters. “It was a mini nuclear winter.”

Ted Bunch of the Northern Arizona University geology department is a member of an international team that has found evidence of an extraterrestrial impact that may have wiped out the...

Bunch and Jim Wittke, a geologic materials analyst at NAU, are co-authors of the paper, which fingers an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago for the mass extinctions at the end of the Ice Age. The paper was just released online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The research team includes several members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and researchers from Hungary and the Netherlands.

No one has found a giant crater in the Earth that could attest to such a cataclysmic impact 13,000 years ago, but the research team offers evidence of a comet, two and a half to three miles in diameter, that detonated 30 to 60 miles above the earth, triggering a massive shockwave, firestorms and a subsequent drastic cooling effect across most of North America and northern Europe.

“The comet may have broken up into smaller pieces as it neared the Earth and then these pieces detonated in various places above two continents,” Bunch said.

The evidence for multiple detonations comes from a four-inch-thick “black mat” of carbon-rich material that appears as far north as Canada, Greenland and Europe to as far south as the Channel Islands off the coast of California and eastward to the Carolinas. Two sites exist in Arizona at Murray Springs and Lehner Ranch, both near Sierra Vista.

Evidence of mammoths and other megafauna and early human hunters, known as the Clovis culture, are found beneath the black mat but are missing entirely within or above it. This led the research team to conclude an extraterrestrial impact wiped out many of the inhabitants of the Late Pleistocene. Bunch notes that some animals may have survived in protected niches.

The black mat was formed by ponding of water and algal blooms and contains carbon, soot and glassy carbon—remnants of burned materials. Some of these remnants are extraterrestrial in nature. For example, the research team has identified fullerenes, spherical carbon cages resembling a soccer ball, which are formed in shock events outside the Earth’s atmosphere. Trapped inside the fullerenes is a concentration of helium 3 that is many times greater than what is found in the Earth’s atmosphere.

The black mat also has turned up nanodiamonds, which are formed in the interstellar medium outside the solar system, by or by a high-explosive detonation.

“Either these things came in with the impactor or they were made during impact detonation. We have no other explanation for their presence,” Bunch said.

The magnitude of the detonations would have been huge.

“A hydrogen bomb is the equivalent of about 100 to 1,000 megatons,” Bunch said. “The detonations we’re talking about would be about 10 million megatons. That’s larger than the simultaneous detonation of all the world’s nuclear bombs past and present.”

The research team believes the detonations destabilized a vast ice sheet, known as the Laurentide Ice Sheet, that covered most of what was then Canada and the northern United States. Heat from the detonation and firestorms would have melted much of the ice sheet, releasing water vapor into the atmosphere.

“The result was rapid cooling of about eight degrees over the next 100 years,” Bunch said. The melting of the ice sheet and subsequent climate change would explain the water-based nature of the black mat.

Catastrophic extraterrestrial impacts are not new. Scientists theorize a much larger asteroid impact annihilated the dinosaurs and about 85 percent of the Earth’s biomass about 65 million years ago. The most recent incident, known as the Tunguska event, occurred in 1908 in Russia. The Tunguska explosion was an airburst of a comet or meteorite estimated at 10-15-megatons that destroyed tens of millions of trees across more than 800 square miles.

Bunch says impact airbursts may be more common than previously thought with possibly two or three such events having occurred over the last 100,000 years. And more are sure to follow.

### NOTE: The work by an international team of researchers that points to a comet or low-density asteroid as the cause of the massive Ice Age extinctions has attracted widespread attention. The National Geographic Channel, which was on campus in May to film Northern Arizona University’s Ted Bunch and Jim Wittke, will air a documentary on the research on Sunday, Oct. 7, at 10 p.m. EST. Discover magazine cited Bunch in an article on “The Great American Extinction” that appeared in the August issue.


TOPICS: Science
KEYWORDS: anothertheory; catastrophism; clovis; clovisimpact; comet; extraterrestrial; godsgravesglyphs; iceage; impact; theory; theoryoftheweek; thisweekstheory
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1 posted on 09/25/2007 12:58:22 PM PDT by blam
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To: SunkenCiv

GGG Ping.


2 posted on 09/25/2007 12:58:53 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam
The research team believes the detonations destabilized a vast ice sheet, known as the Laurentide Ice Sheet, that covered most of what was then Canada and the northern United States. Heat from the detonation and firestorms would have melted much of the ice sheet, releasing water vapor into the atmosphere.

“The result was rapid cooling of about eight degrees over the next 100 years,” Bunch said. The melting of the ice sheet and subsequent climate change would explain the water-based nature of the black mat.

The Laurentide Ice Sheet, IIRC, was about a mile thick. The heat from the detonation and the firestorms were sufficient to melt this? Really?

And then the temperature dropped eight degrees over the next 100 years? Which resulted in a lot of water, but did not contribute to a recovery of the Ice Sheet?

3 posted on 09/25/2007 1:06:22 PM PDT by ClearCase_guy (The broken wall, the burning roof and tower. And Agamemnon dead.)
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To: blam

Bump for later.


4 posted on 09/25/2007 1:07:00 PM PDT by Paul Ross (Ronald Reagan-1987:"We are always willing to be trade partners but never trade patsies.")
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To: blam
Ted Bunch of the Northern Arizona University geology department is a member of an international team that has found evidence of an extraterrestrial impact that may have wiped out the...

...or may not have ...
5 posted on 09/25/2007 1:07:20 PM PDT by pyx (Rule#1.The LEFT lies.Rule#2.See Rule#1. IF THE LEFT CONTROLS THE LANGUAGE, IT CONTROLS THE ARGUMENT.)
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To: blam

Title 14, Section 1211 of the Code of Federal Regulations, implemented on July 16 1969, make it illegal for U.S. citizens to have any contact with extraterrestrials or their vehicles.


6 posted on 09/25/2007 1:10:43 PM PDT by tumblindice (Hi there! I'm John Carter of Barsoom, Mars. You may remember me from such movies as `The Ant-Men of)
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To: blam
“A hydrogen bomb is the equivalent of about 100 to 1,000 megatons,” Bunch said. “The detonations we’re talking about would be about 10 million megatons. That’s larger than the simultaneous detonation of all the world’s nuclear bombs past and present.”

and we're worried about global warming.....................

7 posted on 09/25/2007 1:11:16 PM PDT by Red Badger (ALL that CARBON in ALL that oil & coal was once in the atmosphere. We're just putting it back!)
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To: blam
Come home to mama.


8 posted on 09/25/2007 1:11:39 PM PDT by COUNTrecount
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To: tumblindice

Are you for real?..............


9 posted on 09/25/2007 1:12:29 PM PDT by Red Badger (ALL that CARBON in ALL that oil & coal was once in the atmosphere. We're just putting it back!)
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To: blam

A bout of global warming killed the little beasties. :)


10 posted on 09/25/2007 1:12:59 PM PDT by lilylangtree (Veni, Vidi, Vici)
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To: blam

Oh, no, maybe they were nuked by the Martians! /s


11 posted on 09/25/2007 1:13:08 PM PDT by penowa
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To: pyx

they apparently have found the extraterrerstrially-formed microscopic structures in the relevant soil layer...such an event would most definitely kill ‘some stuff.’


12 posted on 09/25/2007 1:13:37 PM PDT by WoofDog123
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To: Red Badger

I’m computer generated, ignore me. :-)


13 posted on 09/25/2007 1:15:21 PM PDT by tumblindice
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To: blam
“A hydrogen bomb is the equivalent of about 100 to 1,000 megatons,”

Ignoramus. Nobody builds 'em bigger than about 20 and most are smaller than about 1.

14 posted on 09/25/2007 1:16:01 PM PDT by 17th Miss Regt
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To: blam

Interesting hypothesis...still some holes that need to be filled with something else other than speculation.


15 posted on 09/25/2007 1:16:10 PM PDT by crazyhorse691 (The faithful will keep their heads down, their powder dry and hammer at the enemies flanks.)
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To: blam
It's a cookbook!!


16 posted on 09/25/2007 1:16:56 PM PDT by Dumpster Baby ("Hope somebody finds me before the rats do .....")
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To: WoofDog123
they apparently have found the extraterrerstrially-formed microscopic structures in the relevant soil layer...such an event would most definitely kill ‘some stuff.’

Grass ? A couple of dandelions ? A few earth-worms ?
17 posted on 09/25/2007 1:17:25 PM PDT by pyx (Rule#1.The LEFT lies.Rule#2.See Rule#1. IF THE LEFT CONTROLS THE LANGUAGE, IT CONTROLS THE ARGUMENT.)
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To: crazyhorse691
Interesting hypothesis...still some holes that need to be filled with something else other than speculation.

Research grants?

18 posted on 09/25/2007 1:18:37 PM PDT by SlowBoat407 (Free commerce is the only just way to redistribute wealth.)
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To: blam

You mean it’s not George Bush’s fault?


19 posted on 09/25/2007 1:18:41 PM PDT by WayneS (Follow the 2nd Amendment; Repeal the 16th.)
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To: tumblindice

Oh you mean, is the cite real?
Here you go
http://www.themidwaysighting.com/E_XP-1.html
(cue spooky music)


20 posted on 09/25/2007 1:18:49 PM PDT by tumblindice
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To: crazyhorse691

“Interesting hypothesis...still some holes that need to be filled with something else other than speculation.”

Regarding whether there was an event (comet, or other airburst event), or whether this caused the depopulation found in the sediment and fossil record?


21 posted on 09/25/2007 1:19:26 PM PDT by WoofDog123
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To: Thud

FYI


22 posted on 09/25/2007 1:19:58 PM PDT by Dark Wing
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To: Red Badger
and we're worried about global warming.....................

The audacity of mere mortals is immeasurable...

23 posted on 09/25/2007 1:20:38 PM PDT by johnny7 ("But that one on the far left... he had crazy eyes")
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To: COUNTrecount

Is that Chelsea?


24 posted on 09/25/2007 1:21:12 PM PDT by wastedyears (George Orwell was a clairvoyant.)
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To: tumblindice
Which department of the government is tasked with enforcing this?

What is the min/max penalty if found guilty of breaking this law?

Also, can you imagine the 17 ring CIRCUS that occur around the trial of someone accused of violating this law would become?

25 posted on 09/25/2007 1:21:43 PM PDT by willgolfforfood
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To: willgolfforfood

I read that this had been repealed about 15 years ago.


26 posted on 09/25/2007 1:22:37 PM PDT by WoofDog123
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To: SlowBoat407
Research grants?

I didn’t want to come right out and accuse the researchers of prostituting themselves, but, if National Geographic is already interested, the demand for free money for research certainly can’t be far behind.
27 posted on 09/25/2007 1:23:53 PM PDT by crazyhorse691 (The faithful will keep their heads down, their powder dry and hammer at the enemies flanks.)
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To: blam
What caused the extinction of mammoths and the decline of Stone Age people about 13,000 years ago remains hotly debated

Wasn't there some speculation a while ago that sperm samples from frozen mammoths could impregnate a female elephant? Now there's a good use for science. I say bring back the mammoths!

28 posted on 09/25/2007 1:24:29 PM PDT by Thudd (God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth Genesis 1:27)
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To: Thudd

Mmm, mammoth meat...


29 posted on 09/25/2007 1:28:05 PM PDT by SlowBoat407 (Free commerce is the only just way to redistribute wealth.)
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To: Thudd

Yes...

A mammoth makes a FINE meal....


30 posted on 09/25/2007 1:28:31 PM PDT by WayneS (Follow the 2nd Amendment; Repeal the 16th.)
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To: blam

This is getting to be a more and more plausible theory.

The best evidence of catastrophe comes from the gold mining fields of Alaska.

Huge deposits of “muck” have been found, a mixture of mud, forest debris,and millions upon millions of bones - not skeletons, like an animal lied down on the beach and died, but smashed bones, crushed and pulverized and blended, of known and unknown species.

None of the current known geologic theories of whats going on on Earth can explain these finds. It was a catastrophe of unimaginable proportions.


31 posted on 09/25/2007 1:29:39 PM PDT by djf (Send Fred some bread! Not a whole loaf, a slice or two will do!)
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To: tumblindice
Title 14, Section 1211 of the Code of Federal Regulations, implemented on July 16 1969, make it illegal for U.S. citizens to have any contact with extraterrestrials or their vehicles.

Snopes has a page on this.

32 posted on 09/25/2007 1:30:07 PM PDT by snowsislander
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To: djf

33 posted on 09/25/2007 1:32:18 PM PDT by RightWhale (25 degrees today. Phase state change accomplished.)
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To: WoofDog123
Regarding whether there was an event (comet, or other airburst event), or whether this caused the depopulation found in the sediment and fossil record.

From the information in the article I can’t say that they have proved the existence of a single event that caused the mega fauna die off. Now my curiosity is going to make me track down their paper.
34 posted on 09/25/2007 1:40:52 PM PDT by crazyhorse691 (The faithful will keep their heads down, their powder dry and hammer at the enemies flanks.)
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To: tumblindice
No, it doesn't.
35 posted on 09/25/2007 1:41:02 PM PDT by Turbopilot (iumop ap!sdn w,I 'aw dlaH)
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To: blam

Tom Cruise, John Travolta and their Scientology cloaked spaceships are causing Global Warming!


36 posted on 09/25/2007 1:45:43 PM PDT by TexasCajun
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To: blam
"A colorized scanning electron microscope image of a glassy carbon sphere that contains evidence of extraterrestrial impact. The sphere measures about .012 inches in width."

Twelve Thousandths of an inch? must have been a heck of an impact. ;-D

37 posted on 09/25/2007 1:56:47 PM PDT by #1CTYankee (That's right, I have no proof. So what of it??)
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To: ClearCase_guy
The gentleman has issues with decimal points.

"The detonations we’re talking about would be about 10 million megatons."

38 posted on 09/25/2007 2:12:32 PM PDT by Thud
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The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes: Flood, Fire, and Famine in the History of Civilization The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes:
Flood, Fire, and Famine
in the History of Civilization

by Richard Firestone, Allen West, and Simon Warwick-Smith


39 posted on 09/26/2007 9:04:57 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Wednesday, September 12, 2007. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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Cosmic blast may have killed off megafauna Scientists say early humans doomed, too
Boston Globe | September 27, 2007 | Colin Nickerson
Posted on 09/25/2007 9:45:11 PM EDT by baynut
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1902154/posts


40 posted on 09/26/2007 9:07:25 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Wednesday, September 12, 2007. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: blam; ClearCase_guy

The book posted above pertains to a similar model (yes, I’ve finished it Blam, believe me, you *do* want it); those authors look at various current large lakes (including Lake Michigan) and other large bodies of water (Hudson’s Bay) for earlier supporting research on where the impacts happened. There’s quite a bit about the Carolina Bays, offshore Carolina Bays, and similar (basically identical) formations throughout the US and Canada, and used their orientations to find the impact points. Before they did that, they’d found for evidence for extraterrestrial origin of the parent impacts (the bays being ejecta craters), and the “black mat” which caps the Clovis period. Interestingly enough, the black mat appears to correspond to a similar, algal growth phenomenon which left fossil traces after the Permian-Triassic and Cretaceous-Tertiary events.


41 posted on 09/26/2007 9:18:44 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Wednesday, September 12, 2007. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: 75thOVI; AFPhys; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aristotleman; Avoiding_Sulla; BenLurkin; Berosus; ...
Thanks Blam.
 
Catastrophism
· join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post new topic ·

42 posted on 09/26/2007 9:25:00 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Wednesday, September 12, 2007. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: blam; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 49th; ...

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Thanks Blam.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are Blam, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

· Google · Archaeologica · ArchaeoBlog · Archaeology magazine · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Mirabilis · Texas AM Anthropology News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo ·
· History or Science & Nature Podcasts · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·


43 posted on 09/26/2007 9:26:56 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Wednesday, September 12, 2007. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: djf

:’) None of the known *uniformitarian* models can do it, but those are eroding away. ;’)


44 posted on 09/26/2007 9:30:54 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Wednesday, September 12, 2007. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv

Maybe Howard A. Boardman had it right...


45 posted on 09/26/2007 9:39:14 AM PDT by djf (Send Fred some bread! Not a whole loaf, a slice or two will do!)
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To: crazyhorse691

Hole filler.......

Look at Hudson’s Bay and the entry drag of James Bay. The low angle impact gouged James Bay on the way in and holed out as Hudson’s Bay.


46 posted on 09/26/2007 10:40:38 AM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. +12 . Moveon is not us...... Moveon is the enemy)
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To: SunkenCiv

Thanks for all the pings.... This one ...I was thinking in biblical terms until I got to the thread. :)


47 posted on 09/26/2007 1:30:26 PM PDT by Freedom2specul8 (Please pray for our troops.... http://anyservicemember.navy.mil/)
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To: blam

have you (or anyone) seen research into possible location or area of any underwater crater from the presumed 540AD event? The muddy rain mentioned in some sources implies a water burst/impact, but presumably it is quite small given the effect, I don’t know if it would even leave a crater.


48 posted on 09/26/2007 1:39:26 PM PDT by WoofDog123
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To: SunkenCiv

My research says they all drowned! And during a rather short span of time. They weren’t built real well for treading water.


49 posted on 09/26/2007 4:22:17 PM PDT by LiteKeeper (Beware the secularization of America; the Islamization of Eurabia)
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To: RightWhale

The Lost Americans
by Frank C. Hibben

“In many places the Alaskan muck blanket is packed with animal bones and debris in trainload lots.”

“Within this mass, frozen solid. lie the twisted parts of animals and trees intermingled with lenses of ice and layers of peat and mosses. It looks as though in the middle of some catacystimic catastrophe. . . the whole Alaskan world of living animals and plants was suddenly frozen in mid- motion in a grim charade” (Frank C. Hibben, The Lost Americans, New York; Apollo Editions, 1961. pp. 90, 91).

“Tendons, ligaments, fragments skin and hair, hooves - all are preserved in the muck. In some cases, portions of animal flesh have been preserved. Bones of mammoths, mastodons, bison, horses, wolves, bears and lions are hopelessly entangled! One author counts 1,766 jaws and 4,838 meta- podials from ONE species of bison in a small area near Fairbanks, Alaska, alone. Archaeologist Hibben saw with his own eyes - and smelled with his own nostrils - the specter of death. North of Fairbanks, Alaska, he saw bulldozers pushing the melting muck into sluice boxes for the extraction of gold. As the dozers’ blades scooped up the melting gunk, mammoth tusks and bones “rolled up like shavings before a giant plane.” The stench of rotting flesh -tons of it - could be smelled for miles around.

Hibben and his colleagues walked the pits for days. As they followed the bulldozers they discovered perfect bison skulls with horns attached, mammoth skin with long black hair and jumbled masses of bones.

Appalling Death in Alaska

“Mammals there were in abundance, dumped in all attitudes of death. Most of them were pulled apart by some unexplained prehistoric catastrophic disturbance. Legs and torsos and heads and fragments were found together in piles or scattered separately” ((ibid., p.97). Logs, twisted trees, branches and stumps were interlaced with the mammal menagerie. The signs of sudden death were legion.

For example, in the Alaskan muck, stomachs of frozen mammoths have been discovered. These frozen stomach masses contain the leaves and grasses the animals had just eaten before death struck. Seemingly, no animal was spared.

“The young lie with the old, foal with dam and calf with cow. Whole herds of animals were apparently killed together, overcome by some common power” (ibid, p. 170).

Sudden and Unnatural Death

The muck pits of Alaska are filled with evidence of universal and catastrophic death. These animals simply did not perish by any ordinary means. Multiple thousands of animals in their prime were obliterated.

“We have gained from the muck pits of the Yukon Valley a picture of QUICK EXTINCTION.


50 posted on 09/26/2007 5:19:54 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair dinkum!)
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