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Complex Thinking Behind the Bow and Arrow
Science News ^ | Monday, June 25, 2012 | Universitaet Tubingen, via AlphaGalileo

Posted on 06/26/2012 8:18:46 PM PDT by SunkenCiv

Using archaeological finds and ethnological parallels, the two researchers reconstructed the steps needed to make a bow and arrows. These are complimentary tools -- separate, but developed interdependently. The bow is the controlling element, while the arrows can be used more flexibly and are interchangeable. About 2.5 million years ago, humans first used tools to make other tools then to make tools assembled from different parts to make a unit with particular qualities, such as wooden spears with stone spearheads (ca. 200,000-300,000 years ago.) The bow and arrow and other complementary tool sets made it possible for prehistoric humans to greatly increase the flexibility of their reactions.

There are many basic complementary tool sets: needle and thread, fishing rod and line, hammer and chisel. The bow and arrow are a particularly complex example. The reconstruction of the technique shows that no less than ten different tools are needed to manufacture a simple bow and arrows with foreshafts. It takes 22 raw materials and three semi-finished goods (binding materials, multi-component glue) and five production phases to make a bow, and further steps to make the arrows to go with it. The study was able to show a high level of complexity in the use of tools at an early stage in the history of homo sapiens.

(Excerpt) Read more at sciencedaily.com ...


TOPICS: History; Science; Travel
KEYWORDS: godsgravesglyphs
It may look simple, but it is a highly complex tool: a Bushman's bow from Botswana. (Credit: Image courtesy of Universitaet Tübingen)

Complex Thinking Behind the Bow and Arrow

1 posted on 06/26/2012 8:18:53 PM PDT by SunkenCiv
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Arrow points (top) were reworked and refined through experimentation, often using dart points (bottom) as a starting place. The difference between the two types of points (size and neck/stem width) can be observed in this photo. (Credit: University of Missouri)

Early Humans Experimented To Get Bow And Arrow Just Right, Findings Suggest

2 posted on 06/26/2012 8:19:57 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


3 posted on 06/26/2012 8:20:59 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv
As I recall, the Mongols pioneered a laminated bow, the outer surface of which was sinew, and the inner layer horn. When the bow was drawn, the sinew would stretch and the horn would compress. Upon release, both materials would snap back to their original shapes, thus enhancing the acceleration of the arrow.

Pretty clever stuff if you think about it.

4 posted on 06/26/2012 8:24:27 PM PDT by Joe 6-pack (Que me amat, amet et canem meum)
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To: SunkenCiv

A couple of days ago, my five year old twins made a working bow and arrow by themselves! I made them unhappy because I had to take it away ... the arrows were really quite sharp and they could really shoot with it! (I got them some rubber-tipped arrows instead. This “raising young primates” stuff is difficult! LOL!)


5 posted on 06/26/2012 8:29:56 PM PDT by Hetty_Fauxvert ( "Be Breitbart, baby!")
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To: SunkenCiv
This is an example of Intelligent Design. By itself, a bow doesn't do much. By itself, an arrow doesn't do much. But, an intelligent being with a vision can put them together and make something really special.

We see Intelligent Design all the time. The modern world is built on Intelligent Design. Then, we look at the web of life and some folks think ... "I guess it just kinda happened."

I don't think so.

6 posted on 06/26/2012 8:32:45 PM PDT by ClearCase_guy
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To: Joe 6-pack

7 posted on 06/26/2012 8:40:44 PM PDT by mylife (The Roar Of The Masses Could Be Farts)
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To: Joe 6-pack

Every bit as clever as John Browning and I mean that as the highest compliment.


8 posted on 06/26/2012 8:42:06 PM PDT by volunbeer (Don't worry America, our kids will pay for it!)
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To: SunkenCiv

The atlatl is termed a spear-thrower but in actuality an atlatl dart is much more of an arrow than anything you’d call a spear, just a bit bigger. If you assume humans had been using small bows to start fires for some time after they had atlatls, then all you’re really talking about is somebody putting two and two together for four.


9 posted on 06/26/2012 8:42:47 PM PDT by varmintman
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To: Hetty_Fauxvert

What a timely article. I was working with a buddy of mine who is usually on a different shift today. He’s a full-blooded Paiute...told me he has been learning to make bows and arrows of late and it’s been really fascinating. I asked him to put me on the list for one when he completes his. According to him they are made from a single, highly worked, piece of hickory...nice back up for when the SHTF...


10 posted on 06/26/2012 8:45:46 PM PDT by Crapgame (What should be taught in our schools? American Exceptionalism, not cultural Marxism...)
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To: SunkenCiv

11 posted on 06/26/2012 8:52:36 PM PDT by Bratch
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To: Joe 6-pack

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_bow


12 posted on 06/26/2012 8:54:42 PM PDT by mylife (The Roar Of The Masses Could Be Farts)
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To: SunkenCiv

the arms race went like this:

rock
club
club with a rock attached
club with a sharp pointy rock attached
long pointy stick
thrusting spear(pointy stick with a stone tip)
throwing spear(lighter, works from a distance)
atlatl(mini spear that flies further)
simple bow and arrow(mini mini spear that is thrown with little effort)
recurve
composite bow
cross bow and bolt

The arrow is easy to understand how it came about. The bow is a little puzzling. There must’ve been a use for a springy piece of wood prior to the bow and arrow. But I don’t know what it was.


13 posted on 06/26/2012 8:58:10 PM PDT by mamelukesabre
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To: Hetty_Fauxvert

LOL. Wait a few years when they graduate to the internal combustion engine.


14 posted on 06/26/2012 9:11:08 PM PDT by Lurkina.n.Learnin (The democratic party is the greatest cargo cult in history.)
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To: mamelukesabre
The bow is a little puzzling.

Consider this :

First there was the 'sling' that was a string that threw a rock.

Then, they attached a stick to the string, and got more distance.

Then they tried bending the stick, and seeing if they could use the 'spring' of the stick to launch the projectile.

Then they got longer sticks. Then they tried tying down the bent stick (weapon loaded and ready).

Eventually someone tied the string to both ends of the bent over stick. During a struggle over it someone pulled the string back, and then let go. A 'lightbulb' went off in the other's head, and he started dreaming up what kind of projectile could be launched by this new found 'power'.

You know the rest.

15 posted on 06/26/2012 9:11:20 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (Lame and ill-informed post)
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To: SunkenCiv

A bit off topic, as usual, but there was a scene in “Quest for Fire” where the cavemen ran into some Aborigines. The cavemen had their “magic” (fire) get quenched and were looking for a new source. This Abo girl starts twirling a stick between her hands and after a few minutes smoke, and then flame appeared. The look of amazement and awe on the cavemens’ faces was something to see. One wept at the wonder of it.

I imagine at some point, one genius thought to make a bow and wrap string around the stick and play it like a fiddle to get a higher rotational speed. Then, at some point, another genius said, “Hey, wait a minute!” - and we were on our way to the A-Bomb.


16 posted on 06/26/2012 9:22:19 PM PDT by Oatka (This is America. Assimilate or evaporate.)
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To: Oatka

The fact at the bow gets dinner and makes fire to cook it is amazing in itself.


17 posted on 06/26/2012 9:24:26 PM PDT by mylife (The Roar Of The Masses Could Be Farts)
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To: Hetty_Fauxvert

***I made them unhappy because I had to take it away ... the arrows were really quite sharp and they could really shoot with it!***

Back in 1956, we made our own bows and arrows from reed. While playing with them I got hit right under the left eye with one that was sharp.

Thankfully it was 1/2 inch below the pupil. Not long after I got hit with a store bought target point in the shoulder.

How I survived childhood I will never know!


18 posted on 06/26/2012 9:42:24 PM PDT by Ruy Dias de Bivar (I LIKE ART! Click my name. See my web page.)
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To: mamelukesabre; UCANSEE2

“There must’ve been a use for a springy piece of wood prior to the bow and arrow.”

I wonder if some guy, after getting slapped in the face by a branch pushed over from the guy in front of him, figured it out?


19 posted on 06/26/2012 9:52:55 PM PDT by 21twelve
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To: UCANSEE2

I envision a vine crossing a path between two trees.
A wandering human passes by and trips over the vine that springs back to its original position.
The human investigates the cause of his fall and notices that the vine is capable of storing energy. He places his hand on the vine and pulls it back, then places a stick in front of it to hold it in place. When he lets go of the stick, the vine launches the stick several feet away.
After considering this effect, the human makes a portable version that can throw a stick farther and farther. Eventually, a crude but effective stick throwing device is produced.
But now the stick itself must be fine tuned in order to get more range, accuracy and killing force. Straighter sticks fly more distance than bent sticks. Certain types of wood materials produce better sticks. Eventually, through trial and error, a stick with a sharp point, hardened in hot coals is produced. At some point the stick is fletched with feathers to make it fly straight, and eventually the feathers are canted to make the stick spin and improve its accuracy.
From there improvements were made in materials and workmanship until a modern looking bow and arrow were made. The two units had to develop simultaneously with a definite goal in mind.......


20 posted on 06/26/2012 10:09:58 PM PDT by Red Badger (Think logically. Act normally.................)
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To: Ruy Dias de Bivar
How I survived childhood I will never know!

Good thing you avoided all that lead based paint.

21 posted on 06/26/2012 10:13:32 PM PDT by norton
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To: UCANSEE2; Slings and Arrows
When talking about a poster, it is common to.......

:)

22 posted on 06/26/2012 11:30:11 PM PDT by Daffynition (Our forefathers would be shooting by now.)
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To: SunkenCiv

Complex thinking American style. Pie plates @ 120 yards.

23 posted on 06/27/2012 12:31:33 AM PDT by Mormon Cricket
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To: mamelukesabre
"The arrow is easy to understand how it came about. The bow is a little puzzling. There must’ve been a use for a springy piece of wood prior to the bow and arrow. But I don’t know what it was."

I would imagine just walking through the flora single file and getting snapped in the face by a branch that the inconsiderate guy in front allowed (ala Three Stooges) ... would trigger a thought or two.

Did I just say trigger ?

24 posted on 06/27/2012 2:22:49 AM PDT by knarf (I say things that are true ... I have no proof ... but they're true)
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To: Ruy Dias de Bivar
It would take two days for us to talk and have a beer if I visited you.

Just staring at and digesting all that your home has would be a lifetime of conversation

25 posted on 06/27/2012 2:33:37 AM PDT by knarf (I say things that are true ... I have no proof ... but they're true)
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To: Joe 6-pack; Hetty_Fauxvert; mylife; volunbeer; Crapgame; Bratch; mamelukesabre; ...

“Belly shooters”:

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/226774/gastrophetes


26 posted on 06/27/2012 3:02:41 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Joe 6-pack
As I recall, the Mongols pioneered a laminated bow

Much older than that. The composite bow goes back to at least 2000 BC and was probably invented either by the Asian ancestors of the Mongols on the eastern steppe or the Indo-European nomads on the western steppe.

Whoever came up with it first, it was so amazingly effective it quickly spread over the whole steppe and to those people with whom they were in contact.

The disciplined mounted archer using a composite bow was the most effective weapon system in the world, properly used, for thousands of years. Only eclipsed by volley-fire muskets, perhaps around 1500.

And even then the musketeers couldn't make the mounted archers fight when they didn't want to, because they couldn't catch them.

27 posted on 06/27/2012 6:11:20 AM PDT by Sherman Logan
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To: norton

***Good thing you avoided all that lead based paint. ***

Funny. Back in 1956 we used to get cool by running behind the city truck spraying DDT to kill mosquitoes.


28 posted on 06/27/2012 7:15:25 AM PDT by Ruy Dias de Bivar (I LIKE ART! Click my name. See my web page.)
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To: SunkenCiv

It is impossible that primitive man without a physics textbook could reason out the idea that by putting a sinew between the two ends of a stick and then putting another stick on the sinew you would send the second stick outward with enough force to do something like kill an animal.

Does anyone really believe that Man was capable of this kind of creative reasoning—putting sinew and sticks together— thousand of years ago? HAH!

If not, could the bow and arrow be caused by three items combining in some happy accident of Fate? What are the odds on that? Triple Hah!

If any of these scenarios were reasonably possible, then “Oogah the Bowmaker” would be the parent of us all since he’d have owned all the women. And DNA would show it.

No, the only logical and reasonable answer is that Ancient Aliens provided primitive man with primitive weapons like the bow and arrow. No sense in starting us early hominids off with the Atomic Bomb.


29 posted on 06/28/2012 2:01:19 PM PDT by wildbill (You're just jealous because the Voices talk only to me.)
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To: wildbill; blam
...then "Oogah the Bowmaker" would be the parent of us all since he'd have owned all the women. And DNA would show it.
Never heard of the so-called Toba Bottleneck? Turns out that...


30 posted on 06/28/2012 6:57:33 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv

Yeah, Oogah was sitting somewhere with his bow in one hand and his.... in the other.


31 posted on 06/28/2012 7:15:01 PM PDT by wildbill (You're just jealous because the Voices talk only to me.)
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To: wildbill

The bowflex and the arrow shirt are also of prehistoric origin.


32 posted on 06/29/2012 4:03:54 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Joe 6-pack
As I recall, the Mongols pioneered a laminated bow, the outer surface of which was sinew, and the inner layer horn. When the bow was drawn, the sinew would stretch and the horn would compress. Upon release, both materials would snap back to their original shapes, thus enhancing the acceleration of the arrow.

I have a Mongol bow like that. And they are still made exactly like that.

Here's the story. I have always had an interest in archery and while I was there I learned the former local communist leader made bows so I arranged to meet him. After several customary servings of vodka, I began to think I needed one. So $200 later I am packing it for the trip home.

I still have it, know of anyone looking for one?

33 posted on 06/29/2012 4:24:15 PM PDT by PeterPrinciple ( (Lord, save me from some conservatives, they don't understand history any better than liberals.))
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