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Stone Age humans crossed Sahara in the rain
New Scientist ^ | November 9, 2009 | Jeff Hecht

Posted on 11/12/2009 5:56:28 PM PST by SunkenCiv

Wet spells in the Sahara may have opened the door for early human migration. According to new evidence, water-dependent trees and shrubs grew there between 120,000 and 45,000 years ago. This suggests that changes in the weather helped early humans cross the desert on their way out of Africa...

While about 40 per cent of hydrocarbons in today's dust come from water-dependent plants, this rose to 60 per cent, first between 120,000 and 110,000 ago and again from 50,000 to 45,000 years ago. So the region seemed to be in the grip of unusually wet spells at the time.

That may have been enough to allow sub-Saharan Stone Age Homo sapiens to migrate north: the first fossils of modern humans outside Africa date from 93,000 year ago in Israel. And both genetic analysis and archaeology show that humans didn't spread extensively beyond Africa until 50,000 years ago, suggesting a second migration at the time of the second wet spell.

(Excerpt) Read more at newscientist.com ...


TOPICS: History; Science; Travel
KEYWORDS: africa; amazon; belongsinreligion; catastrophism; climate; creation; desertification; drought; egypt; evolution; godsgravesglyphs; refoliation; sahara
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October 14, 2008, "Did ancient river channels guide humans out of Africa?" by Ewen Callaway

Did ancient river channels guide humans out of Africa?

1 posted on 11/12/2009 5:56:29 PM PST by SunkenCiv
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To: Rurudyne; steelyourfaith; Tolerance Sucks Rocks; xcamel

The African Source Of The Amazon’s Fertlizer
Science News Magazine | 11-18-2006 | Sid Perkins
Posted on 11/18/2006 4:22:58 PM PST by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1740969/posts


2 posted on 11/12/2009 5:57:26 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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Caves reveal clues to UK weather
by Tom Heap
Saturday, December 2, 2000
At Pooles Cavern in Derbyshire, it was discovered that the stalagmites grow faster in the winter months when it rains more. Alan Walker, who guides visitors through the caves, says the changes in rainfall are recorded in the stalactites and stalagmites like the growth rings in trees. Stalagmites from a number of caves have now been analysed by Dr Andy Baker at Newcastle University. After splitting and polishing the rock, he can measure its growth precisely and has built up a precipitation history going back thousands of years. His study suggests this autumn's rainfall is not at all unusual when looked at over such a timescale but is well within historic variations. He believes politicians find it expedient to blame a man-made change in our weather rather than addressing the complex scientific picture.
I like that closing sentence -- "future decision-making could be made based on scientific data and not on political expediency". I wouldn't count on it, but that would be great.
Stalagmites reveal past climate
by Kristina Bartlett and Devra Wexler
GeoTimes, March 1999
The researchers examined four stalagmites from Crevice Cave, the longest cave known in Missouri, located about 75 miles south of St. Louis. The stalagmites appeared to have been broken by natural forces such as floods or earthquakes and were found about 80 feet below the ground surface, says Dorale. The team determined when the stalagmite layers were deposited, then deduced paleotemperatures and the general types of vegetation growing in the vicinity during that era by examining the carbon and oxygen isotopes within the calcium carbonate. The profile showed that the area had been covered by forest 75,000 years ago, but by 71,000 years ago, it was savannah and by 59,000 years ago, had become a prairie. Between 55,000 and 25,000 years ago, the forest had returned and persisted. Dorale explains that the pattern is consistent with climatological records from the ocean.

3 posted on 11/12/2009 5:58:24 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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Evolution in Your Face
by Patrick Huyghe
Omni
Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, is home to more than 300 species of cichlids. These fish, which are popular in aquariums, are deep-bodied and have one nostril, rather than the usual two, on each side of the head. Seismic profiles and cores of the lake taken by a team headed by Thomas C. Johnson of the University of Minnesota, reveal that the lake dried up completely about 12,400 years ago. This means that the rate of speciation of cichlid fishes has been extremely rapid: something on average of one new species every 40 years!

4 posted on 11/12/2009 5:59:25 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: 75thOVI; aimhigh; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aragorn; aristotleman; Avoiding_Sulla; BBell; ...
 
Catastrophism
 
· join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post new topic · subscribe ·
 

5 posted on 11/12/2009 6:00:07 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; 31R1O; ...

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic · subscribe ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

·Dogpile · Archaeologica · ArchaeoBlog · Archaeology · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Discover · Nat Geographic · Texas AM Anthro News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo · Google ·
· The Archaeology Channel · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·


6 posted on 11/12/2009 6:01:08 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv

“Stone Age humans crossed Sahara in the rain”

They moved to Detroit.


7 posted on 11/12/2009 6:01:32 PM PST by USMCPOP (Father of LCpl. Karl Linn, KIA 1/26/2005 Al Haqlaniyah, Iraq)
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To: SunkenCiv

I’ve always wondered what treasures and ancient civilizations are burried under the Sahara.


8 posted on 11/12/2009 6:04:58 PM PST by killermosquito (Buffalo (and eventually France) is what you get when liberalism runs its course.)
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Oceans linked to Sahel drought
The droughts, in which over a million people are thought to have died, were initially blamed on human degradation of the local environment... The study looked at the Pacific - in particular the effect of the El Nino phenomenon and the effect on the Sahel rainfall - Atlantic, and Indian oceans. It was found that the Indian Ocean was a powerful indicator of the level of precipitation in the Sahel over the long term, while the Pacific affected seasonal rainfall... There were broadly two hypotheses to explain what happened in this semiarid region of Africa. One blamed the drought on changes brought about by human land use... The other hypothesis focused on temperature changes in the global oceans as the main culprit behind the drought... It is hoped that, with such a link established, the model can now be used to predict future rainfall in the Sahel. This could be crucial in giving time to plan for any forthcoming drought.

9 posted on 11/12/2009 6:05:21 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv
center>
10 posted on 11/12/2009 6:06:08 PM PST by JoeProBono (A closed mouth gathers no feet)
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To: SunkenCiv

11 posted on 11/12/2009 6:06:23 PM PST by Daffynition (What's all this about hellfire and Dalmatians?)
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12 posted on 11/12/2009 6:07:34 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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The Green Sahara, A Desert In Bloom
Science News, ScienceDaily | September 30, 2008
Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel
Posted on 10/03/2008 11:55:57 AM PDT by SunkenCiv
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2096856/posts


13 posted on 11/12/2009 6:09:15 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv

“This means that the rate of speciation of cichlid fishes has been extremely rapid: something on average of one new species every 40 years!”

Wow!, I find that rate absolutely astounding.


14 posted on 11/12/2009 6:14:04 PM PST by AussieJoe
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To: killermosquito; Fred Nerks; JoeProBono

Me too. Qattara Depression seems like a good place to start, but I also recall (not for the first time, even on FR) seeing a Nat Geog photog of a living olive tree, thousands of years old apparently, within dozens of yards of what was at that time the geographic center of the Sahara. Paintings on cliff faces showing agricultural activity have been identified, and they are, uh, pretty old. :’)


15 posted on 11/12/2009 6:14:08 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: Daffynition

I’d walk a mile for a camel, assuming the camel were somewhere near a vehicle with an engine, all fueled up and ready to go. ;’)


16 posted on 11/12/2009 6:15:26 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv

40 per cent of hydrocarbons in today’s dust come from water-dependent plants

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????


17 posted on 11/12/2009 6:16:11 PM PST by CPT Clay (Pick up your weapon and follow me.)
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To: AussieJoe

:’) That’s just the average, of course it would greatly help to know how many new species have been known to emerge (not merely newly discovered) since the Lake was first available for study by non-Africans.


18 posted on 11/12/2009 6:17:13 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: CPT Clay; Carry_Okie
40 per cent of hydrocarbons in today's dust come from water-dependent plants
Frogs eat the plants, then fart... ;')
19 posted on 11/12/2009 6:19:21 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv
Shocking /s

'The desert crocodiles have adapted to the changing environment in northern Africa; 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, what is now desert was probably lush savannah and grasslands. Today the Sahara is hot and arid, the land sandy, rainfall minimal, and vegetation sparse. '

Desert-Adapted Crocs Found in Africa

20 posted on 11/12/2009 6:24:38 PM PST by BGHater ("real price of every thing ... is the toil and trouble of acquiring it")
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To: USMCPOP
“Stone Age humans crossed Sahara in the rain”

They moved to Detroit.

That is sooooo funny!!!

21 posted on 11/12/2009 6:28:44 PM PST by varon (Allegiance to the constitution, always. Allegiance to a political party, never.)
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To: varon

Only if your not from Detroit. :-(


22 posted on 11/12/2009 6:37:44 PM PST by bigheadfred (WOGGA LA HOOGA!!!)
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To: SunkenCiv

I been through the desert on a horse with no name. It felt good to be out of the rain... ;)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trY7ondVqI8&feature=related


23 posted on 11/12/2009 6:45:56 PM PST by Redcitizen (Zartan for President 2012)
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To: SunkenCiv

on the banks of an ancient lake-bed, the grinding stones lie abandoned.

24 posted on 11/12/2009 6:46:08 PM PST by Fred Nerks (fair dinkum)
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To: Fred Nerks
abandoned

I'm sure some nice photographer person gave them a nice home.

25 posted on 11/12/2009 6:48:43 PM PST by bigheadfred (WOGGA LA HOOGA!!!)
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To: SunkenCiv

'pre-historic' saharan rock art

26 posted on 11/12/2009 6:56:01 PM PST by Fred Nerks (fair dinkum)
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To: Redcitizen

“Ventura Highway” is the only tune of theirs I’ll ever listen to by choice. I’ve heard wind ornaments on people’s porches that have more interesting singing voices. :’)

I used to work with an old WWII veteran; one day we were having a rare conversation and somehow got on the topic (or at least, he did) of his service (formerly I’m not sure I’d known about it). He served in North Africa, perhaps under Patton? Anyway, he said they got on a train in Morocco or somewhere, and chugged across the desert to the staging area. The trip took literally three weeks, nothing to see, little to do. :’)


27 posted on 11/12/2009 6:56:18 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: Fred Nerks

Nice!


28 posted on 11/12/2009 6:56:30 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: Fred Nerks

Some of those stone-age humans were triple the size of cattle, impressive!


29 posted on 11/12/2009 6:57:27 PM PST by word_warrior_bob (You can now see my amazing doggie and new puppy on my homepage!! Come say hello to Jake & Sonny)
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To: BGHater

I remember an article (I think it was a different one) about those. Pretty amazing. Must be some plentiful food supply, perhaps arriving by air? Prolific fish population? Cannibal crocs? :’)

Costco has the NG DVD full collection (1888-to present, not sure if that means end of 2008 or what) available for $40. :’)


30 posted on 11/12/2009 7:07:01 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv
40 per cent of hydrocarbons in today's dust come from water-dependent plants.

Pretty big bucket there. I assume they are talking about algae too? Are they including the sheath bacteria that live on the plants? The latter are important (particularly Pseudomonas syringae), as the surfactants they exude may play a key role in nucleating raindrops on the way to the Amazon.

We have a lot to learn when it comes to driving this bus.

31 posted on 11/12/2009 7:10:24 PM PST by Carry_Okie (Islam offers three choices: surrender, fight, or die.)
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To: SunkenCiv

Much the same could be said of most parts of the Middle East deserts. Not much to see or do in those deserts. I would say the American Southwest has more interesting deserts.


32 posted on 11/12/2009 7:10:53 PM PST by Redcitizen (Zartan for President 2012)
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To: SunkenCiv

33 posted on 11/12/2009 7:26:55 PM PST by JoeProBono (A closed mouth gathers no feet)
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To: Carry_Okie

Thanks CO.


34 posted on 11/12/2009 7:31:53 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: Redcitizen

Except for the length of time spent crossing it. :’)


35 posted on 11/12/2009 7:32:20 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: Fred Nerks

Nice!


36 posted on 11/12/2009 7:32:30 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: varon

they were headed for the Taylor Swift concert in Libya


37 posted on 11/12/2009 10:46:34 PM PST by bunkerhill7 (God bless)
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To: SunkenCiv

38 posted on 11/13/2009 3:24:13 AM PST by Daffynition (What's all this about hellfire and Dalmatians?)
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To: word_warrior_bob

cattle were a lot smaller back then...seriously


39 posted on 11/13/2009 6:00:00 AM PST by stefanbatory (Weed out the RINOs! Sign the pledge. conservativepledge.org)
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To: SunkenCiv

Oh, my! Did they leave carbon footprints? (sarc/off)


40 posted on 11/13/2009 7:21:39 AM PST by afraidfortherepublic
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To: SunkenCiv

“I bless the rains down in Africa...”


41 posted on 11/13/2009 7:29:14 AM PST by RichInOC (No! BAD Rich! (What'd I say?))
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To: SunkenCiv
For whatever reason this got me thinking about Sahara movies. Beau Geste was the best of the Foreign Legion genre and really good in any genre. I liked March or Die too. Ishtar is one of the all time movie stinkers. Sahara tried, though. The English Patient was one of the most mediocre movies ever to win best picture.

Others?

42 posted on 11/13/2009 10:15:10 AM PST by colorado tanker (What's it all about, Barrrrry? Is it just for the power, you live?)
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To: SunkenCiv

If it happens that fast then it should be lab observable.


43 posted on 11/13/2009 2:43:00 PM PST by ThanhPhero (di tray hoi den La Vang)
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To: Daffynition

Ya know where ya buy camel’s milk?

At the Drama Dairy.


44 posted on 11/13/2009 5:15:01 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: RichInOC

Ew... at least the band “America” had *one* good song...


45 posted on 11/13/2009 5:16:14 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: afraidfortherepublic
Image and video hosting by TinyPic "What's *that* supposed to mean?!?"
['Civ ducks for cover]
46 posted on 11/13/2009 5:16:53 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: colorado tanker

Hey, don’t forget the Mummy movies with The Rock. ;’) That’s the eastern end of the Sahara over in Egypt. ;’)


47 posted on 11/13/2009 5:17:47 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: ThanhPhero

Yeah, exactly.


48 posted on 11/13/2009 5:18:01 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv
Mathayus: I may be a king, but I'm a wrestler first.
[piledrives guard]
49 posted on 11/13/2009 5:26:50 PM PST by colorado tanker (What's it all about, Barrrrry? Is it just for the power, you live?)
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To: SunkenCiv

Toto actually did that one.


50 posted on 11/13/2009 5:45:08 PM PST by RichInOC (No! BAD Rich! (What'd I say?))
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