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Meta-analysis evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease
American Society for Clinical Nutrition ^ | January 13, 2010 | Patty W Siri-Tarino, Qi Sun, Frank B Hu and Ronald M Krauss

Posted on 01/25/2010 10:04:28 PM PST by Coleus

Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease1,2,3,4,5Patty W Siri-Tarino, Qi Sun, Frank B Hu and Ronald M Krauss

1 From the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute Oakland CA (PWS-TRMK)the Departments of Nutrition (QSFBH)Epidemiology (FBH) Harvard School of Public Health Boston MA.

2 PWS-T and QS contributed equally to this work.

3 The contents of this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the National Center for Research Resources (http://www.ncrr.nih.gov) or the National Institutes of Health.

4 Supported by the National Dairy Council (PWS-T and RMK) and made possible by grant UL1 RR024131-01 from the National Center for Research Resources, a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research (PWS-T and RMK). QS was supported by a Postdoctoral Fellowship from Unilever Corporate Research. FBH was supported by NIH grant HL60712.

5 Address correspondence to RM Krauss, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Junior Way, Oakland, CA 94609. E-mail: rkrauss@chori.org .

ABSTRACT

Background: A reduction in dietary saturated fat has generally been thought to improve cardiovascular health.

Objective: The objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence related to the association of dietary saturated fat with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD; CHD inclusive of stroke) in prospective epidemiologic studies.

Design: Twenty-one studies identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion in this study. A random-effects model was used to derive composite relative risk estimates for CHD, stroke, and CVD.

Results: During 5–23 y of follow-up of 347,747 subjects, 11,006 developed CHD or stroke. Intake of saturated fat was not associated with an increased risk of CHD, stroke, or CVD. The pooled relative risk estimates that compared extreme quantiles of saturated fat intake were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.19; P = 0.22) for CHD, 0.81 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.05; P = 0.11) for stroke, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.11; P = 0.95) for CVD. Consideration of age, sex, and study quality did not change the results.

Conclusions: A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD. More data are needed to elucidate whether CVD risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat.

Received for publication March 6, 2009. Accepted for publication November 25, 2009.


TOPICS: Health/Medicine; Science
KEYWORDS: atkins; atkinsdiet; cvd; diet; goodfats; heartdisease; saturatedfat
Carlton Fredericks, PhD & Dr. Atkins are vindicated again. I know vegetarians, marathon runners, thin people, non-smokers, people with normal cholesterol and they still need bypass surgery. There are many other causes including genetics, inflamation, bacteria, old age, etc.
1 posted on 01/25/2010 10:04:31 PM PST by Coleus
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To: DixieOklahoma; reuben barruchstein; theprophetyellszambolamboromo; Alusch; house of cards; ...

.


2 posted on 01/25/2010 10:05:06 PM PST by Coleus (Abortion, Euthanasia & FOCA - - don't Obama and the Democrats just kill ya!)
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To: Coleus

I just recently went back to real butter and I season with bacon grease, if I die sooner, I’ll be happier before I die.


3 posted on 01/25/2010 10:20:21 PM PST by tiki (True Christians will not deliberately slander or misrepresent others or their beliefs)
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To: Coleus

No surprise to me.

I’ve always thought that previous studies that showed a risk were rendered useless by lumping artificial trans fatty acids in the same category with natural saturated fats.


4 posted on 01/25/2010 10:21:01 PM PST by devere
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To: devere; tiki

You’re better off just eliminating white flour and all sugar from your diet.

Once you do that it is amazing how much better other foods taste, and how much better you physically feel.


5 posted on 01/25/2010 10:37:12 PM PST by SatinDoll (NO Foreign Nationals as our President!!)
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To: Coleus
Makes sense to me. If saturated fat is so bad for your body, and beef is a major source of saturated fat, then why aren't more cows dropping dead of heart attacks?

Also, how do the beef critters get all that saturated fat in their body in the first place, when all they eat is grass?
6 posted on 01/25/2010 10:39:03 PM PST by Question Liberal Authority (Why buy health insurance at all if you can't be turned down for any pre-existing conditions?)
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To: Question Liberal Authority

Carbs are converted to fat. That is why consuming a lot of sugar will make people fat.


7 posted on 01/25/2010 10:43:58 PM PST by James C. Bennett
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To: Question Liberal Authority

In other words, all those “FAT FREE” label markings on sugary foods, are meaningless, and misleading.


8 posted on 01/25/2010 10:44:43 PM PST by James C. Bennett
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To: Question Liberal Authority

why aren’t more cows dropping dead of heart attacks?

because they are dropping dead because we want to eat them


9 posted on 01/25/2010 11:11:40 PM PST by ari-freedom (Obamacare: nananana nananana hey hey hey goodbye!)
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To: Coleus

Butter not only tastes better than margarine, it melts at a lower temperature, is easier to digest, and one can use less to the same effect....yeah, less...HA!

Bacon fat and lard also melt at a lower temperature and taste better.

Real or not, like this study. Fits the “eat ‘right’ (some dispute here), stay fit, die anyway” paradigm.

Animal protein, butter, veg, fiber, some complex carbs....BGL looking pretty good. Your mileage may vary.


10 posted on 01/25/2010 11:16:02 PM PST by petro45acp (Free Republic, the only thing working on this sorry Bagram interweb thingy! Thanks Free Republic!)
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To: Coleus

“There are many other causes including genetics, inflamation, bacteria, old age, etc. “

not getting enough omega 3’s may be part of it.


11 posted on 01/25/2010 11:17:24 PM PST by ari-freedom (Obamacare: nananana nananana hey hey hey goodbye!)
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To: James C. Bennett

Why does it seem that my vegetarian friends seem to crave sugary things so bad? Could it be that too low of a fat or protein diet causes sugar cravings?


12 posted on 01/25/2010 11:29:07 PM PST by hulagirl (Mother Theresa was right)
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To: ari-freedom

two words: Gertrude Baines

bacon and eggs !


13 posted on 01/25/2010 11:29:21 PM PST by PieterCasparzen (Huguenot)
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To: hulagirl

Have a good french meal and - even with the small portions - you won’t be hungry until tomorrow.


14 posted on 01/25/2010 11:30:41 PM PST by PieterCasparzen (Huguenot)
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To: Question Liberal Authority
Also, how do the beef critters get all that saturated fat in their body in the first place, when all they eat is grass?

Actually, the beef that we eat is mostly fed a mixture of corn and high carbohydrate grains. You can buy range-fed beef (cattle that eat grass only) and it is very lean; scarcely any fat at all. The last time I looked, range-fed ground beef was selling for about $6 a pound.

It is the high intake of cheap carbohydrates - refined sugar, potatoes, corn, most grains including rice; anything white and is sold in a cardboard box - that is responsible for causing fat in the animal or person eating it.

15 posted on 01/25/2010 11:57:47 PM PST by Texas Jack
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To: Coleus
Ditto.

Conclusions: A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD. More data are needed to elucidate whether CVD risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat.

Can someone say "Metabolic Syndrome".
16 posted on 01/26/2010 12:07:35 AM PST by PA Engineer (Liberate America from the occupation media.)
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To: Coleus
I read a book some time ago by Dr. Mary C. Vernon. In it she stated that there had never been a controlled study that showed saturated fat caused clogged arteries. In other words, there were always possibilities that something other than saturated fat caused the problem indicated by the study.

I do know that your body needs fat in the diet to perform certain processes at the cellular level that keep us healthy. And, I'm convinced that removing fat from your diet causes malfunctions in the brain (Alzheimer) because the synapses require fat to function properly.

The most obese people around always say that they are on low fat diets which generally means that they are consuming vast amounts of simple carbhodrates; refined sugar, potatoes, grains including rice; anything in the grocery store that is sold in a cardboard box and soft drinks.

17 posted on 01/26/2010 12:10:06 AM PST by Texas Jack
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To: hulagirl

I don’t know.

I eat a lot of meat - beef and chicken - at minimum, half a pound each day.

I also crave sugar.

Right now, in my personal confection cabinet, is a bag of Kit-Kat, five large Cadbury chocolate bars, a box of butter mints, a bag of Island (coconut-chocolate candy) and a bag of Snickers, all of which were purchased a week ago. I don’t expect any of this remaining, by the end of next week, and I’m the only one consuming it.

Am I a sugar addict?


18 posted on 01/26/2010 2:36:15 AM PST by James C. Bennett
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To: ari-freedom

because they are dropping dead because we want to eat them

Thank you, I needed that this morning...


19 posted on 01/26/2010 5:08:52 AM PST by Chickensoup (We have the government we deserve. Is our government our traitor?)
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To: ari-freedom

“why aren’t more cows dropping dead of heart attacks?

because they are dropping dead because we want to eat them”

LOL! Made my day. Also made me hungry for a hunk of protein. Will now forage for food.


20 posted on 01/26/2010 5:19:40 AM PST by flaglady47 (Our President speaks with forked tongue.)
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To: Coleus
The source of the "Cholesterol is bad for you" came from a l9l3 Russian study on rabbits.

Cholesterol is a patch material your body manufactures when red bloodcells get damaged by cracked blood vessel walls.

Reduction of dietary Cholesterol actually stresses the body more because it will salvage it from tissue in order to patch those cracks.(Mr. Fit)

Now a real scientist would wonder what causes those cracks in the first place. IOW, what keeps blood vessels flexible and smooth, or what makes them harden and crack?

If the docs in Korea working on those l8-22 year old soldiers had asked that question instead of, "what is this stuff clogging these young arteries?", we wouldn't be asking it now. You see, those l8-22 year olds grew up in the lean years of the great depression. They didn't get something they needed.

What could it be? Think about it for a while I bet you can guess.

21 posted on 01/26/2010 7:31:28 AM PST by PeaceBeWithYou (De Oppresso Liber! (50 million and counting in Afganistan and Iraq))
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To: petro45acp

I have read that the healthiest cooking oil is coconut oil. It is also very expensive.


22 posted on 01/26/2010 7:36:52 AM PST by csmusaret (Right wing extremists: Jefferson, Adams, Madison, Paine, and me.)
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To: Coleus

Now I feel a bit better about the deep fryer I bought last week.


23 posted on 01/26/2010 7:39:54 AM PST by toast
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To: csmusaret

It is, but you want to make sure it isn’t hydrogenated. There is no need to process it like seed or vegetable oils, it is good right out of the pulp, no toxins to cook off, no racidity to perfume and color away, etc.


24 posted on 01/26/2010 8:02:58 AM PST by PeaceBeWithYou (De Oppresso Liber! (50 million and counting in Afganistan and Iraq))
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To: Texas Jack

I eat almost no meat except venison and feral hogs. Last year I even added a roast beaver to the menu (the kind that build dams and eat trees, not the other kind that is normally for desert).

I have to add a bit of beef or pork fat to the Bambi-Burger and pork sausage to improve taste, but it is still a low fat product.


25 posted on 01/26/2010 3:51:24 PM PST by darth
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To: Coleus

Thanks Coleus.


26 posted on 01/26/2010 6:08:44 PM PST by SunkenCiv (Happy New Year! Freedom is Priceless.)
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To: PA Engineer

yes, “metabolic syndrome” and we can also say, “syndrome-x”, “hperinsulinism”, “triglycerides”, and that processed sugars, carbohydrates, concentrated fruit sugar and those “natural foods inculding some fruit and vegetables” that are high on the glycemic index should be avoided.


27 posted on 02/01/2010 10:12:01 AM PST by Coleus (Abortion, Euthanasia & FOCA - - don't Obama and the Democrats just kill ya!)
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To: Coleus

Agreed. I would say the government is culpable for this. There never was a scientific basis for a carbohydrate based diet. This is one of the continued nightmares of government “medicine” as adopted in the food pyramid during the Carter administration. This is also the time that the war on dietary fat began.


28 posted on 02/01/2010 11:19:19 AM PST by PA Engineer (Liberate America from the occupation media.)
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