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Iceman Mummy Finds His Closest Relatives
Live Science ^ | 11-9-2012 | Tia Ghose

Posted on 11/11/2012 12:44:27 PM PST by Renfield

SAN FRANCISCO — Ötzi the Iceman, an astonishingly well-preserved Neolithic mummy found in the Italian Alps in 1991, was a native of Central Europe, not a first-generation émigré from Sardinia, new research shows. And genetically, he looked a lot like other Stone Age farmers throughout Europe.

he new findings, reported Thursday (Nov. 8) here at the American Society of Human Genetics conference, support the theory that farmers, and not just the technology of farming, spread during prehistoric times from the Middle East all the way to Finland.

"The idea is that the spread of farming and agriculture, right now we have good evidence that it was also associated with a movement of people and not only technology," said study co-author Martin Sikora, a geneticist at Stanford University....

(Excerpt) Read more at livescience.com ...


TOPICS: History; Science
KEYWORDS: ancientautopsies; anthropology; archaeology; godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble; iceman; oetzi; otzi; theiceman; tzi

A new genetic analysis reveals that Otzi the Iceman is most closely related to modern-day Sardinians.

CREDIT: Reconstruction by Kennis © South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, Foto Ochsenreiter

1 posted on 11/11/2012 12:44:36 PM PST by Renfield
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To: SunkenCiv

Ping


2 posted on 11/11/2012 12:47:26 PM PST by Renfield (Turning apples into venison since 1999!)
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Ötzi the Iceman and the Sardinians

And what of the Sardinians? I believe that the “islanders” of the Mediterranean are a relatively “pristine” snapshot of a particular moment in the history of the region. This is evident in Dienekes’ Dodecad Ancestry Project. Unlike their mainland cousins both the Sardinians and Cypriots tend to lack a “Northern European” component. Are the islanders in part descendants of the Paleolithic populations? In part. Sardinians carry a relatively high fraction of the U5 haplogroup, which has been associated with ancient hunter-gatherer remains. But it is also possible that the preponderant aspect of Sardinian ancestry derives from the first farmers to settle the Western Mediterranean.  I say this because the Iceman carried the G2a Y haplogroup, which has of late been strongly associated with very early Neolithic populations in Western Europe. And interestingly some scholars have discerned a pre-Indo-European substrate in Sardinian which suggests a connection to the Basque. I wouldn’t read too much into that, but these questions need to be explored, as Ötzi’s genetic nature makes Sardiniaology more critical to understanding the European past.

3 posted on 11/11/2012 1:02:18 PM PST by Theoria (Romney is a Pyrrhic victory.)
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To: Renfield
And here is the Mummy's mummy:


4 posted on 11/11/2012 1:10:03 PM PST by Slyfox
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To: Renfield

Related to Sardines? Something a little fishy here!


5 posted on 11/11/2012 1:19:59 PM PST by count-your-change (You don't have to be brilliant, not being stupid is enough.)
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To: Renfield

The Dude Abides.

6 posted on 11/11/2012 1:20:04 PM PST by Rokurota
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To: Theoria
They don't mention Corsica, so evidently the same is not true of Corsica.

Sardinian is the most archaic Romance language, closer to Latin than any of the others. But I doubt that Oetzi could have declined cerevisia to save his life.

Since the Basques speak the only surviving pre-Indo-European language in Western Europe, you would expect them to have DNA that reflected the earlier population of Europe before the spread of Indo-European languages.

7 posted on 11/11/2012 1:33:17 PM PST by Verginius Rufus
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To: Renfield
Says here that the Iceman had DNA haplogroup 'K' similar to Thomas Jefferson's 'K2.'
8 posted on 11/11/2012 1:52:43 PM PST by blam
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To: Renfield
farmers, and not just the technology of farming, spread during prehistoric times from the Middle East all the way to Finland.

IOW, farmers invaded and conquered Europe, displacing the original hunter-gatherers.

Just as they did in the Americas, Australia, Africa, Indonesia, etc.

It's just that the prehistoric invasions are reported without all the moralizing applied to those of the last few centuries perpetrated by whitey.

9 posted on 11/11/2012 2:04:25 PM PST by Sherman Logan
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To: Verginius Rufus
Paleogenetic investigations

..."In any case, the haplogroup R1b, which originated during the last ice age at least 18.500 years ago,[21] when Human groups settled in the south of Europe and that is currently common in the European population, can be found most frequently in the Basque Country (91%), Wales (89%) and Ireland (81%). The current population of the R1b from western Europe would probably come from a climatic refuge in the Iberian Peninsula, where the haplogroup R1b1c (R1b1b2 or R1b3) originated. During the Allerød oscillation, circa 12.000 years ago, descendants of this population would have repopulated Western Europe.[17] The rare variety R1b1c4 (R1b1b2a2c) has almost always been found among the Basque people, both in the Northern and Southern Basque Country. The variety R1b1c6 (R1b1b2a2d) registers a high incidence in the Basque population, 19%.[22]"

Etymology of the words

Jose Miguel Barandiaran, patriarch of the Basque culture, presented the thesis of the Neolithic origin of the Basque language when analyzing the etymology of several Basque words. Based on the fact that Basque is a descriptive and agglutinative language, he points out that some words clearly describe instruments and ideas from Prehistoric times. An example of this is the word "aizkora" (axe), which includes the root "haiz" that means "rock", describing the tool as made of rock, when, since Neolithic times, the axes have been made from steel, iron, or copper, while some other researchers believe that the word "aizkora" is actually a loan word from the Latin asciola "hatchet". We also have the word "arto" (corn, and before its arrival, millet); the root is "hartu", which means "to pick", and that literally would mean "what is picked" or "the thing that is picked", pointing the times when the harvest was still not common. The names of fruit trees native of the country are named in Basque with the name of the fruit and the indication "next to" (as in "located next to"), so we have "sagarrondo" (apple tree), 'next to the apple'; "madariondo" (pear tree), 'next to the pear'; "mahatsondo" (vitis), 'next to the grapes', etc.

10 posted on 11/11/2012 2:12:48 PM PST by blam
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To: Renfield

The mummy's got cousins? Are any of 'em good lookin?
You know how I am about a good lookin' mummy!!

11 posted on 11/11/2012 2:16:59 PM PST by uglybiker (nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-nuh-BATMAN!)
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To: blam
The most common haplogroup of the Guanches Of The Canary Islands is R1b, same as 68% of the European population.

The Greeks and then the Romans regularly made slaves of the Guanches.

12 posted on 11/11/2012 2:20:44 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
I don't know anything about Basque etymology, but the Latin word asciola looks like a diminutive form from ascia (adze, carpenter's axe, hatchet). I don't know how frequently the diminutive form was used--it does have the virtue of making the Basque word look possibly related to the Latin word since "l" and "r" are related sounds.

Maybe asciola and aizkora are evidence that the Seminole Indians sailed across to Spain in ancient times and introduced the people to the hatchet, which was then named in honor of the Seminole war leader Osceola.

13 posted on 11/11/2012 4:59:46 PM PST by Verginius Rufus
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To: Verginius Rufus
"Maybe asciola and aizkora are evidence that the Seminole Indians sailed across to Spain in ancient times and introduced the people to the hatchet, which was then named in honor of the Seminole war leader Osceola. "

I don't doubt that at all.

14 posted on 11/11/2012 5:48:23 PM PST by blam
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To: AdmSmith; agrace; AnalogReigns; Cacique; caryatid; Celtjew Libertarian; CobaltBlue; ...
Genetic
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Maternal Haplogroup H
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15 posted on 11/11/2012 6:30:13 PM PST by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: Verginius Rufus

The Rhesus factor negative being highest there supports that theory.


16 posted on 11/11/2012 6:42:46 PM PST by tbw2
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To: Theoria; blam; odds

fascinating. Ping to blam and odds


17 posted on 11/12/2012 3:18:09 AM PST by Cronos (**Marriage is about commitment, cohabitation is about convenience.**)
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To: Sherman Logan; Renfield

I think ‘invasion’ is a wrong term. The numbers of people in 2000 BC were 50 million or less. People would have wandered slowly from places where it was easy to farm (the nile, tigris/euphrates, indus valley) to places where they had to cut down trees (and all of europe was one giant forest at one point and all of india east of the Thar desert prior to 1700 BC was a giant jungle)


18 posted on 11/12/2012 3:20:09 AM PST by Cronos (**Marriage is about commitment, cohabitation is about convenience.**)
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To: martin_fierro

Bwaaaaaaaaahaaaaaaaaaaa!


19 posted on 11/12/2012 10:37:41 AM PST by sheik yerbouty ( Make America and the world a jihad free zone!)
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To: Slyfox

I hope he didn’t refer to her as “Mummy Dearest”....


20 posted on 11/12/2012 10:39:45 AM PST by sheik yerbouty ( Make America and the world a jihad free zone!)
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To: Slyfox

I hope he didn’t refer to her as “Mummy Dearest”....


21 posted on 11/12/2012 10:40:01 AM PST by sheik yerbouty ( Make America and the world a jihad free zone!)
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To: Slyfox

I hope he didn’t refer to her as “Mummy Dearest”....


22 posted on 11/12/2012 10:40:01 AM PST by sheik yerbouty ( Make America and the world a jihad free zone!)
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To: Sherman Logan

Think of the striking differences in each groups views of property. Plus, the productive density of agriculture would give additional calories to farmers who could always supplement by trapping and hunting.

Too much leisure is a net cultural/societal negative.


23 posted on 11/12/2012 5:32:25 PM PST by 1010RD (First, Do No Harm)
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To: Renfield; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks Renfield.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


24 posted on 11/12/2012 8:19:05 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Renfield; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks Renfield.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


25 posted on 11/12/2012 8:20:08 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Renfield; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks Renfield.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


26 posted on 11/12/2012 8:21:00 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: martin_fierro

Dead ringer.


27 posted on 11/12/2012 8:25:17 PM PST by Rebelbase (The most transparent administration ever is clear as mud.)
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To: Renfield

willie nelson !!

who knew?


28 posted on 11/12/2012 9:57:47 PM PST by beebuster2000
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To: 1010RD

Big issue is density. Agriculture can support, in most locations, a population 10x, 100x or more that of hunting/gathering. Look at the populations of major American Indian tribes in 1700 and the absolutely immense territories they, sort of, controlled.

In the long run, this means the farmers will win.

Just finished Guns, Germs and Steel. An interesting book, though Mr. Diamond had an obvious “anti-white” axe to grind.

When he spoke of “white” expansion into Australia and the Americas, he use words with negative and judgmental connotations like “invasion” and “conquest.”

When he spoke of similar expansion by non-white groups, such as the Bantus into most of sub-Saharan Africa and the Austronesians into Indonesia, he use neutral, objective language such as “expansion” and “spread.”

It is likely the groups displaced had similar experiences.


29 posted on 11/13/2012 2:26:12 AM PST by Sherman Logan
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To: Sherman Logan
Now read 1491.
30 posted on 11/13/2012 5:03:03 AM PST by ThanhPhero (Khach hanh huong den La Vang)
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To: ThanhPhero

Been there, read that.

Very interesting book. Written by someone interested in what actually happened in the Americas before whitey showed up, not just in the history of the oppression of the native Americans by the white man.

An awful lot of the PC “histories” of the Indians portray him not as fully human, but almost as a type of wildlife.


31 posted on 11/13/2012 5:06:17 AM PST by Sherman Logan
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To: ThanhPhero
May I counter-recommend War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage by Lawrence Keeley?

http://www.amazon.com/War-Before-Civilization-Peaceful-Savage/dp/0195119126

32 posted on 11/13/2012 5:08:18 AM PST by Sherman Logan
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To: Sherman Logan

We frequent the same library, I think.


33 posted on 11/13/2012 6:02:57 PM PST by ThanhPhero (Khach hanh huong den La Vang)
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To: Sherman Logan

You’re right about density, but I think there is a strong social/psychology aspect as well. As a hunter/gatherer you’re transient. You have a short time horizon and as the game moves, so do you. Liberals have this worldview. Go with the flow. Something for nothing. Anything goes.

An agricultural society is the opposite. You have to have an effective social construct based on shared, proven beliefs. Hence marriage and family are so critical. You also practice the Law of the Harvest - you reap what you sow. This induces long term thinking and the close relationship between risk and reward, hard work and effort.

There are exceptions to both of the above, but overall hunter-gatherers have high leisure, tolerance of the unconventional social norm and female oriented labor burdens. Just like the modern liberal worldview.


34 posted on 11/14/2012 4:58:30 AM PST by 1010RD (First, Do No Harm)
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To: Renfield; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks Renfield. Glad you've been taking care of this week.

GIGO study purporting to show geographical origin.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


35 posted on 11/16/2012 3:26:58 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Renfield; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks Renfield. Glad you've been taking care of this week.

GIGO study purporting to show geographical origin.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


36 posted on 11/16/2012 3:27:11 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Renfield

Slick Willy is hoping they find his daughter.


37 posted on 11/16/2012 3:36:42 AM PST by Fresh Wind (Cut the cable today!)
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To: Renfield

Reminds me of my Uncle Tommy.


38 posted on 11/16/2012 6:58:38 AM PST by afraidfortherepublic
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