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Paphos excavation reveals Bronze Age malting kiln
Past Horizons ^ | 11-29-2012

Posted on 12/01/2012 3:41:09 PM PST by Renfield

Between 2007 and 2012 a team led by Dr Lindy Crewe from the University of Manchester have been excavating a Cypriot Bronze Age site at the south-western settlement of Kissonerga-Skalia near Paphos.

Excavation of a malting kiln

The team excavated a two by two metre domed mud-plastered structure and have now demonstrated by means of experimental archaeology and various other evidence that it was used as a kiln to dry malt for beer making three-and-a half-thousand years ago.

The form of this construction suggests that the most likely function was as a drying-kiln, and that one of the primary uses of this structure was for drying malt or curing malt cakes.

The excavation of the malting kiln with associated sets of pottery types and tools left in place gives a great opportunity to look at Bronze Age toolkits and to figure out techniques and recipes.

According to Dr Crewe, beers of different flavours would have been brewed from malted barley and fermented with yeasts with an alcoholic content of around 5 per cent. The yeast would have either been wild or produced from fruit such as grape or fig.

Drying Kiln after excavation. Image: University of Manchester

Drying Kiln after excavation. Image: University of Manchester

Identification of alcohol production and function

Whilst use of alcoholic beverages is considered an important feature of most societies, identifying alcohol production and consumption in the archaeological record is notoriously difficult.

Vessels with scenic compositions related to beer/bread production The Oxford bowl (1,2 & 3) The Sévres Jar (after Karageorghis 1991b, pl. IXc and IXd) (4 & 5) and the Hadjiprodromou bowl (6). Image Dr Crewe

Vessels with scenic compositions related to beer/bread production The Oxford bowl (1,2 & 3) The Sévres Jar (after Karageorghis 1991b, pl. IXc and IXd) (4 & 5) and the Hadjiprodromou bowl (6). Image Dr Crewe

Dr Crewe said, “Archaeologists believe beer drinking was an important part of society from the Neolithic onwards and may have even been the main reason that people began to cultivate grain in the first place.”

Important evidence comes from the well-known ‘scenic compositions’ found in tombs of the Early–Middle Cypriot Bronze Age, which have been the focus of a great deal of speculation on the nature of the activities shown and the meanings behind the imagery. The new data from Kissonerga-Skalia provides impetus for the re-interpretation of a number of the scenic compositions as narratives of the related activities of producing beer and bread.

The associated architecture and material culture is primarily of types found at Bronze Age sites elsewhere, but allows for extrapolation of some of the less archaeologically distinct aspects of beer production.

Beer production and subsequent consumption was an important feature of celebrations, used to foster community cohesion during the Early–Middle Cypriot Bronze Age, and may even have been manipulated to create inequalities during the transition to the Late Cypriot Bronze Age.

The brewery area

The oven discovered by the archaeologists was positioned at one end of a 50 metres square courtyard with a plastered floor.

The archaeologists found grinding tools and mortars which may have been used to break down the grain after it was malted, a small hearth and cooking pots made of clay to cook the beer gently. They also found juglets, which it is believed, probably contained yeast additives or sweeteners to produce beers of different strengths or flavours. Beer ingredients were found by the team as carbonised seeds.

Crewe added: “Beer was commonly drunk because it is more nutritious than bread and less likely to contain harmful pathogens than drinking water which can make you ill. But alcoholic beverages were also used to oil the wheels of business and pleasure in much the same way as today: work brought communities together for tasks such as bringing in the harvest or erecting special buildings. Instead of payment, participants are rewarded with a special feast, often involving quantities of alcohol, which also transformed the work from a chore into a social event. The people of the Bronze Age, it seems, were well aware of the relaxing properties of alcohol.”

Experimental Drying Kiln after construction. Image: HARP Archaeology

Experimental Drying Kiln after construction. Image: HARP Archaeology

Experimental archaeology

In August 2012, an experimental archaeology team, led by Ian Hill of HARP Archaeology, recreated the drying kiln using traditional techniques in order to test Dr Crewe’s theory. The field school replicated the installation to a working level in order to test its functionality and suitability for malting grain.

The structure was built with a domed roof, a large entrance and a sunken pit near the entrance to house a large pot used as the firebox of the kiln. The theory being that heat generated from the fire would rise and circulate around the dome, with the most intense heat remaining within the pot. By covering the entrance to the installation with temporary doors and building a chimney into the domed roof, the temperatures and airflow within the dome could be further controlled.

This modern version used hot air to produce a temperature of 65° C – perfect conditions for heating and drying grains but still preserving it’s enzymes and proteins.

Ian Hill said: “After the beers had been strained, we felt they were all pretty drinkable, though some varieties were better than others. The grape was less pleasant - a bit too sweet– the outcomes are less reliable when using wild yeasts, compared to brewers yeast, but the fig beer was definitely the most popular.”


Information for the 2013 Field School will be posted in early 2013, but for more information regarding the project and to express an interest in participating please contact here.

In need of a drink! Experimental Drying Kiln during construction.  Image: University of Manchester

In need of a drink! Experimental Drying Kiln during construction. Image: University of Manchester

Kissonerga-Skalia Pale Ale

Ingredients

1.5 Kg fresh, wild barley
5 large, wild figs (unwashed)
Plenty of water

• Using a porous sack, soak 1.5 Kg of the barley grains in cool running water for 24 hours. A fresh running stream is ideal.
• Drain the grains and remove any unwanted stalks etc.
• Spread the grains evenly inside a semi-porous container (a shallow pottery vessel or wooden bowl for instance) and cover the container with a damp cloth and place the container out of direct sunlight.
• Uncover every 6 hours to stir the grains, so to avoid overheating and moulding and repeat until germination phase is complete (usually 3-4 days).
• Once the grains have germinated they are ready to malt. Split open a grain to check the germination, once the inner shoot of the grain has grown to around 75% of the length of the grain they are ready.
• To malt the grain place in open containers and put them into the bottom of your drying kiln, once positioned fire up the kiln and maintain a steady fire for 24 hours. This will produce a steady temperature of around 60C for malting your grains to produce a pale malt.
• Once malted take your grains and crush using a quern stone and grinder, the grains should be crushed in order to open them and allow liquid so that sugars can be absorbed, but not crushed so much as to make flour.
• Heat 3.75 litres of water in a large cooking pot to between 65and 70C. Add the crushed malt and stir through. Cover the vessel and remove from the heat, but ensure that the temperature does not fall below 65 or above 70C (if necessary add cold or hot water to help maintain the temperature) and leave to mash for 90 minutes.
• Heat a further 3.75 litres of water to 75C in a separate cooking pot and prepare a third, sealable, vessel which will be used to ferment the beer in.
• Once the mash is complete strain the contents of the mash through a porous material, such as cloth, into the fermentation vessel. The grains will be held in the cloth whilst allowing the sweet liquid wort to drain into the fermentation vessel. To get the maximum amount of sugars from the grain and into the wort take the second vessel of heated water and pour over the grains to drain into the fermentation vessel.
• Once the fermentation vessel is full, heat to a high temperature to kill any germs or bacteria. The wort must then be cooled by placing the fermentation vessel into cold water (being careful not to let any of the water into the vessel).
• Once the wort has been cooled take the figs and gently crush them in your hand before placing them inside the fermentation vessel. Seal the fermentation vessel and leave in a cool place, out of direct sunlight for 5-6 days, by which time your beer will be ready to drink.


Source: University of Manchester

More Information

Kissonerga-Skalia: An Early-Middle Bronze Age settlement in western Cyprus : – Dr Lindy Crewe

Kissonerga-Skalia – general information

Crewe, L. and I. Hill. “Finding beer in the archaeological record: a case study from Kissonerga-Skalia on Bronze Age Cyprus.Levant 44, no. 2(2012) : 205-237

1998b Excavations at Kissonerga-Mosphilia 1979-1992. Lemba Archaeological Project II.1B. (University of Edinburgh). Available online at http://www.arcl.ed.ac.uk/arch/publications/cyprus/kissonerga/dir.htm

Lemba Archaeological Research Centre

HARP Archaeology – experimental beer production in Cyprus

 

 




TOPICS: Food; History; Science
KEYWORDS: agriculture; archaeology; beer; cyprus; godsgravesglyphs; grapes; winemaking; zymurgy
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1 posted on 12/01/2012 3:41:17 PM PST by Renfield
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To: Renfield
"Beer production and subsequent consumption...may even have been manipulated to create inequalities during the transition to the Late Cypriot Bronze Age."

Ssshhhh....don't tell CommieBama that those beer drinkers weren't paying their fair share. He'll tax our beer.

2 posted on 12/01/2012 3:50:01 PM PST by ProtectOurFreedom
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To: Renfield
Science should focus on important subjects like this. Thanks for posting it.

/johnny

3 posted on 12/01/2012 3:50:56 PM PST by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: Renfield; SunkenCiv

I dunno how they could possibly know what a hole in thr ground was used for.


4 posted on 12/01/2012 3:52:41 PM PST by GeronL (http://asspos.blogspot.com)
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To: GeronL
When you find ancient malted barley at the bottom and around it, and not fish bones... you might guess that it wasn't for making garum.

/johnny

5 posted on 12/01/2012 3:57:06 PM PST by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: Renfield

The dude building that circle kiln had been sampling the product.


6 posted on 12/01/2012 4:02:11 PM PST by bgill (We've passed the point of no return. Welcome to Al Amerika.)
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To: SunkenCiv

ping


7 posted on 12/01/2012 4:04:05 PM PST by EveningStar
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To: JRandomFreeper

I sent a link to this to the head of the chem. dept. at our local college. He’s also an avid home brewer. Nice to see a doctorate being used for a noble purpose!


8 posted on 12/01/2012 4:13:55 PM PST by CrazyIvan (Obama's birth certificate was found stapled to Soros's receipt.)
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 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks Renfield.

Just adding to the catalog, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


9 posted on 12/01/2012 4:21:42 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Renfield; quantim; spinestein; 5Madman2; DTogo; Horatio Gates; Ribeye; decal; B Knotts; doodad; ...

Ping to the Homebrewers List!

My set up looks nothing like this!


10 posted on 12/01/2012 4:26:24 PM PST by Red_Devil 232 (VietVet - USMC All Ready On The Right? All Ready On The Left? All Ready On The Firing Line!)
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To: Renfield; quantim; spinestein; 5Madman2; DTogo; Horatio Gates; Ribeye; decal; B Knotts; doodad; ...

Ping to the Homebrewers List!

My set up looks nothing like this!


11 posted on 12/01/2012 4:27:03 PM PST by Red_Devil 232 (VietVet - USMC All Ready On The Right? All Ready On The Left? All Ready On The Firing Line!)
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To: Red_Devil 232
Actually, I've been working on a mud brick bread oven... and could use it, I suppose, for malting barley. I hadn't given that much thought, but I could modify it at this point to do that. ;)

/johnny

12 posted on 12/01/2012 4:31:37 PM PST by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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Gods, Graves, Glyphs

Weekly Digest #437 · v 9 · n 21 · Sunday, December 1, 2012



13 posted on 12/01/2012 4:33:23 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: GeronL

The found ceramics 40’s and a church key too


14 posted on 12/01/2012 4:35:29 PM PST by occamrzr06
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To: ~Kim4VRWC's~; 21twelve; 240B; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; 31R1O; 3AngelaD; 4ConservativeJustices; ...

Thanks Renfield for the topic, and thanks GeronL and EveningStar for the pings.

This is my last Gods, Graves, Glyphs ping. This week’s Digest consists of just links to the various topics posted this week.

I’ve had it with A) the system suddenly multiplying the pings, and B) with the repetitive complaints about it in open threads and in FReepmail.

I’m glad everyone has been basically happy with the ping list until recently, and I do apologize (again) for the inconvenience caused by the multiple pings. The fact that I’d been pointing out the problem in those very messages showed me that the pingmeister role is an unnecessary one, and that no one is actually reading anything but the topic title. That’s as it should be.

With everything else that has happened in real life this year, and everything I’ve been trying to get done, and some cyber-changes (different broadband, different CPUs, different OSes, different locations) something has to go, and this is it. For the immediate future, the other ping lists will for the most part go on as usual, but I’m not sure that won’t change.

I’ll still post GGG topics, and will greatly enjoy not having to post topics when Renfield and many others post them instead. After tonight, the GGG presence will consist of just the message, or maybe just the presence of the keyword itself.

Anyway, thanks all 817 of you, it has been a great eight and a half years.


15 posted on 12/01/2012 4:36:04 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: CrazyIvan
Besides the technical beer-making details, the social and economic affects of making beer are very interesting.

Gen. Geo. Washington had a brewry on Mt. Vernon, and used it for not only the estate consumption, but earning income.

/johnny

16 posted on 12/01/2012 4:36:26 PM PST by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: ~Kim4VRWC's~; 21twelve; 240B; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; 31R1O; 3AngelaD; 4ConservativeJustices; ...

Thanks Renfield for the topic, and thanks GeronL and EveningStar for the pings.

This is my last Gods, Graves, Glyphs ping. This week’s Digest consists of just links to the various topics posted this week.

I’ve had it with A) the system suddenly multiplying the pings, and B) with the repetitive complaints about it in open threads and in FReepmail.

I’m glad everyone has been basically happy with the ping list until recently, and I do apologize (again) for the inconvenience caused by the multiple pings. The fact that I’d been pointing out the problem in those very messages showed me that the pingmeister role is an unnecessary one, and that no one is actually reading anything but the topic title. That’s as it should be.

With everything else that has happened in real life this year, and everything I’ve been trying to get done, and some cyber-changes (different broadband, different CPUs, different OSes, different locations) something has to go, and this is it. For the immediate future, the other ping lists will for the most part go on as usual, but I’m not sure that won’t change.

I’ll still post GGG topics, and will greatly enjoy not having to post topics when Renfield and many others post them instead. After tonight, the GGG presence will consist of just the message, or maybe just the presence of the keyword itself.

Anyway, thanks all 817 of you, it has been a great eight and a half years.


17 posted on 12/01/2012 4:37:05 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: ~Kim4VRWC's~; 21twelve; 240B; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; 31R1O; 3AngelaD; 4ConservativeJustices; ...

Thanks Renfield for the topic, and thanks GeronL and EveningStar for the pings.

This is my last Gods, Graves, Glyphs ping. This week’s Digest consists of just links to the various topics posted this week.

I’ve had it with A) the system suddenly multiplying the pings, and B) with the repetitive complaints about it in open threads and in FReepmail.

I’m glad everyone has been basically happy with the ping list until recently, and I do apologize (again) for the inconvenience caused by the multiple pings. The fact that I’d been pointing out the problem in those very messages showed me that the pingmeister role is an unnecessary one, and that no one is actually reading anything but the topic title. That’s as it should be.

With everything else that has happened in real life this year, and everything I’ve been trying to get done, and some cyber-changes (different broadband, different CPUs, different OSes, different locations) something has to go, and this is it. For the immediate future, the other ping lists will for the most part go on as usual, but I’m not sure that won’t change.

I’ll still post GGG topics, and will greatly enjoy not having to post topics when Renfield and many others post them instead. After tonight, the GGG presence will consist of just the message, or maybe just the presence of the keyword itself.

Anyway, thanks all 817 of you, it has been a great eight and a half years.


18 posted on 12/01/2012 4:38:02 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: JRandomFreeper

Have you seen these ovens?.....http://www.losangelesovenworks.com/ovens/elisa-model-90-wood-burning-oven.html


19 posted on 12/01/2012 4:39:25 PM PST by Daffynition (Self-respect: the secure feeling that no one, as yet, is suspicious. ~ HLM)
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To: occamrzr06

I didn’t say it didn’t make sense. I think it does make sense. Back in those days you wouldn’t drink straight water very often if you could avoid it. They probably even gave watered down beer or wine (1/8th I think in Rome) to the kids.


20 posted on 12/01/2012 4:40:08 PM PST by GeronL (http://asspos.blogspot.com)
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To: SunkenCiv
The posts you make are greatly appreciated.

/johnny

21 posted on 12/01/2012 4:40:38 PM PST by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: Renfield
Dr Crewe said, “Archaeologists believe beer drinking was an important part of society from the Neolithic onwards and may have even been the main reason that people began to cultivate grain in the first place.”

Imagine being an early beer-maker surrounded by hunter-gatherers. Hunters would have come over all the time to share their catches in exchange for some beer. Early herders as well.

22 posted on 12/01/2012 4:42:36 PM PST by PapaBear3625 (You don't notice it's a police state until the police come for you.)
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To: Daffynition
I'm getting the clay and sand for digging them up here on the property. I make bricks as the mood strikes me. I won't be spending a penny on the project.

I think I'll stick with the oven style that I used in NM.

/johnny

23 posted on 12/01/2012 4:43:55 PM PST by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: PapaBear3625
Imagine being an early beer-maker surrounded by hunter-gatherers.

Imagine making beer in the mountains in 2008, and people just 'dropping by' at the end of a trail at the end of a dirt road 8 miles from pavement to visit and bring tobacco, salt, and meat.

It still works the same today. ;)

/johnny

24 posted on 12/01/2012 4:47:40 PM PST by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: SunkenCiv

I guess I have to get used to searching with keywords.. darn... I am lazy!

:p


25 posted on 12/01/2012 4:49:40 PM PST by GeronL (http://asspos.blogspot.com)
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To: SunkenCiv

817!

Wow


26 posted on 12/01/2012 4:50:04 PM PST by GeronL (http://asspos.blogspot.com)
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To: Renfield
How Beer Saved The World
27 posted on 12/01/2012 4:52:42 PM PST by Red_Devil 232 (VietVet - USMC All Ready On The Right? All Ready On The Left? All Ready On The Firing Line!)
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To: SunkenCiv

Thanks for all you’ve done, SunkenCiv.

I’ve enjoyed your postings more than you’ll ever know — what you posted was always fascinating and made for compelling reading.

Since my dad died, I haven’t been able to keep up with archeological news, history, space news, etc. (dad was a scientist and imminently curious about everything science).

You will be missed.


28 posted on 12/01/2012 4:52:52 PM PST by Bon of Babble (Instant Human....Add Coffee)
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To: Renfield
See Max Nelson's book, The Barbarian's Beverage, on beer in Greek and Roman times. I think it focuses on the period for which literary evidence is available (700 B.C. on)...I don't know if he covers any archaeological evidence for the prehistoric periods, eh?

(I added the "eh?" because Nelson is Canadian.)

29 posted on 12/01/2012 4:52:52 PM PST by Verginius Rufus
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To: SunkenCiv

I’ve greatly enjoyed your ping list throughout the years. If you’re interested, I could help you set up a website/forum to continue your efforts.

Cultural perspective and a focus on the importance of history only strengthen the conservative position. Our principles are the result of centuries of willpower, war and conviction. To live only in day to day punditry and judge progress only from election to election is to throw away that heritage.

I thank you for the pings over the years!


30 posted on 12/01/2012 5:01:15 PM PST by Textide
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To: Renfield

How do they know it wasn’t a urinal?


31 posted on 12/01/2012 5:02:16 PM PST by Berlin_Freeper
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To: SunkenCiv

Thanks SC. These are really great and informative. You’ll be missed. Is there another ping list to sign up with? I’d hate to miss these articles.

Well done.


32 posted on 12/01/2012 5:06:19 PM PST by 1010RD (First, Do No Harm)
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To: Berlin_Freeper
How do they know it wasn’t a urinal?

If you are peeing burned grains, you need to change to a better beer.

/johnny

33 posted on 12/01/2012 5:23:07 PM PST by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: SunkenCiv

No! I read almost every word of every article pinged! It is the highlight of my week! But one must do what one must, I suppose. Thanks for the hard work and the years of the exact stuff that interests me.

refreshed


34 posted on 12/01/2012 5:24:36 PM PST by refreshed
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To: SunkenCiv

Thanks for all the work that you have done. GGG threads have been a welcome relief to all the troublesome politics this past year.


35 posted on 12/01/2012 5:34:04 PM PST by Eva
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To: SunkenCiv

Hope all works well for you. Congratulations on your retirement.


36 posted on 12/01/2012 5:35:18 PM PST by Berlin_Freeper
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To: Renfield

Wow, that’s amazing, beer way back then.

I was just saying that the one thing that our town lacked was a nice local bar, where you could stop for a drink and see friends, like we used have back east in the Phila suburbs.


37 posted on 12/01/2012 5:41:57 PM PST by Eva
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To: SunkenCiv

I regret reading this.

You have performed a valuable service over these last 8 1/2 years. I will sorely miss it.

‘Pod.


38 posted on 12/01/2012 5:43:41 PM PST by sauropod (For Barack so loved the poor, he created millions more of them.)
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To: SunkenCiv

Thank you for your years of work, they have been an
interesting and facinating break from politics.
Thanks again.
Tet.


39 posted on 12/01/2012 5:44:26 PM PST by tet68 ( " We would not die in that man's company, that fears his fellowship to die with us...." Henry V.)
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To: SunkenCiv

I am sure no one actually thought you were to blame for the multiple pings. It really is not a biggie for the pingee.

Sorry to see you have to drop this, but sometimes we have to prioritize, I know.

I thank you so much for your faithful contributions with these posting.


40 posted on 12/01/2012 6:13:57 PM PST by Bigg Red (Sorry, Mr. Franklin, I guess we couldn't keep it.)
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To: GeronL; EveningStar; JRandomFreeper; Bon of Babble; Textide; 1010RD; refreshed; Eva; ...

Thanks all for the kind and touching remarks, but don't forget, the keyword is always a good way to browse:
KEYWORDS: godsgravesglyphs; archaeology; history

41 posted on 12/01/2012 6:19:26 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv

I, for on, am sorry to see you go. This has been a most enjoyable and informative resource. It always seemed a refuge when I sat down to read the posts.
Dan


42 posted on 12/01/2012 6:22:03 PM PST by Lion Den Dan
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To: Lion Den Dan; SunkenCiv

I agree with Lion.

BTW- Is anyone going to try that recipe?


43 posted on 12/01/2012 6:25:47 PM PST by GeronL (http://asspos.blogspot.com)
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To: JRandomFreeper; SunkenCiv

The posts you make are greatly appreciated.

**
Ditto!


44 posted on 12/01/2012 6:27:16 PM PST by Bigg Red (Sorry, Mr. Franklin, I guess we couldn't keep it.)
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To: Lion Den Dan

Thanks LDD, I've enjoyed it most of the time, say, 99%. :')
Gods, Graves, Glyphs

· Facebook group Gods, Graves, Glyphs ·

Gods, Graves, Glyphs

45 posted on 12/01/2012 6:28:43 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Textide

Cultural perspective and a focus on the importance of history only strengthen the conservative position. Our principles are the result of centuries of willpower, war and conviction. To live only in day to day punditry and judge progress only from election to election is to throw away that heritage.

&&&
Well said!


46 posted on 12/01/2012 6:30:25 PM PST by Bigg Red (Sorry, Mr. Franklin, I guess we couldn't keep it.)
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To: SunkenCiv

Thank you for your years of service and education. I have greatly enjoyed and benefited from your work.


47 posted on 12/01/2012 6:36:26 PM PST by Pollster1 (Freedom is never more than one generation away from extinction. - Ronald Reagan)
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To: JRandomFreeper

Washington also ran a whiskey distillery on Mt. Vernon.


48 posted on 12/01/2012 6:39:55 PM PST by EricT. (The GOP's sole purpose is to serve as an ineffective alternative to the Democrat Party.)
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To: JRandomFreeper
If you are peeing burned grains, you need to change to a better beer.

Actually, that sounds like the basis for Bud Light.

49 posted on 12/01/2012 6:43:12 PM PST by EricT. (The GOP's sole purpose is to serve as an ineffective alternative to the Democrat Party.)
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To: GeronL

> Is anyone going to try that recipe?

Hey, why do you think I had to give up one of the ping lists? [falls out of chair]


50 posted on 12/01/2012 7:02:09 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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